Ghusl - Masumeen Islamic Centre

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Ahkam – Islamic Laws
Sheikh Jaffer H. Jaffer
Masumeen Islamic Centre
Fall 2012
Tahaarat
• What is Taharat?
– Linguistically - cleanliness (Nadhafa) or purity
– In Fiqh – become ritually pure to carry out the Divine
Orders required from us
• From the Qur’an:
– And Allah loves those who keep pure (Taubah 108)
• From Ahadith:
– The Prophet (SAWA) said, ‘Keep yourselves as clean as
possible, for Allah Almighty built Islam on cleanliness,
and no one will ever enter Heaven unless they are
clean.’
Tahaarat
• Taharat from al-Khabath
– Impurity (Najasat) that can be touched (al-Hissiya)
which emanates from the human body and other things
• To become Tahir, we would use one of the Mutaharrat (those
agents which purify impurities)
• Taharat from al-Hadath
– Immaterial or Spiritual Impurities which cannot be
touched, a state or condition which is only found within
human beings
• Al-Hadath al-Akbar
– One is purified from this Spiritual Najasat by doing Ghusl
• Al-Hadath al-Asghar
– One is purified from this Spiritual Najasat by doing Wudhoo
Tahaarat
• An-Najasaat al-Khabathiya:
–
The following ten things are essentially najis
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Urine
Feces
Manee
Dead body
Blood
Dog
Pig
Kafir
Alcoholic liquors
The sweat of an animal who persistently eats najasat.
Tahaarat
• Important Rules to Understand:
– Istishaab – Presumption of continuity
• The PROCEDURAL PRINCIPLE which holds that a
previously known state of affairs or RULING is presumed to
continue on that state or ruling
– This is because Doubts cannot overrule Certainty!
– Najasat can only be ascertained by one of the following
means
•
•
•
•
Knowledge (‘Ilm al-Wujdani)
Intellectual Satisfaction (Itmi’naan al-Uqalaee)
Testimony of Two reliable witnesses
Information from the possessor of the item (Ikhbaar dhil yad)
Tahaarat
• Asaalatu at-Tahara – The priority (precedence) of
purity
– Everything is Tahir unless you know for sure it is Najis
– We can understand from the above rules, that Allah
SWT wants to make our lives easier:
• Allah desires ease for you, and He does not desire hardship for
you (2:185)
– How does something Tahir become Najis?
• If a Tahir thing touches a najis thing and if either or both of
them are so wet that the wetness of one reaches the other, the
Tahir thing will become najis.
Najasat
• First and Second: Urine and Feces
– Urine and feces of the following living beings are najis:
• Human beings
• Animals whose meat is haraam to eat and whose blood gushes
out forcefully when its large vein (jugular) is slit.
– Proof:
• Muhammad bin Muslim reporting from 5th and 6th Imam AS: I
asked him about urine which got onto my clothes. He replied:
Wash it twice
• Ammar reporting from Abi Abdillah AS: All animals whose
meat is halal to eat, there is no issue with anything that comes
out of their body.
Najasat
• Third: Manee
– The Manee of human beings, and of every animal
whose blood gushes when its large vein (jugular) is cut,
is Najis
– Proof:
• Muhammad bin Muslim asked one of the two Imams AS:
Manee got onto my shirt. He AS replied: If you know where
wash that area, and if you don’t know where wash the entire
shirt.
• As far as manee from animals whose blood gushes out
(whether or not we can eat that meat):
– The ruling is based on Ijma’ (Consensus) – supported by:
– Muhammad bin Muslim reported from him AS: He
emphasized manee as being worse than urine
Najasat
• Fourth: Dead Body
– The dead body of a human being is najis
– Similarly the dead body of any animal whose blood
gushes out with force is najis, irrespective of whether it
dies a natural death, or is killed in a manner other than
that prescribed by Islam
– Those parts of a dead body which do not contain life
like, wool, hair, teeth, nails, bones and horns are not
Najis.
Najasat
• Fifth: Blood
– The blood of a human being, and of every animal whose blood
gushes forth when its large vein is cut, is najis (regardless of
whether or not it was slaughtered according to the manner
prescribed by Islam).
– Proof:
• Ammar reports from Abi Abdillah AS: The Imam AS was asked about
the container from which a pigeon drinks out of. The Imam AS said: If
we are allowed to eat its meat, then one can perform wudhoo or drink
from the remains/left over of the animal, except if you find blood in its
beak. For if you see blood in its beak, don’t perform wudhoo from it
nor drink it.
– Even a small particle of blood falling in the food, while it is being
boiled, will make the entire food together with its container najis
Najasat
• Six and Seven: Pigs and Dogs
– All parts of pigs and dogs, even the nails hair, teeth and bones and
their saliva, milk, urine and excrement are najis.
– Proof:
• Say," I do not find in what has been revealed to me that anyone be
forbidden to eat anything except carrion or spilt blood, or the flesh of
swine for that is indeed unclean or an impiety offered to other than
Allah." But should someone be compelled, without being rebellious or
aggressive, indeed your Lord is all-forgiving, all-merciful (6:145)
• Abu Sahl al-Qarshi asked Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (a.s) about the dog:
"Is the dog haram?"
The Imam said, "It is najis."
Abu Sahl repeated this question three times and the Imam always
replied, "It is najis."
Najasat
• Eight: Kafir
– The entire body of a Kafir, including his hair and
nails, and all liquid substances of his body, are najis
•
A Kafir is a person who does not believe in Allah. Likewise
those who associate partners to Allah SWT – Mushrikeen,
also fall under the same ruling
–
–
O you who have faith! The polytheists are indeed unclean: so let them
not approach the Holy Mosque after this year (Taubah 28)
Similarly: Ghulat, Khawarij and Nawasib
•
Abdullah bin Abi Ya’foor reporting from Abi Abdillah
AS:…Surely Allah SWT has not created a creation more
Najis than a Dog, however the Nawasib who hate the us the
Ahlul Bayt are more impure than the dog
Najasat
• Nine: Alcoholic Liquor
– All Alcoholic liquors and beverages which intoxicate a person, are
najis and on the basis of recommended precaution, everything
which is originally liquid and intoxicates a person, is najis.
• Ali bin Yaqteen reporting from Abul Hasan AS: Surely Allah (SWT)
did not make alcohol haram because of its name, rather he made it
haram because of its effects. So if any substance has the same effect
as alcohol, it is considered alcohol.
– All kinds of industrial alcohol used for painting doors, windows,
tables, chairs etc. are Tahir.
• Ten: Sweat of an animal who persistently eats
Najasat
– The perspiration of a camel which eats najasat, and the perspiration
of every animal which is habituated to eat najasat, is najis
Mutaharat
• If we are faced with these Najasat al-Khabathiya,
how do we purify ourselves?
• There are twelve things which make Najis objects Tahir:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Water
Earth
The Sun
Transformation or Chemical Change (Istihala)
Change (Inqilab)
Transfer (Intiqal)
Islam
Subjection (Taba'iyat)
Removal of original najasat (Zawal ul Aynin Najasat)
Confining (Istibra) of animal which feeds on najasat
Disappearance of a Muslim (Ghaybatul Muslim)
Draining of the usual quantity of blood from the slaughtered
body of an animal.
Mutaharat
• First: Water
– Water is either pure or mixed.
• Mixed Water: water in which something else is mixed, like
melon juice, or rose water
• Mixed water does not make any najis thing Tahir, and its use is
not allowed for Ghusl or Wudhu.
– Proof:
• Bareed bin Muawiyah reporting from Abi Ja’far AS: You are allowed
to use leaves to clean yourselves after defecating, however only water
can be used after urinating.
• O you who have faith! Do not approach prayer when you are
intoxicated,] not [until you know what you are saying, nor enter
mosques in the state of ritual impurity except while passing through
until you have washed yourselves. But if you are sick or on a journey,
or any of you has come from the toilet, or you have touched women,
and you cannot find water, then make your ablution on clean ground
and wipe a part of your faces and your hands… (4:43)
Mutaharat
• Pure Water (Ma'ul mutlaq):
– Kurr Water – Katheer
• Water, which fills a container whose length, breadth and depth
are three and half spans each, is equal to a Kurr.
– Based on this, the volume of water will be 42.875 cubic span, though 36
cubic span is enough
• Proof:
– Ismail bin Jabeer: I asked Aba Abdillah AS regarding water which does
not become najis. He AS said: Kur. I asked: What is Kur? He AS replied:
3 hand spans by 3 hand spans.
– Al-Hasan bin Salih at-Thawree reporting from Abi Abdillah AS who
said: If water in a container is Kur it does not become najis. I said: And
how much is Kur? He AS replied: 3 ½ hand spans in depth and 3 ½
hand spans in width.
» The second hadith is considered weak as the reliability of AtThawree cannot be confirmed. This is why most of the scholars go
with the first.
Mutaharat
• Pure Water (Ma'ul mutlaq):
– Running Water – Katheer
• Running water is that water which springs forth from the earth
and then flows, like the water of a spring or a canal.
– Running water, even if it is less than Kurr, does not become najis
upon contact with any najasat, unless its smell, color, or taste
changes due to that najasat.
– Rain Water - Katheer
• A najis thing becomes Tahir if rain water falls on it once,
provided that it does not contain any remnants of the essential
najasat, nor does it acquire the smell, color, or taste of the
najasat.
– Except in the cases of clothes and body which have become najis
because of urine, for they become Tahir after being washed twice, as per
precaution.
Mutaharat
• Pure Water (Ma'ul mutlaq):
– Well Water - Katheer
• The water of a well which springs forth from the earth,
(although its quantity may be less than a Kurr) does not
become najis owing to something najis falling in it, unless its
color, smell, or taste changes.
– Under-Kurr Water – Qaleel
• Under-Kurr water means water which does not spring forth
from the earth, and its quantity is less than Kurr
– Qaleel water becomes najis as soon as it comes into contact with
najasat.
Mutaharat
• Miscellaneous Rules with Water:
– When cleaning a najis thing with katheer water, it is enough to
wash it just once after removing the najasat.
– When cleaning a najis thing with qaleel water, it is necessary to
wash it twice. However, it is better to wash three times.
– However, there are a few things which have to be washed in a
different way:
• A piece of cloth that has become najis by urine must be washed once
in running water or twice with other types of water, and it must also
be squeezed after each wash.
• A pot licked by a dog must be rubbed with wet and clean earth
thoroughly; then, after washing away the earth, it must be washed
once with kathir water or twice with qalil water.
• A pot that has become najis by intoxicating liquid must be washed
three times with kathir or qalil water; however, it is better to wash it
seven times.
Mutaharat
• Second: Earth
– The earth only makes the sole of one's feet and shoes
Tahir, provided:
• The shoe or the foot that had become najis by a najasat on the earth
• The najis element is removed from the soles by walking on the earth
• The earth is dry and tahir.
– Proof:
• Al-Halabi says: We descended upon a place where the only road
between us and the mosque was an alley which was filled with
najasat. We visited Abi Abdillah AS and he asked where we are
staying. So I said at such and such person’s home. The Imam AS said:
Between your residence and the mosque there is an alley which is
filled with najasat. However, there is no issue as the earth cleanses
what comes from the earth…
Mutaharat
• Third: Sun
– The sun can only purify the following things which
become najis:
• The earth and all the immovable things on the earth like trees,
the fruits on the trees, the grass.
• It can also purify the immovable things of a house like walls
and doors.
– Proof:
• Zurara: I asked Aba Ja’far AS regarding urine which is on the
roof of a building or on a place where one wants to pray. He
replied AS: If the sun has dried it up then pray on it for it is
Tahir.
Mutaharat
• Fourth: Istihala (Chemical Change or Transformation)
– If a najis thing undergoes such a change, that it assumes
the category of a Tahir thing it becomes Tahir
• For example, if a najis wood burns and is reduced to ashes, or a
dog falls in a salt-marsh and transforms into salt, it becomes
Tahir.
– Proof:
• Aqli: When something transforms into something else,
the ‘subject in question’ has changed
– And if the subject is new we can rule with Asalatu at-Tahara.
Mutaharat
• Fifth: Inqilab (Change in Properties)
– Inqilab like Istihalah means change. The difference is in
the degree of change.
• In Inqilab, only the properties change but the shape is not
entirely changed.
– Its only example is of the wine changing into vinegar. When this
change takes place, the vinegar becomes tahir.
– Proof:
• Ubaid bin Zurara reporting from Abi Abdillah AS: A man sells
juice (grape) to a Prince, who stores it until it changes into
alcohol. His companion then transforms it into vinegar. The
Imam AS said: If it changes from the name of Khamr (wine)
then there is no problem with it (meaning it is tahir).
Mutaharat
• Sixth: Intiqaal (Change in Place/Transfer)
– Certain 'ayn najis things can become ritually pure by
changes in its location or place.
• For example, human blood is najis. Now, if a mosquito sucks
blood of a man and the blood becomes 'blood of mosquito',
then it will become tahir.
• Similarly, if an organ of a kafir is transplanted to a Muslim
then it will become tahir
– Proof:
• Al-Ghiyaath reporting from Ja’far from his father AS: There is
no issue with the blood of fleas and bugs…
Mutaharat
• Seven: Islam
– In an unbeliever becomes a Muslim, his body, along
with the saliva and the sweat, is Tahir.
• But if he has any Najisul Ayn in his body, it should be
removed, and then washed. In fact, those parts should be
washed even if the najisul ayn had been removed earlier, as per
obligatory precaution.
– Proof:
• Aqli – The ‘Subject’ of najasat has changed.
• Seera (Conduct) of the Prophet SAW – when someone
embraced Islam, he SAW did not order them to go purify
themsves.
Mutaharat
• Eight: Taba’iyat (Subjection/To Follow)
– When a najis thing or person becomes tahir, the things which
are related to them also become tahir automatically.
• When a kaffir becomes muslim, his minor children become tahir
automatically.
• While washing a najis thing, our hands become najis also; but when
that thing becomes tahir, our hands will also become tahir
automatically.
• If the wine become vinegar, this change will make it tahir, and the pot
which contained it, becomes tahir automatically.
– Proof:
• Aqli: If those things which follow the subject in taharat, don’t
become Tahir, then it would be a continuous never ending
cycle.
Mutaharat
• Nine: Removal of Najisul Ayn
– Zawalu 'l-'ayni 'n-najasah means disappearance of the
najis element.
• The inner parts of human body (like inside of the mouth, nose
and eyelids) become tahir as soon as the najasat is removed
from them.
– Proof:
• Ammar: Abi Abdillah AS was asked regarding a man who has
a nose bleed, does he have to wash the inside of his nose? He
AS replied: He only has to wash that which came out and was
apparent.
Mutaharat
• Ten: Istibra (Quarantining/Isolating)
– Means isolating animals away from eating human
refuse for a special number of days.
• The camel for 40 days, the cow for 20 days, the sheep or goat
for 10 days, the duck or fowl for 5 or 7 days, and the chicken
for 3 days.
– Proof:
• Hisham bin Salim reporting from Abi Abdillah AS: Don’t eat
the meat of an animal who feeds on human refuse. And if its
sweat touches anything, then wash that najasat away.
Mutaharat
• Eleven: Disappearance of a Muslim (Ghaybatul
Muslim)
– When the body, dress, household utensil, carpet or any similar
thing which has been in the possession of a Muslim becomes najis,
and thereafter that Muslim disappears, the things in question can
be treated as Tahir, if one believes that he may have washed them
• Twelve: Draining of blood from the slaughtered
animal
– If an animal is slaughtered in accordance with the rules prescribed
by Islam, and blood flows out of its body in normal quantity, the
blood which still remains in the body of the animal is Tahir.
An-Najasat al-Hadathiya
• Al-Hadath
– Immaterial or Spiritual Impurity which cannot be
touched; a state or condition which is only found within
human beings
• Two Types:
– Al-Hadath al-Akbar
– Al-Hadath al-Asghar
An-Najasat al-Hadathiya
• Al-Hadath al-Akbar
– One enters this state of Najasat by the following means:
•
•
•
•
•
Janabat
Haydh
Nifas
Istihadha
Touching a dead body (before the 3 ghusl have been performed
on it) – (Ghusl Mass al-Mayyit)
• Dead body (Ghusl Mayyit)
– After entering this state of Najasat, one can only be
purified by doing Ghusl (Ritual Bath)
• There are seven obligatory Ritual baths
– Six for the Najasat mentioned above
– Seven: Bath which becomes obligatory on account of a vow or an oath to
perform it.
An-Najasat al-Hadathiya
• Two ways of performing Ghusl:
– Tartibi
• In this method, a person should first make a niyyat for Ghusl.
Thereafter one should first wash one's head and neck, and
thereafter the remaining parts of one's body.
– Irtimasi
• Daf’ee (Instantly)
– The water must reach all parts of the body at one time. However, If a
part of the body is outside, and is later submerged with the niyyat of
Ghusl, it will be deemed in order.
• Tadreeje (Gradually)
– It is necessary that the whole body is out of water before Ghusl
commences. Then one would submerge one's body gradually in water
with the intention of Ghusl.
An-Najasat al-Hadathiya
• General Rules regarding Ghusl:
– While doing Ghusl, if a part of the body, however small, remains
unwashed the Ghusl is invalid.
– If more than one Ghusl becomes Wajib on a person, e.g., Janabat,
Mase Mayyit, etc., then one Ghusl with the Niyyah of all of them
will suffice
– One can offer prayers without performing Wudhu after all Wajib
Ghusls (except the bath for medium istihaza)
– When a person is in doubt whether he or she has done Ghusl or
not, such a person must do Ghusl.
– However, if doubt arises in the mind after Ghusl as to whether
Ghusl was correct or not, then there is no need to do Ghusl again.
An-Najasat al-Hadathiya
• Rules regarding the state of Janabat:
– The following are Haram for those in this state:
• To touch with any part of one's body the script of the holy
Qur'an or the Name of Almighty Allah in whichever language
it may be.
• Entering Masjidul Haraam or Masjidun Nabi
• To stay or halt in all other Masjids
• To enter a mosque with an intention of lifting away something
or placing something in it
• To recite those verses of the holy Qur'an on the recitation of
which performance of Sajdah becomes obligatory
An-Najasat al-Hadathiya
• Rules regarding the state of Janabat:
– The following are Makrooh for those in this state:
• To eat
• To drink
• To recite more than seven verses of the holy Qur'an other than
those in which obligatory Sajdah occur
• To touch the cover, the margin or border of the holy Qur'an or
the space between its lines, with any part of one's body
• To keep the holy Qur'an with oneself
• To sleep.
• To dye one's hair with henna etc
• To apply oil on one's body
An-Najasat al-Hadathiya
• Al-Hadath al-Asghar
– One is purified from this Spiritual Najasat by doing Wudhoo
– Importance of Wudhoo:
• From Qur’an:
ِ‫ب الت ََّّوابني و ح‬
ِ‫إِ َّن اللَّه ح‬
‫ين‬
‫ر‬
‫ه‬
‫ط‬
‫ت‬
‫م‬
‫ل‬
‫ا‬
‫ب‬
‫ُي‬
‫ُي‬
ْ
َ
ِّ
ُّ
ُّ
َ
َ
‫ح‬
ََ
َ
Indeed Allah loves the penitent and He loves those who keep clean (2:222)
• From Hadith:
Zurara reports from Abi Jaffer AS that he said: Do not repeat your salaat
except for mistakes in five: At-Tuhur (Wudhoo), Time, Direction, Ruku
and Sujood. Then he said: Recitation is Sunna, Tashahud is Sunna; the
Sunna does not negate the Wajib
An-Najasat al-Hadathiya
• How to perform Wudhoo:
– In Wudhu, it is obligatory to wash the face and hands, and to wipe
the front portion of the head and the upper part of two feet
• Proof:
ِ َ‫الصل‬
ِ ‫وة فَا ْغ‬
ِ‫وَ حُم و ََيْ ِِي حُم إ‬
ِ‫يأَيهُّ ََا الَّ ِذين ءامنحواْ إِ َذا قحمتحم إ‬
‫ُج‬
‫و‬
‫ا‬
‫و‬
‫ل‬
‫س‬
‫ىل‬
‫ح‬
َّ
ْ‫ىل الْ َمَرافِ ِِ َو ا ْم َس ححوا‬
ْ
َ
ََ َ
َ
َ ْ َ َ ْ ‫حح‬
َ ْ ْ
ِ ‫بِرء‬
ِ‫وس حُم و ََرُجلَ حُم إ‬
‫ني‬
ْ َ‫ىل الْ َُ ْعب‬
‫ح‬
ْ
ْ
َ
ْ
‫حح‬
َ
O you who have faith! When you stand up for prayer, wash your faces
and your hands up to the elbows, and wipe a part of your heads and your
feet, up to the ankles (5:6)
An-Najasat al-Hadathiya
• The length of the face should be washed from the upper part of the
forehead, where hair grows, up to the farthest end of the chin, and its
breadth should be washed to the part covered between the thumb and
the middle finger.
– Proof:
• Zurara reporting from Abi Ja’far AS: Inform me about the area of the face
which must be washed during Wudhoo that Allah SWT has mentioned. He AS
replied: The face which has been mentioned by Allah SWT that must be
washed, which if one exceeds it does not count and if one does not fulfill it has
sinned is the area between the middle finger and the thumb from the hairline
to the chin…
• The face should be washed from above downwards, and if one washes
the opposite way, his Wudhu will be void.
– Proof:
• Zurara reports: Abu Ja’far AS described for us the Wudhoo of the Prophet
SAW. He called for a container of water and inserted his right hand into the
water and removed a handful of water, then he poured the water on the top of
his face and then wiped his face with his hand…
An-Najasat al-Hadathiya
• After washing the face, one should first wash the right hand and then
the left hand, from the elbows to the tips of the fingers.
– Proof:
ِ َ‫الصل‬
ِ ‫وة فَا ْغ‬
ِ‫وَ حُم و ََيْ ِِي حُم إ‬
ِ‫يأَيهُّ ََا الَّ ِذين ءامنحواْ إِ َذا قحمتحم إ‬
ِِ ِ‫ىل الْ َمَراف‬
‫ُج‬
‫و‬
‫ا‬
‫و‬
‫ل‬
‫س‬
‫ىل‬
‫ح‬
َّ
ْ
َ
َ
‫ح‬
ََ َ
َ
َْ
‫ح‬
َ ْ
َ ْ ْ
O you who have faith! When you stand up for prayer, wash your faces and your hands
up to the elbows (Qara’i)
The discrepancy in the way the hands are washed between the
Madhaib is due to the words:
ِ‫ََيْ ِِي حُم إ‬
ِِ ِ‫ىل الْ َمَراف‬
َ ْ َ
• Others have understood this verse as giving a direction of how it should be
washed
• We have understood this verse as giving an area of washing
– Zurara reports asking Abi Ja’far AS on how the Prophet SAW did
Wudhoo: …The Imam AS took a handful of water in his left hand and
poured it on his right hand and washed it from the elbows to the fingers
and never washed towards the elbow, then he took water in his right
hand…”
An-Najasat al-Hadathiya
• After washing both the hands, one performing Wudhu should wipe the
front part of his head with the wetness which is in his hand; the
recommended precaution is that he should wipe it with the palm of his
right hand, from the upper part, downwards.
– Proof:
ِ ‫و امسحواْ بِرء‬
‫وس حُ ْم‬
‫َ ْ َ ح حح‬
and wipe a part of your heads
– Muhammad bin Muslm reporting from Abi Abdillah AS: Wipe the
front portion of the head.
An-Najasat al-Hadathiya
• After wiping the head, one should wipe with the moisture present in
one's hands, one's feet from any toe of the foot up to the joint. As a
recommended precaution, the right foot should be wiped with the right
hand, and the left foot with the left hand.
– Proof:
ِ َّ‫يأَيهَُّا ال‬
ِ َ‫الصل‬
ِ ‫وة فَا ْغ‬
ِ‫وَ حُم و ََيْ ِِي حُم إ‬
ِ
ِ
‫ُج‬
‫و‬
‫ا‬
‫و‬
‫ل‬
‫س‬
‫ىل‬
‫إ‬
‫م‬
‫ت‬
‫م‬
‫ق‬
‫ا‬
‫ذ‬
‫إ‬
‫ا‬
‫و‬
‫ن‬
‫ام‬
‫ء‬
‫ين‬
‫ذ‬
‫ح‬
َّ
ْ‫ىل الْ َمَرافِ ِِ َو ا ْم َس ححوا‬
ْ
ْ
َ
‫ح‬
‫ح‬
‫ح‬
َ َ
ََ َ
َ ْ َ َ ْ َ ‫حح‬
َ ْ ْ
ِ
ِ‫بِرءوس حُم و ََرُجلَ حُم إ‬
‫ني‬
ْ َ‫ىل الْ َُ ْعب‬
َ ْ ‫حح ْ َ ْ ح‬
– Others have understood this verse as washing and not wiping
• Because the word ‫ُ ْم‬
‫ َو َ َْر حُجلَ ح‬has a Fatha and not a Kisra; because of this the
‘and - ‫ ’و‬signifies it is connected to the washing and not wiping
– However, we have understood the Fatha has “mahal lil jarr”
• Furthermore, it is not possible for Allah SWT to describe a washing when the
verb before it is for wiping
– Zurara reports: Abu Ja’far AS described for us the Wudhoo of the Prophet
SAW. He called for a container of water… Then he wiped his head and
feet with the remaining water which was left on his hand without dipping
it back in to the container of water.
An-Najasat al-Hadathiya
• Conditions for the validity of Wudhoo:
– Intention
– Water should be Tahir, and clean, not sullied with dirt, even if that
dirt is Pak
– Water should be pure, and not mixed
• Sama’a reporting from Abi Abdillah AS: A man has two containers of water;
however najasat has fallen into one of them and he does not know which one
nor can he obtain any other water. The Imam AS replied: Spill both
containers and do tayammum.
– Water should be Mubah (permissible for use)
– The container of the water should be Mubah (permissible for use
by him).
– As an obligatory precaution, the container of the water used for
Wudhu should not be made of gold or silver.
– Parts of the body on which Wudhu is performed, should be Tahir,
at the time of washing and wiping
An-Najasat al-Hadathiya
• Conditions for the validity of Wudhoo:
– The person doing Wudhu should have sufficient time at his
disposal for Wudhu and Salaat
– Wudhu should be performed in the prescribed sequence (Tarteeb)
– The acts of Wudhu should be done one after the other, without
time gap in between
• Mu’awiya said to Abi Abdillah AS: I was doing wudhoo and the water
finished. So I called my servant to bring more water. By the time she came the
parts I had already washed were dry. The Imam AS said: repeat the Wudhoo.
– A person doing Wudhu should wash his hands and face and wipe
his head and feet himself.
– There should be no constraint for using water
– There should be no impediment in the way of water reaching the
parts of Wudhu
An-Najasat al-Hadathiya
• Wudhoo is Wajib for the following things:
– For all obligatory prayers, except Namaz-e-Mayyit. As regards to
Mustahab prayers, Wudhu is a condition for their validity
• O you who believe! when you rise up to prayer, wash your faces and your
hands as far as the elbow, and wipe your heads and your feet to the ankle
• Abu Ja’far AS: When the time has set in, At-Tuhur (Wudhoo) and salaat
become wajib, and there is no salaat without Tuhur
– For the obligatory Tawaf of the holy Ka'bah
• Ali bin Ja’far from his brother AS: I asked him about a man who is doing
tawaf and then remembers he has forgotten wudhoo. Imam AS replied: he
should break his tawaaf and not be negligible of it.
– If a person has made a Nadhr, or a solemn pledge, or taken an oath
for Wudhu
• Aqli – If one makes a solemn pledge, they must fulfill that pledge
An-Najasat al-Hadathiya
• Additional Important Rules:
– It is haraam to touch the script of the holy Qur'an with any part of one's
body, without performing Wudhu
– It is haraam, as an obligatory precaution, to touch the Name of Allah or
His special Attributes without Wudhu, in whichever language they may
have been written
– If a person performs Wudhu or Ghusl before the time for prayers, in order
to be in state of purity, they will be deemed valid.
– If a person doubts too often about the acts of Wudhu and its conditions,
like, about water being Tahir, or its not being usurped, he should not pay
any heed to such doubt.
– If a person doubts whether he has performed Wudhu or not, he should
perform Wudhu
– If a person doubts after namaz, whether he performed Wudhu or not, the
prayers offered by him would be in order. As far the next prayers, he
should perform Wudhu
– If a person doubts during namaz whether he has performed Wudhu, his
prayers is void, and he should perform Wudhu and then pray
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