THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH verb: (abbrev. v.) expresses action, condition, or state of being noun: (abbrev. n.) names a person, place, thing, or idea pronoun: (abbrev. prn.) substitutes for a noun and functions as one adjective: (abbrev. adj.) describes, modifies, or limits nouns and pronouns adverb: (abbrev. adv.) describes, modifies, or limits a verb, adj. or other adv. preposition: (abbrev. p.) relates a noun or pronoun to another word in a sentence conjunction: (abbrev. con.) links words, phrases, and clauses interjection: (abbrev. int.) expresses a strong emotion or commands attention A part of speech is always determined by its function in the sentence The mother gave her infant baby food. Jim and Sara love to play video games. A dictionary can be a good friend, when in doubt. Identify each part of speech in this text message from you to me: like prep. tired adj. dude, n. but conj. Wow! we prn. really dig interject. adv. v. grammar n. Five Sentence Patterns In English, we have just five sentence patterns, which means that you can identify any sentence’s core by carefully analyzing the total amount of words and their functions. To help you get a better focus on all the patterns, you should first know the difference between an intransitive and transitive verb form: An intransitive verb (in the dictionary, v.i.) is a one that does not need an object to complete its meaning, e.g., be, rise, walk, fly, sit, lie A transitive verb (in the dictionary, v.t.) is one that needs an object to complete its meaning: raise, write, give, pick, drink, set, lay Pattern 1 : Subject + Intransitive Verb Examples: The students went online to purchase their Longman Reader. The eagle flew over the trees that were a part of the national forest in Prescott. Pattern 2: Subject + Intransitive Linking Verb + Subject Complement ( A subject complement = a predicate noun or a predicate adjective). The following sentences contain (1) a common intransitive linking verb and a predicate noun and (2) a common intransitive linking verb and predicate adjective. Examples: P. N. A. The English professor is a man who wants to help his students. P.A. B. The English professor feels good when his students write well. Pattern 3: Subject + transitive verb + direct object d.o. Examples: Lindsay picked up a six pack on her way to slamming into a tree. After BP plugged the well, Lindsay and Mel Gibson began d.o. a fight to see who could be called “the biggest disaster.” Pattern 4: Subject + transitive verb + indirect object + direct object i.o. Examples: Barack Obama offered Joe Biden the d.o. vice presidency. i.o. d.o The professor brought the students a slide show that explained the sentence patterns. Pattern 5: Subject + transitive verb + direct object object complement-----this may be an noun or adj. Example A: In On April 23, the Arizona governor made d.o obj-c-n SB 1070 a contentious issue. Example B: On this same day, the law’s passage made many d.o obj-c-adj immigrants unhappy. Phrases and Clauses The two groups of words that do much of the work within our main clauses are phrases and dependent clauses. What differentiates the former from the latter is the lack of a subject and predicate. Depending on their structure and placement, both types may function in three ways: adj, adv, or n. The two groups of words that do much of the work within our main clauses are phrases and dependent clauses. What differentiates the former from the latter is the lack of a subject and predicate Depending on their structure and placement, both types may function in three ways: adj, adv, or n. Wednesday, Jan. 21, 2009: first sentence on the New York Times front page Barack Hussein Obama was sworn in as the 44th president of the United States on Tuesday and promised to “begin again the work of remaking America” on a day of celebration that climaxed a once-inconceivable journey for the man and his country. as the 44th president pp/adv of the United States pp/adj on Tuesday pp/adv to “begin again the work inf//n of remaking America” pp/adj on a day pp/adv of celebration pp/adj that climaxed a once-inconceivable journey adj clause for the man and his country pp/adj Determine if the following phrases and clauses are adjectives or adverbs (modifiers) pp/adj pp/adv Example: The cat in the blender is staring at me, intently. dependent clause/adj Example: Those people who text while driving put other drivers at great risk. dependent clause/adv Example: Early on, BP reacted as if very little oil was leaking from the well. The phrases and clauses that function as modifiers may often be identified by their positions in the sentence because writers usually place them close to what they modify. Identifying the noun function for each is a little more difficult. To determine a word’s or group of words’ noun function in a sentence, it is wise to know the four primary noun positions: subject direct object predicate noun object of the preposition dependent clause in the subject position What the English 101 students craved was to learn more about grammar. infinitive phrase in the direct object position The English 101 students wanted to learn more about grammar. gerund in the predicate noun position The English 101 students major task was learning more about grammar. dependent clause in the object of the preposition position The English 101 students were thrilled with what they were learning about grammar. Types of sentences according to grammatical structure Simple: contains one independent clause Compound: contains at least two independent clauses Complex: contains one independent and at least one dependent clause Compound-complex: contains at least two independent and at least one dependent clause Types of sentences according to grammatical structure Discussing types of sentences, the professor wrote a simple one first. He wrote a compound sentence next; its clauses are often connected by a semi-colon. When he wrote a complex sentence, he explained the importance of the subordinating conjunction. He finally wrote a compound-complex sentence because he wanted to show his students the fourth type; then he distributed a homework assignment, due Monday. Can you identify each grammatical structure? Well, all the major airlines have raised their fees to check in baggage; in fact, it's getting so expensive now to bring bags on board, even people who aren't terrorists are stuffing things into their underpants. C-CX It could rain 20 inches this week, which is more bad news for Jay Leno because he just had all 600 of his cars washed. CX The heaviest snowfall in over 60 years is being reported in Beijing, China; to give you an idea of its severity, the army is now having to use snowplows to run over dissidents. C One of Osama Bin Laden’s kids is writing a book with examples like his turning eighteen and getting permission from dad to blow up his first car. S What kind of a sentence is this one? Barack Hussein Obama was sworn in as the 44th president of the United States on Tuesday and promised to “begin again the work of remaking America” on a day of celebration that climaxed a once-inconceivable journey for the man and his country. Barack Hussein Obama was sworn in as the 44th president of the United States on Tuesday and promised to “begin again the work of remaking America” on a day of celebration that climaxed a once-inconceivable journey for the man and his country. CX Need some additional grammar help? Guide to grammar and writing The Sentence Fragment Error Chp. 51 A fragment is a group of related words that begin with a capital letter and end with a final mark of punctuation; however, in formal writing, it is unacceptable because of its incompleteness. The three most common fragmented elements are phrases, the second half of a compound predicate, and dependent clauses. The Comma Splice Error: Chp. 52 A comma splice occurs when a writer connects two independent clauses with only a comma; in formal writing, this is unacceptable. IC,IC Knowing the four types of sentences (grammatical structure) can be helpful: Simple Complex Mistake can never occur! Compound Compound-complex The Run-0n Error: Chp. 52 Aka: a fused sentence A run-on occurs when a writer places two independent clauses together without anything in between them in formal writing, this is unacceptable. Knowing the four types of sentences (grammatical structure) can be helpful: Simple Complex Mistake can never occur! Compound Compound-complex IC IC Chps 53 and 55a The two forms of agreement in sentences are subject and verb and antecedent and pronoun. Mistakes often occur when students do not match the “number” of one of the items to the other’s. Example one: In this sentence, pick out the verb or verb form which (appear, appears) in parentheses. Example two: Because of the numerous financial scandals --or”Madoffs” in our country, ethics seems to have lost (their, its) appeal. Who or Whom? Who (whoever) is always a subjective case relative pronoun, and whom (whomever) is always the objective case relative pronoun. In the following sentence, is the usage correct? Who are you staring at? How about in this one? He taught the pronoun usage to whoever would listen And this one? For who is this an issue? Affect or Effect? Affect is always a verb meaning “to have an influence on.” Effect is most often used as a noun meaning “a change resulting from an action,” but it can be used as a verb meaning“to bring about.” In the following sentence, is the usage correct? The English 101 students admitted that the PowerPoint presentation had an affect on them. How about in this one? The English professor students hoped it would help them effect a better understanding of grammar and usage.