The Birth of a Nation What can we extrapolate from these pie charts? Lecture Objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. To compare and contrast the 13 colonies To explore controversies within and among the colonies To analyze the political, economic and social objectives of the colonies To assess the various successes and failures in experiments with selfgovernment To assess the role of European powers in the formation and the governance of the colonies To explore the role of religion in the colonies To examine the extent to which the colonies were democratic To examine the extent to which the colonies were independent and to trace the evolution of their independence. To assess the role of dissent and rebellion in the colonies To determine the role of values such as liberty, equality, and fraternity To analyze the role of Natives in Colonial America To identify the role of various European, Native and Colonial leaders To determine which colonies were more/less influential in the development of a national identity To foreshadow implications of colonial development on the United States. Financing for Colonial Development Four types of exploration and colonization financing methods a. Trading Company or Joint Stock Company Colony – (1) With the king's permission, a company was formed which often had exclusive rights of trade in a particular area or over a particular product. (2) These company charters enabled the owners to sell stock or shares to private investors, who were hoping for dividends. a. Covenant or Self-governing Colony - colonies created and governed by the settlers (Plymouth, Rhode Island and Connecticut). b. Proprietary Colony - One individual or group was given by the crown the right to govern or to settle a specified colony (Maryland). The government formed could be any type except that colonists had to be guaranteed basic English rights. c. Royal Colony - remained under Crown control. For various reasons all English colonies lost their independent status and became royal colonies Northern, Middle & Southern Northern Colonies • Massachusetts Bay – later MA and ME • Rhode Island • New Hampshire • Connecticut Massachusetts Bay Colony – 1629 Formation of the MBC A. Push factors for Puritans >Charles I dismissed Parliament in 1629 and sanctioned anti-Puritan persecution. a. Moderate Puritans gathered support in Parliament for reforms b. King refused to guarantee power of parliament or basic rights for people. B. MBC founded in 1629 by non-Separatist Puritans out of fear for their faith and England's future. C. The "Great Migration" (1630’s) 1. Pilgrims came to America aboard the Mayflower in 1620. a. Since they had a patent to settle in VA, it wouldn’t be valid; they drafted the Mayflower Compact while aboard, an agreement to,“combine our selves together into a civil body politick.” 2. English Civil War (1642-1649) slowed the Great Migration a. Puritans remained in England to fight the Royalist forces. b. Puritans in England, led by Oliver Cromwell, took gov't 1642 - 1660. c. Charles I beheaded in 1649 Massachusetts Bay Colony – 1629 Formation of the MBC D. John Winthrop - Governor of MBC 1. Covenant Theology: Winthrop believed Puritans had a covenant with God to lead religious experiment in New World -- "We shall build a city upon a hill." 2. Most distinguished of the early MBC leaders. a. Elected governor 12 times and set the tone for religious mission. b. Leadership helped MA to prosper E. MBC became biggest and most influential New England community. -- Economy: fur trading, fishing, shipbuilding, and some farming (wheat & corn) -- Politics: strong franchise - any church-going male could vote, at least 40% of men could vote during the 1630s. Massachusetts Bay Colony – 1629 MBC Politics, Society & Culture A. Governing open to all free adult male Puritans (40% of pop.) 1. % of eligible officeholders > than in England. 2. Puritan churches grew into Congregational Church -Non-church members required to pay taxes for the gov't-supported church. 3. Non-religious men and all women could not vote 4. Townhall meetings emerged as a staple of democracy -- Town governments allowed all male property holders to vote and publicly discuss issues. Majority-rule show of hands. Massachusetts Bay Colony – 1629 MBC Politics, Society & Culture B. Function of government was to enforce God's laws (part of covenant theology) 1. Provincial gov't was not a democracy or a theocracy. Congregational ministers had no formal political authority. 2. Only Puritans -- the "visible saints" -- could be freemen; only freemen could vote a. Distrusted non-Puritan common people b. Believed democracy was the "meanest and worst" of all forms of government Massachusetts Bay Colony – 1629 MBC Politics, Society & Culture A. Church leadership 1. Public interrogations of people claiming to have experienced conversion. 2. John Cotton devoted to defending gov'ts duty to enforce religious rules but advocated a civil government. 3. Clergymen not allowed to hold political office a. Congregation had the right to hire and fire ministers and set salaries. b. In effect, a form of separation of church and state. c. Puritans in England fearful of "political" Anglican clergy in England. 4. Cambridge Platform (1648): Voluntary synod where the 4 Puritan colonies of Massachusetts Bay -- Mass., Plymouth, Connecticut & New Haven -- met to work out a congregational form of church gov’t in detail. -- Significance: Congregational church became more uniform throughout New England. Massachusetts Bay Colony – 1629 MBC Politics, Society & Culture B. Early dissension in the MBC 1. Quakers, who believed in an inner light and not in theology, defied authority of Puritan clergy and were persecuted. 2. Anne Hutchinson – believed in antinomianism (predestination) --She held prayer meetings at home to discuss John Cotton’s sermons with other women; this was taboo for non-clergy c. Brought to trial for heresy in 1638. i. She claimed direct revelation from God – more heresy. ii. Banished from colony; set out for Rhode Island pregnant iii. Eventually settled in N.Y. where she & all but 1 of 14 kids killed by Indians Massachusetts Bay Colony – 1629 MBC Politics, Society & Culture 3. Roger Williams -- minister from Salem (dissent cont.) a. Extreme Separatist who challenged legality of Plymouth and MBC charters because land belonged to Indians and was not the king’s land to grant. Claimed colony took land from Indians w/o fair compensation b. “Liberty of conscience" i. Williams denied authority of civil gov't to regulate religious behavior. -- Stated that no man should be forced to go to church. -- In effect, challenged the basis of MBC government. ii. Demanded "wall of separation" b/w church and state -- Jefferson would later use this metaphor to disestablish religion in VA which later influenced "No Establishment" clause of the Const c. General Court banished him from colony in 1635 and Williams fled in winter of 1636 to Narragansett Bay, RI; sheltered by Indian friends. d. He purchased lands from Indians and founded the community of Providence, accepting all settlers regardless of their beliefs. Massachusetts Bay Colony – 1629 MBC Politics, Society & Culture E. Later challenges to Puritanism (dissent cont.) 1. First generation Puritans began losing their religious zeal as time went on. a. Large population influx dispersed Puritan population onto outlying farms away from control of church and neighbors. b. After the wave of dissention in the 1630s and 1640s (e.g. Hutchinson and Williams) conversions decreased dramatically. -- Children of non-converted members could not be baptized. c. Conversions continued to decrease as 2nd generation Puritans had trouble getting their conversions authenticated by the church, thus preventing their children from being baptized. Massachusetts Bay Colony – 1629 MBC Politics, Society & Culture E. Later challenges to Puritanism (dissent cont.) 2. "Half-Way Covenant" instituted in 1662 to attract more members -Full membership in the tax-supported Puritan church required an account of a conversion experience, and only persons in full membership could have their own children baptized. -provided partial church membership for the children and grandchildren of church members. Those who accepted the Covenant, and agreed to follow the creed and rules of the church, could become church members without claiming a spiritual experience. These half-members could not vote on any issues within the church 3. Eventually, Puritan churches baptized almost anyone a. Distinction between the "elect" and other members of society subsided. b. Strict religious purity was sacrificed for wider religious participation. Massachusetts Bay Colony – 1629 MBC Politics, Society & Culture F. Salem Witch Trials, 1692 a. MA suffered political, religious, and military upheaval that led to widespread paranoia and unrest. -- Not uncommon for Europeans and colonists in the 16th and 17th centuries to believe that the devil worked through witches b. First accusations began when young girls, after listening to voodoo tales from a black servant, began behaving oddly. -Witch Hunt: young female accusers were from the poor western part of the community and accused the more prosperous people in the eastern part. c. 19 hanged, 1 pressed to death, 2 dogs hanged d. Cotton Mather, prominent clergymen in MA, supported the witch trials and thus weakening the prestige of the clergy e. Explanations include: religious discord, economic tensions, misogyny, fear of Indian attacks. f. Ended when ministers, led by Increase Mather, urged leniency. Rhode Island - 1636 (recognized 1644) • • • • • • Founded on Rebellion - drew independent-minded people. Most individualistic and independent population (along with NC). Egalitarian constitution - majority rule and liberty of conscience. Progressive for its time: passed laws abolishing witchcraft trials, imprisonment for debt, most capital punishment, and in 1652, slavery of both blacks and whites Church & State – Most religious groups were welcomed, with only some restrictions on Catholicism & Judaism. – Williams built Baptist church at Providence (1st in Americas) – No oaths required regarding one's religious beliefs – No compulsory attendance at worship – No taxes to support a state church Provided simple manhood suffrage Amalgamated into the Dominion of New England in 1686, when James II attempted to enforce royal authority over the autonomous colonies New Hampshire - 1623 • • Named after the English county of Hampshire In 1638 Exeter was founded by John Wheelwright. Settlers signed the Exeter Compact , similar to Mayflower Compact All the towns agreed to unite in 1639, but MA claimed the territory. In 1641 an agreement was reached with MA to come under its jurisdiction. Home rule of the towns was allowed. The relationship between MA and NH was controversial and tenuous. • • – – – – – • • 1679 the king separated them. 1686 reunited (as part of the Dominion of New England) 1691 re-divided 1698 again under the jurisdiction of MA 1741 New Hampshire returned to its royal provincial status All the while, economically dependent on MA Modern State motto: “Live Free or Die” Connecticut - 1636 • English population exploded in 1636 when clergyman Thomas Hooker led 100 settlers with 130 head of cattle in trek from Cambridge to the CT River, where they established Hartford • Hooker objected to arbitrary strict power of Gov. Winthrop and MBC’s magistrates. His congregation wanted more lands than MBC was willing grant. • 3 valley towns of Hartford, Windsor, and Wethersfield est. CT • 1643, New England Confederation: Connecticut, New Haven, Plymouth, and Massachusetts formed a league of friendship for defense and advice – step toward the later union of states. • Fundamental Orders drafted in 1639 (“The Constitution State”) • First modern constitution in American history • Established a democracy controlled by "substantial" citizens • Gov based on consent of the people. • Patterned MBC gov Connecticut - 1636 • • • • • Like MBC, CT founded by Puritans who est. the Congregational Church Tax revenues supported the local ministers – Colonists who failed to attend Sunday services subject to fines. – Until 1708, the Congregational Church was the only legal religion in CT 1718, following a substantial gift from Elihu Yale… Great Awakening sent shock waves through the colony in the middle of the eighteenth century, ripping the Congregational Church apart. – Those who embraced the Awakening were known as New Lights, those opposed = Old Lights. – Unhappy with unemotional services of their regular ministers, New Lights petitioned to form separate societies and churches Pequot War (1634-1638) between an alliance of MBC and Plymouth colonies – Native American allies (Narragansett and Mohegan), vs. the Pequot tribe. – Puritans used Biblical passages to justify extermination of the Pequots. – Ended to Pequots. – Inspired, for common protection, The New England Confederation (1643) Middle Colonies • New York – later NY & VT • New Jersey • Pennsylvania • Delaware • New Netherland Colony: now part of NY, NJ, DE & CT • Each colony developed religiously, ethnically, and politically heterogeneous population, (foreshadowing America) New Netherland • Henry Hudson’s 1609 voyage for a NW Passage • Multiculturalism—haven for religious and intellectual refugees • Religious freedom and free trade (including a stock market) • Initially a private venture to exploit fur trade, NN was slowly settled over decades • Early conflicts with Natives • Mismanagement by the Dutch West India Co. New York - 1664 • England captured NN from the Dutch in 1664. English Navy seized the colony, the Dutch didn’t resist, though their last Director-General, Peter Stuyvesant, urged them to fight to the end. • The capture was confirmed by the Treaty of Breda in 1667. Renamed for James, Duke of York, brother of Charles II • 1688 made of part of Dominion of New England. – Religious toleration – Set up local governments. NY remained diverse, loosely organized, independent communities. New York - 1664 • 1683, New York Chapter of Liberties: Granted freedom of religion to all Christians and gave all freeholders the right to vote. Created to attract more settlers to NY – Governor Andros said "permit all persons of what religion soever, quietly to inhabit within the precincts of your jurisdiction" – Colonial Assembly created - gave New Yorkers more rights than any other colony including the protection from taxation without representation. • NYC was largest importer of slaves and a supply port for pirates. – benefited from being supplier to British fleet during wars with France • Early economy primarily fur trade. As the importance of the port of NY grew, and the agricultural areas of Long Island and the regions further up the Hudson River developed, the economy expanded and diversified. New Jersey - 1665 • Part of Duke of York’s charter. NJ called "Albania“ • Lord Berkeley of Stratton, close friend of the Duke, was given part of NJ. Became East and West Jersey. Border was not demarcated and often disputed. – 1665, NJ was split off from NY to become a separate province – New York–New Jersey Line War - series of skirmishes and raids from 1701-1765 at the disputed border – 1765, border finalized • Offered religious freedom to attract settlers. Quakers came. • 1746, The College of New Jersey (now Princeton) was founded by a group of Great Awakening "New Lighters" • 1766, Queens College (now Rutgers) was founded in New Brunswick by Dutch Reformed ministers with a Royal Charter from George III. Pennsylvania - 1681 • William Penn received PA as payment in lieu of a £16,000 debt the Crown owed his father, naval hero William Penn. • Establishment of the colony solved the problem of the growing Society of Friends or "Quaker" movement in England, which embarrassed the Anglican Church • Extensive advertising in British Isles, Holland, and Germany – German Protestant groups were called the Pennsylvania Dutch ("Deutschland") – Scot-Irish Presbyterians arrived in 1700s as indentured servants Pennsylvania - 1681 • Three Pillars – Equality - All people were equal. Quakers used "thee" and "thou" when addressing each other (no “you”) – Simplicity - wore darker colors and did not like to have their portraits painted – Peace - Quakers refused military service as pacifists and when they controlled the legislature, they refused to appropriate any monies to fight the Indians. • Radical beliefs – religious freedom – Fair dealings with Natives (healthier relationships with Natives). – No need for learned ministry; one person’s interpretation of scripture was as valid as anyone’s. – Despite Quaker opposition to slavery, by 1730 colonists had brought about 4,000 slaves into Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Gradual Abolition Act of 1780 – 1st emancipation statute in the colonies Pennsylvania - 1681 • By 1750’s, Quakers lost their numerical edge, abandoned the government, and left for the countryside to live by their credo • German refugees prospered on the fertile soil – Mennonites - founded Germantown in 1683 – Northkill Amish Settlement, est. 1740, 1st Amish settlement in Americas. • 3rd richest colony in the New World. – Philadelphia was America's most important city. Delaware - 1701 • Land that became DE changed hands many times. Because of this, DE became a heterogeneous society – Swedes, Finns, Dutch, French, and some English • William Penn was granted right to rule by Crown in 1681 – Had a hard time governing heterogeneous DE. – He attempted to merge the governments of PA and DE. Representatives clashed. – 1701 Penn agreed to two separate assemblies. • Delawareans meet in New Castle • Pennsylvanians meet in Philadelphia • The Charter of 1701 permitted Delaware a separate government from Pennsylvania Southern Colonies • Maryland • Virginia – later VA, KY & WV • North Carolina – later NC & TN • South Carolina • Georgia Virginia - 1624 • King James > Jamestown > 1607 > Christopher Newport > John Smith > Disaster. 90% of Natives wiped out by mid-Century Never would have made a profit, if it weren’t for the “stinking weed.” • • – John Rolfe, who married Chief Powhatan’s daughter Pocahantas, experimented with tobacco, creating a milder version that appealed to Europeans. Virginia - 1624 • King Charles I was embarrassed by Jamestown, and made the charter Royal, appointing the Governor and Council himself. • 1619, Sir Edwin Sandys, MP and one of the founders of the VA Co. of London, created House of Burgesses – Though Charles I dissolved House of Burgesses, they continued to meet – 1639 the body was officially recognized. • 1st mini parliament in English colonies. • Representative self-government • Created as an incentive to attract settlers to the Virginia "Death Trap" • Most representatives were substantial property owners Virginia - 1624 • Sandys also devised the headright system – Gave adventurers a 50-acre plot for themselves and each servant or family member they brought over, provided they covered their own transportation costs – Created rise in indentured servitude - most came over as teenage boys to work under contract • few outlived their 4-7 yr. contract • Daily life in VA was centered on working one’s own land. People were isolated and there were no population centers besides Jamestown. Foreshadowing… Virginia - 1624 Bacon’s Rebellion – 1674-76 • Nathaniel Bacon, who arrived in VA in 1674, led a group of disgruntled planters, funded by wealthy planters, in uprising against VA Gov Sir William Berkeley • Angry that gov failed to quell Indian attacks, in part because Berkeley did not want to disrupt the fur trade that his cronies benefitted from. – Black slaves and white servants joined Bacon. – Chased Berkeley from town and torched Jamestown – The rebellion was disorganized and ineffective. When Bacon died of dysentery in 1676, the rebellion dispersed – Significance of Bacon's Rebellion: Planters saw white indentured servants as too difficult to control and significantly increased importation of black slaves while reducing number of indentured servants. • Planter elite increasingly played the "race card" by encouraging poor whites to discriminate against blacks; planters feared blacks and poor whites could ally again Maryland - 1632 • MD developed along similar lines to VA • Like VA, MD relied on tobacco and had plantations spread out along the river and therefore didn’t need towns to exchange goods [b/c they could just send it on down the river]. – Early settlements and populations centers tended to cluster around the Chesapeake Bay. • Charles I gave Sir George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore, a portion of VA for a Catholic haven and profit. Eventually Catholics became a minority and feared loss of religions freedom. • Act of Toleration (1649) – Guaranteed toleration to all Christians but death penalty for public heresy – Motive: Catholics sought to protect their faith by granting certain degree of religious freedom. – MD became largest haven for Catholics • By 1700, Maryland was third most populous colony (about 30,000 inhabitants) Carolinas – 1663 / NC & SC – 1712/ Royal - 1729 • Charles II granted the Carolina charter in 1663 for lands south of Virginia Colony and north of Spanish Florida • 1669, Charleston est. by English settlers. Sig. port town • 1670, Religious freedom dropped in favor of Church of England • 1691, Because of communication difficulties, a separate deputy governor was named to administer the northern half of the colony. • 1712, division of the colony into North and South was complete, although the same proprietors continued to control both colonies. • 1729, after nearly a decade-long attempt by the British government to locate and buy-out 7 of 8 Lords Proprietors, both Carolinas became royal colonies • Carolina society was envisioned with a hereditary nobility granted to proprietors Carolinas – 1663 / NC & SC – 1712/ Royal - 1729 Impact of the British West Indies West Indies, especially Barbados, developed sugar plantation economy Slaves in BWI outnumbered whites 4 to 1 BWI relied on mainland for foodstuffs. As sugar plantations began to crowd out small farmers, many came to Carolinas with their slaves Carolina adopted slave code in 1696 By 1710 blacks outnumbered whites Carolinas – 1663 / NC & SC - 1729 Stono Rebellion (1739) (aka Cato's Conspiracy or Cato's Rebellion) • Majority of the population of SC were slaves • Largest slave uprising in Colonial history • Jemmy ("Cato") was a literate slave who led 20 other enslaved Congolese, who may have been former soldiers, in an armed march south from the Stono River. • Recruited 60 other slaves, marched down the road with a banner that read "Liberty!", and chanted in unison. They attacked Hutchinson's store at the Stono River Bridge, killing two storekeepers and seizing weapons and ammunition. • Killed 22-25 whites before being intercepted by a South Carolina militia near the Edisto River. 44 slaves were killed in battle, others captured, and the rebellion was suppressed. • A group of slaves escaped and traveled another 30 miles before battling a week later with a militia; most of the rebels were executed • In response, the SC legislature passed the Negro Act of 1740 restricting slave assembly, education and movement. It also enacted a 10-year moratorium against importing slaves, and established penalties against slaveholders' harsh treatment of slaves. Georgia - 1729 • • • • • • • James Oglethorpe saw GA as a way to thwart Spain from taking the area; they controlled FL. England and Spain fought constantly. Oglethorpe imagined a province populated by "sturdy farmers" that could guard the border; because of this, the colony's charter prohibited slavery “The Buffer Colony” or “The Garrison State” He also intended to populate the area with England’s “worthy poor”, as an alternative to debtor’s prison. In 1732, George II [“Georgia”] granted Oglethorpe a charter. – Few settlers were attracted, as there were strict rules (no slaves, no rum). Settlers were averse to strict rules so… – GA soon became a hard-drinking (1742 repeal) slave-owning (1749 repeal) colony, which still attracted few settlers. The charter granted liberty of conscience to everyone except Catholics, and limited grants of land to 500-acre tracts. Soon became 2,000 acre plots to attract more settlers. Savannah emerged into a diverse community (included German Lutherans and Scottish Highlanders; but no Catholics) Objectives Revisited 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. To compare and contrast the 13 colonies To explore controversies within and among the colonies To analyze the political, economic and social objectives of the colonies To assess the various successes and failures in experiments with selfgovernment To assess the role of European powers in the formation and the governance of the colonies To explore the role of religion in the colonies To examine the extent to which the colonies were democratic To examine the extent to which the colonies were independent and to trace the evolution of their independence. To assess the role of dissent and rebellion in the colonies To determine the role of values such as liberty, equality and fraternity To analyze the role of Natives in Colonial America To identify the role of various European, Native and Colonial leaders To determine which colonies were more/less influential in the development of a national identity To foreshadow the implications of colonial development on the United States. Conclusions?