QURANIC GRAMMAR AS-SARF “Morphology of the words” Lesson 1

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QURANIC GRAMMAR
AS-SARF
“Morphology of the words”
Lesson 5
Lessons from the book
MABADE” ALA’RABIYAH –
basics of Arabic Grammar
RASHEED SHARTOONI
Compiled by: Sheikh Safdar Razi Ali
MOJARRAD AND MAZEED
• The verb which is used to derive a MASDAR is basically
past tense therefore note the example verbs taken
previously to convert to a MASDAR (noun) are past
tense and the forms of MOJARRAD and MAZEED
studied here will also be repeated when studying the
past tense.
• MOJARRAD is referred to the root verb or the MASDAR
which does not have any addition in the root verb and
this MOJARRAD verb or MASDAR could be tri – letter or
four letter
• A MAZEED verb (past tense) or MASDAR which has
addition of letters to its MOJARRAD (root).
THE INFINITIVE (ALMASDAR)
• An infinitive is that which denotes a state or an action
without denoting its time, (it is not called a verbal noun
that is some thing else)
• for example:. ٌ‫ ُحسن‬HOSNON (beauty) from the verb
HASONA (beautified)
• All infinitives are formed by grammatical rules except
infinitives of triliteral MOJARRAD verbs, for there are
many forms which cannot be known except by referring
to dictionaries.
MOJARRAD AND MAZEED
• ٌَ‫حٌلِ َّلذِين‬
ِ ‫اس َت َجا ُبوٌْا ِ ه‬
ُ ‫صا َب ُه ُمٌا ْل َق ْر‬
َ َ‫ولٌمِنٌ َب ْع ٌِد َماٌأ‬
ُ ‫الر‬
َّ ‫ٌو‬
َ ‫لِل‬
ْ ٌ َ‫ا َّلذِين‬
ِ ‫س‬
ٌ‫ٌعظِ يم‬
َ ‫س ُنوٌْا ِم ْن ُه ْمٌ َوا َّت َقوٌْا أَ ْجر‬
َ ‫أَ ْح‬
• [Shakir 3:172] (As for) those who responded (at Ohud) to the call of
Allah and the Messenger after the wound had befallen them, those
among them who do good (to others) and guard (against evil)shall
have a great reward.
4 Mazeed with one letter
If you increase three lettered Mojarrad Verb by
one letter, you can have the following forms:
1. Fa’ّala with a shaddah on the A’YN of the verb
(‫ ) َف َع َل‬Form: Alima  Al’lama (Taught) ‫ع َل َم‬‫م‬
‫َع َل‬
َ
2. Afa’la (‫فع َل‬
َ َ‫ )ا‬Form: KaramaAkrama (Become
Generous) ‫ا َك َر َم‬‫َك َر َم‬
3. Faa’ala (‫اع َل‬
َ ‫ ) َف‬Form: ShahidaShaahada
(Witness) َ‫شا َهد‬ َ‫ش َهد‬
4 Mazeed with one letter
• Sketch A page 23 MABADE part two
Mazeed with two letters
If you increase the three lettered Mojarrad Verb by Two letter, you
can have the following 5 forms:
1. Tafa’ala with SHADDAH on A’YN (‫ف َّ َع َل‬
َ ‫ ) َت‬Form:  Ta’al’lama
(He Learned) ‫َت َعلَم‬
2. Tafaaal(‫)تفاع َل‬
Form Tashaaraka (Associated) ‫تشارك‬
َ
َ
3.
4.
5.
Infa’ala( ‫ )أنفعل‬Form:  InTalaqa & Insarafa (Left)
Ifta’ala(‫ )أفتعل‬Form:  Ijtamaa’ (he met )
Ifa’alّa with SHADDAH on LAAM (‫ ) ِاف َع َل‬Form:  Ihmar’ra
(Become Red) ‫إح َم َر‬
4 Mazeed with two letters
• Sketch B page 23 MABADE part two
Mazeed with three letter
If you increase the three lettered Mojarrad Verb by
Three letters, you can have the following forms:
1. Istafal( ‫ ) ِاس َتف َع َل‬Form:  Istafsfara (Seeking the
Meaning)
2. Ifawala( ‫ ) ِاف َعو َع َل‬Form:  Ihdowdaba (Bending)
‫َب‬
َ ‫ِاحدَود‬
3. If’aal’lّa with SHADDAH on LAAM ( ‫ )افعا َل‬Form:
Ik’dhaar’ra (Becoming Very Green) ‫اخضار‬
ّ
َ
MAZEED with three increased letter
A. ٌَ‫فعل‬
َ ‫( ٌِاسٌَت‬ISTAFA’LA)This is form X. Here a
glottal stop, sīn and tā’ are added. For
example: ٌ‫(اِس َتغ َف َر‬he asked for forgiveness)
B. ٌَ‫وعل‬
ٌَ ‫فع‬
ٌَ ‫( ٌِا‬IFA’OWA’LA)This is form XII. Here a
glottal stop and a wāw are added along with
another second root letter , example: ٌ‫اِحدَودَ َب‬
(It was bent outward)
For Form XI is not mentioned in this book
4 Mazeed with three letters
• Sketch page 24 MABADE part two
Four lettered Mazeed with max two
The increase in the Four lettered Mojarrad Verb by
One or Two letters (A verb cannot exceed 6 letters),
will be discussed further when studying the verbs in
detail.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The infinitives for verbs with increase
letters are as follows
A. ٌَ‫ َف َّعل‬becomes ‫َتفعيلٌوٌ َتفعي َلة‬
B. ٌَ‫فا َعل‬becomes ‫ُمفا َع َلةٌوٌفِعال‬
C. ٌَ‫أفعل‬becomes
‫إفعال‬
َ
D. ٌَ‫ َت َف َّعل‬becomes ‫َت َف ُّعل‬
E. ٌَ‫تفا َعل‬becomes ‫َتفا ُعل‬
F. ٌَ‫اِف َت َعل‬becomes ‫اِفتِعال‬
G. ٌَ‫اِن َف َعل‬becomes ‫اِنفِعال‬
H. ٌَ‫ِفعل‬
َّ ‫ا‬becomes ‫اِفعِالل‬
I. ٌَ‫فعل‬
َ ‫اِس َت‬becomes ‫اِستِفعال‬
J. ٌَ‫وعل‬
َ ‫ِفع‬
َ ‫ا‬becomes ‫اِفعِيعال‬
Increase on three letter MOJARRAD
• Sketch page 85 MABADE part three
Four letter
• K. ٌَ‫ َت َفع َلل‬becomes ‫َت َفعلُل‬
• L. ٌَ‫ِفعن َلل‬
َ ‫ا‬becomes ‫اِفعِنالل‬
• M. ٌَّ‫ِفع َلل‬
َ ‫ا‬becomes ‫اِفع َِّالل‬
Are all the forms of triliteral verbs with increase
letters applied to all triliteral verbs?
• No, in order to know which forms are applied
to which verbs one must refer to dictionaries
because many of them are without standard
form (SOMAAE’YAH). For example form IV
ٌ َََ‫فعل‬
ٌَ ‫فع‬
ٌَ ‫( ٌِا‬IFA’OWA’LA)
َ ‫( أ‬AFA’LA) and XII ٌَ‫وعل‬
This are not applied to the verb ‫ح‬
ٌَ ‫َف َت‬
Types of four letter MASDAR
• The pattern for the quadriliteral verb is .‫فعلل‬
(FA’LALA) The LAAM at the end distinguishes the tri
and the Quadra.
• There are two infinitives for quadriliteral
MOJARRAD verbs :
• ٌ‫َفعلَلَةٌوٌفِعالل‬
• ZALZALAH and ZILZAAL
• The second ٌ‫ فِعالل‬follows the rules in doublelettered verbs, for example: WASWASA ‫س‬
ٌَ ‫سو‬
َ ‫= َو‬
WASWASAH ‫سة‬
َ ‫سو‬
َ ‫ َو‬and WISWAAS ٌ‫ِوسواس‬
• and this is according to how Arabs use them in
other than double-lettered verbs, For example:
.‫َحر َجةٌوٌدِحراج‬
َ ‫َحر َجٌد‬
َ ‫د‬
explanation
There are two types of quadriliteral MOJARRAD
verbs:
A. Regular: when there aren’t any repeated letters
in its root. For example: ٌ‫حر َج‬
َ ‫( َد‬he rolled)
B. Repeated-lettered: when the first and third root
letters are identical as well as the second and
fourth. For example َ ‫( ٌَزل ٌَز ٌل‬it quaked)
IN the above both examples all the four letters are
root letters.
A MAZEED quadriliteral verb
• There is one form of a quadriliteral verb with
one increase letter:
• A. ٌَ‫( ٌَت َفع َلل‬TAFA’LALA) This is form II. Here a tā’
is added to the root. For example: ٌ‫حر َج‬
َ َ‫( َتد‬he
rolled down)
A MAZEED quadrilateral verb with two
increased letters
• There are two forms of a quadrilateral verb
with two increase letters:
• A. ٌَ‫فعن َلل‬
ٌَ ‫( ٌِا‬IFA’NLALA) This is form III. Here a
glottal stop and a nūn are added. For
example ٌ‫حرن َج َم‬
ٌَ ‫(ٌِا‬translate)
• B. َّ ‫فعٌَل ٌل‬
َ ‫( ٌِا‬IFALALLA)This is form IV. Here a
glottal stop is added and the fourth root
َ ‫(ٌِاشق‬he
letter is doubled. For example: ‫َ ٌَع ٌَّر‬
shivered)
5 Mazeed of four letter root verb
• Sketch page 27 MABADE part two
How many forms of quadriliteral verbs with
increase letters are there?
There are three forms of quadriliteral verbs with
increase letters.
Are all the forms of quadriliteral verbs with
increase letters applied to all quadrilteral verbs?
No, to know which forms are applied to which
verbs one must refer to dictionaries (‫)سماعية‬. For
example forms III and IV forms are not applied
to the verb ‫ج‬
ٌَ ‫حر‬
َ َ‫د‬.
‫المصدر‬
َ
َّ ‫ارهِمٌ ِّمنٌ َب ْعدٌِ ٌَماٌ َت َب َّينَ ٌ َل ُه ُمٌا ْل ُهدَىٌال‬
• ٌُ‫َ ْي َطان‬
‫ب‬
ْ‫د‬
َ
َ ‫ٌار َتد‬
ْ َ‫إِنَّ ٌا َّل ِذين‬
ِ ‫ُّواٌع َلىٌأ‬
‫ٌوأَ ْم َلىٌ َل ُه ٌْم‬
َ ‫س َّولٌَ َل ُه ْم‬
َ
• [Shakir 47:25] Surely (as for) those who return on their backs after that
guidance has become manifest to them, the Shaitan has made it a light
matter to them; and He gives them respite.
َّ
ُ
َ
َ
َّ
ْ
َّ ‫ٌع َل ْي ِه ُمٌال‬
َ
ِ
• ٌ َّ‫ان ٌٌأَ ََلٌإِن‬
‫ط‬
‫ي‬
َ
‫ٌال‬
‫ب‬
‫ِز‬
‫ح‬
ٌ
‫ك‬
‫ئ‬
‫ل‬
‫و‬
‫ٌِأ‬
‫َّللا‬
‫نسا ُه ْمٌذ ِْك ٌَر‬
ْ
ُ
ْ
َ َ ‫َ ْي َطانُ ٌ َفأ‬
َ ‫اس َت ْح َو َذ‬
ْ
ِ
َّ ‫بٌال‬
ٌَ‫انٌ ُه ُمٌا ْل َخاسِ ُرون‬
َ ‫ح ِْز‬
ِ ‫َ ْي َط‬
• [Shakir 58:19] The Shaitan has gained the mastery over them, so he has
made them forget the remembrance of Allah; they are the Shaitan's party;
now surely the Shaitan's party are the losers.
• ٌُ‫َاراٌ ُي ِريد‬
ٌِ ٌ‫ض ِّيفُو ُه َماٌ َف َو َجدَاٌفِي َها‬
ً ‫جد‬
َ ‫ٌٍاس َت ْط َع َماٌأَهْ لَ َهاٌٌَفأ َ َب ْواٌأَنٌ ُي‬
ْ ‫اٌح َّتىٌإِ َذاٌأَ َت َياٌأَهْ لٌَ َشق ْر َية‬
َ ‫َفان َطلَ َق‬
‫ج ًرا‬
ٌْ َ‫ضٌ َفأ َ َشقا َم ُهٌ َشقالٌَلَ ْوٌَِ ْئ َت ٌََل َّت َخ ْذ َتٌ َعلَ ْيهٌِأ‬
َّ ‫أَنْ ٌ َين َق‬
• [Shakir 18:77] So they went on until when they came to the people of a
town, they asked them for food, but they refused to entertain them as
guests. Then they found in it a wall which was on the point of falling, so he
put it into a right state. (Musa) said: If you had pleased, you might
certainly have taken a recompense for it.
• ٌ‫ار َتا َب ْتٌشقٌُلُو ُب ُه ْم‬
ٌِ‫ٌب ه‬
ْ ‫ٌو‬
َ ‫ٌوا ْل َي ْو ِمٌاآلخ ِِر‬
َ ‫الِل‬
ِ َ‫إِ َّن َماٌ َي ْس َتأْ ِذ ُن َكٌا َّلذِينَ ٌَلٌَ ُي ْؤ ِم ُنون‬
ٌَ‫ِيٌر ْي ِب ِه ْمٌ َي َت َردَّ دُون‬
َ ‫َف ُه ْمٌف‬
• [Shakir 9:45] They only ask leave of you who do not believe in Allah
and the latter day and their hearts are in doubt, so in their doubt do
they waver.
• ٌ‫ٌَّللاٌ َل َعٌَّل ُك ْم‬
ٌَ ‫ص ِاب ُرو ْا‬
َ ‫ٌو َر ِاب ُطو ْا‬
َ ‫ٌو‬
َ ‫ٌاص ِب ُرو ْا‬
ْ ‫َياٌأَ ُّي َهاٌا َّلذِينَ ٌآ َم ُنو ْا‬
َ ‫ٌوا َّتقُو ْا ه‬
ٌَ‫ُت ْفلِ ُحون‬
• [Shakir 3:200] O you who believe! be patient and excel in patience
and remain steadfast, and be careful of (your duty to) Allah, that you
may be successful.
َ
َ
َ
َ
َ
َ
ِ
ِ
ِ
• ٌ‫ار ْك ُه ْم‬
ٌ
َ
‫ٌو‬
‫ك‬
‫ل‬
‫ج‬
‫ر‬
‫ٌو‬
‫ك‬
‫ل‬
‫ي‬
‫خ‬
‫مٌب‬
‫ه‬
‫ي‬
‫ل‬
‫ع‬
ٌ
‫ب‬
ٌ
‫ل‬
‫ج‬
‫ٌوأ‬
َ
َ
َ
ْ
ْ
َ
ْ
ْ
َ ‫ص ْوتِ َك‬
َ ‫ٌب‬
ْ ‫اس َت ْف ِز ْزٌ َم ِن‬
ْ ‫َو‬
ِ
ِ
ِ
ِ ‫ٌاس َت َط ْع َتٌ ِم ْن ُه ْم‬
ِ
َّ ‫ٌو َماٌ َي ِع ُد ُه ُمٌال‬
‫ورا‬
ٌَ ‫َ ْي‬
ً ‫طانُ ٌإَِلٌَّ ُغ ُر‬
َ ‫ٌِوعِدْ ُه ْم‬
َ ‫ٌواألَ ْوَلد‬
َ ‫ال‬
ِ ‫فِيٌاألَ ْم َو‬
• [Shakir 17:64] And beguile whomsoever of them you can with your
voice, and collect against them your forces riding and on foot, and
share with them in wealth and children, and hold out promises to
them; and the Shaitan makes not promises to them but to deceive:
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