Unit 3 Text Young William Shakespeare I. Author Jennifer Bassett is an experienced teacher and the writer. She lives and works in the Devon , in the northwest of England. Jennifer is the Series Editor of the Oxford Bookworms Library, for which she has written the original stories OneWay Ticket, The President's Murderer, The Phantom of the Opera, and William Shakespeare, along with many adaptations. She is series co-adviser, with H.G Widdowson, of the Oxford Bookworms Collection. Jennifer has also written original stories for the English Today Readers and Storylines series II. Introduction to William Shakespeare Will was born in 1564 in Stratford-on-Avon, Warwickshire, England and died in 1616. He was one of the greatest poet and playwright, one of the founders of realism in world literature, and a great master of the English language. He Shakespeare (1564-1616) was skilled in many poetic forms. He has been universally acknowledged to be the summit of the English Renaissance. Within about twenty-two years of his writing career, he gave to the world 38 plays, no two of which invoke the same feeling or image among the audience. He wrote lots of comedies, tragedies, histories and poetry. His plays have been translated into every major living language, and are performed more often than those of any other playwright. 莎士比亚故居 莎士比亚墓 Comedy (17) : All’s Well That Ends Well As You Like It The Comedy of Errors Love’s Labours Lost Measure for Measure The Merry Wives of Windsor The Merchant of Venice A Midsummer Night’s Dream Much Ado About Nothing Pericles, Prince of Tyre Taming of the Shrew The Tempest Troilus and Cressida Twelfth Night Two Gentlemen of Verona Winter’s Tale Tragedy (10): Antony and Cleopatra Coriolanus Hamlet Julius Caesar King Lear Macbeth Othello Romeo and Juliet Timon of Athens Titus Andronicus History (10): Henry IV, part 1 Henry IV, part 2 Henry V Henry VI, part 1 Henry VI, part 2 Henry VI, part 3 Henry VIII King John Richard II Richard III Poetry (5): The Sonnets A Lover’s Complaint The Rape of Lucrece Venus and Adonis Funeral Elegy by W.S. He also wrote 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and several other poems. The popularity of Shakespeare is not confined to the English or European people only. His name has been known to the Chinese people for a hundred years. He is world famous. Pic. of some of Will’s comedies Pic. of some of Will’s tragedies III. Structure of the Text Part I – Will as a naughty boy & a school boy. Part II – Will as a glove-maker. Part III – Will as a husband. Part IV – Will as an actor and playwright. IV. Text Analysis ambition – the object or goal desired 抱负,雄心 Her ambition is the presidency. 她的抱负是成为一名总统. fortune – luck He decided to go home for the holidays, and his fortune turned for the worse. 他决定回家度假，没想到他的运气变坏了. cover – to deal with; treat of 论及;处理 The book covers the feminist movement. enraged – angry Stratford Stratford-upon-Avon is situated in the heart of the English midlands. A market town dating back to medieval times, Stratford is today most famous as the birthplace of the Elizabethan playwright William Shakespeare. Why was Farmer Nash’s face red with anger? Because he found Will was stealing his apples. Why did Will dare to pick apples at Farmer Nash’s orchard? Because he thought Farmer Nash had gone to the market. Simile(明喻) – a figure of speech in which two essentially unlike things are compared, often in a phrase introduced by ‘like’, ‘as’, ‘as if’, ‘as though’. (1) The check fluttered to the floor like a bird with a broken wing. (2) He jumped back as if he had been stung and the blood rushed into his wrinkled face. as brave as a lion as clear as crystal as dark as pitch as white as snow metaphor (暗喻) – a figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison a sea of troubles 忧愁之海 “All the world's a stage” (Shakespeare) “整个世界一台戏” (莎士比亚) metonymy (借喻) – a figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated, as in the use of “Washington” for “the United States government” or of “the sword” for “military power”, “crown” for “king” . The Queen of Egypt Cleopatra VII (69-30 B.C.), noted for her beauty and charm, was the last queen of Ancient Egypt. She earned her own place in fame with her brilliance, wit and determination. She was brilliant, strong-willed, quick-witted, and fluent in nine languages. She had a charismatic personality, was a born leader and a very ambitious monarch. It has been said that Rome feared only two people, Hannibal and Cleopatra. She was Julius Caesar's lover, the wife of Mark Anthony but was defeated by Octavian. Greek historian birds Dior • Casey said: "She was fascinated by the two greatest Romans, but destroyed in a third of these people (Octavian) hands." Cleopatra King Solomon Thousands of years ago. There was a very clever king with the name of Solomon. There are many stories about him. Here is one of them which shows how clever he was. Once there were two women. They lived in the same house, and each had a baby. One night, one of the babies died, and its mother took the other woman's child, and put it in her own bed instead. The next morning they had a quarrel. "No, this is my child, the dead one is yours, " said the other. Each one wanted the living baby, but no one could tell whom it belonged to. So they went to see King Solomon. When King Solomon heard their story, he said, "Bring me a knife, cut the child in two, and give each woman one half. " "That's very fair, oh, bright King!" said the dead baby's mother. "Give her my child, let it be hers, but don't kill the child. Oh, King!" cried the other woman in tears. Then King Solomon pointed to the woman in tears and said, "Give the child to her, for Puritan – (1) a member of a group of English Protestants who in the 16th and 17th centuries advocated strict religious discipline along with simplification of the ceremonies and creeds of the Church of England. 清教徒,兴起于16和17世纪的英国新教徒一派的成员， 主张严格的宗教原则和英国教堂的仪式及教义的从简 (2) one who lives in accordance with Protestant precepts(戒律), especially one who regards pleasure or luxury as sinful. 清教徒似的人,尤指那些把快乐或奢侈看作罪恶的根据 新教戒律生活的人 The term "Puritan" first began as a taunt or insult applied by traditional Anglicans to those who criticized or wished to "purify" the Church of England. "Puritan" refers to two distinct groups: "separating" Puritans, such as the Plymouth colonists, who believed that the Church of England was corrupt and that true Christians must separate themselves from it; and non-separating Puritans, such as the colonists who settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony, who wished to reform the established church but not separation. The idea of compacts or covenants(公约；合同) was central to the Puritans' conception of social, political, and religious organizations. Everyone was happy. For a while. Why? Because Will was not happy with his life in Stratford and he wanted to get away from it. monotonous – boring do costumes – take care of clothes for actors and actresses worn in plays properties – 道具 versatile – capable of doing many things competently 多才多艺的 V. Writing style 1. 1st-person narration, making the story believable. 2. figure of speech: simile, metaphor,metonymy VI. Ex. about the text VII. Homework: (1) Fast reading (2) Home reading (3) Preview Unit 7 personification - a figure of speech in which inanimate objects or abstractions are endowed with human qualities or are represented as possessing human form Four evergreen shrubs stood at each corner, where they struggled to survive the dust and fumes from a busy main road. But the houses were cold, closed, unfriendly. hyperbole (夸张) - a figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect, as in I could sleep for a year or This book weighs a ton. irony（反语） - the use of words to express something different from and often opposite to their literal meaning for humorous or rhetorical effect. She was not so young as I expected and in appearance imposing (因外貌或形体而使人印象 深刻，作者在此以讽刺挖苦的口吻描述一个贪吃 而肥胖的女人) rather than attractive. parody （仿拟）– a figure of speech that imitates the characteristic style of an author or a work for comic effect or ridicule To lie or not to lie – the doctor’s dilemma. (To be or not to be, that is the question.) oxymoron (矛盾修饰法) - a rhetorical figure in which incongruous or contradictory terms are combined, as in a deafening silence and a mournful optimist一种把互相矛盾或不调和的词合 在一起的修辞手法，如在 震耳欲聋的沉默和 悲伤 的乐观 alliteration (头韵) - the repetition of the same consonant sounds or of different vowel sounds at the beginning of words or in stressed syllables 在一组词的开头或重读音节中对相同辅音或不同 元音的重复 A miserable, merry Christmas. Profits of praise.