QURANIC GRAMMAR AS-SARF “Morphology of the words” Lesson 1

“Morphology of the words”
Lesson 14
Lessons from the book
basics of Arabic Grammar
Compiled by: Sheikh Safdar Razi Ali
State of
State of
State of
Single ‫مفرد‬
Dual ‫مث ّنى‬
‫مسل َمين‬
‫مسل َمين‬
Male intact plural
‫جمع مذكر سالم‬
Female intact plural MUSLIMAATON
‫جمع مؤنث سالم‬
Broken plural
‫جمع تكسير‬
Female intact plural(‫ت‬+‫(أ‬
• For example: ‫( مومنة‬believer woman) becomes ‫مومنات‬
(believer women).
• A noun (non-adjective) is put into the feminine intact
plural form if:
A. it is a female proper name, even if it does not end in
the feminine tā’. For example: ‫ ِهند‬, ‫ مريم‬becomes
B. it is a infinitive that has more than three letters. For
example: ‫تعريف‬, ‫(إحسان‬definition) becomes ‫تعريفات‬
(definitions). ‫إحسانات‬
C. it is a noun (masculine or feminine) that ends in one
of the feminine letters. For example: ‫ جميلة‬,‫َو َر َقة‬
(paper) becomes ‫( َو َرقات‬papers)‫ جميالت‬.
Further examples
An adjective (derived –MOSHTAQ) is put into
the feminine intact plural form if it ends in
one of the feminine letters. for example:
.‫( معدودات‬few numbers), ‫( َکبيرة‬big female)
becomes ‫( َکبيرات‬big females).
masculine non-intellectual beings in the
minimized form, for example: ‫( ُد َريهمات‬few
Exceptional rules for female intact plural
• maqs ūr and mamdūd nouns; the same actions
taken in the dual form apply in the sound feminine
plural as well, for example: ‫و فُضلَيات‬
‫و َر َح َيات‬
‫ص َوات‬
َ ‫ صحراوات و َع‬. )‫صحراء‬,‫عصا‬,‫رحى‬,‫(فضلى‬
• Triliteral nouns (non-adjectives) whose first root (FAA
of the word) letter has a fath ah; if the second root
letter is sound and does not have a vowel sign then it
is given a fath ah, for example: ‫ َت َم َرات‬which was .‫مرة‬
َ ‫َت‬
Exceptional on Dual (‫ – )مث ّنى‬Ends with
Noon(‫ )ن‬and is possessed
If it ends with Noon and is possessed (Modhaaf),
the noon will be removed.
Katabaan Mohammadin ‫ كتابان محمد‬: two books
of Mohammad
• Katabaa/ Katabay Mohammadin
• ‫كتابي محمد‬/‫كتابا‬
Dual (‫ – )مث ّنى‬Exceptions
• The following are originally dual and do not have a single
form. They are not suffixed with Alif and Noon:
• Isnaan (2)‫اثنان‬
• Isnataan (2) – Female‫اثنتان‬
• Sintaan (2) Female – Some use it ‫ثنتان‬
Killa / Kilata
• ‫ كال‬KILAA – Both (Male )
• ‫ كلتا‬KILTA: Both (Female)
• You must use ‫ كال‬KILAA / ‫ كلتا‬KILTA with a definite noun or
attach it with a dual pronoun
• ‫كلي الرجُلين‬/‫ كال‬Kilaa/ KILAY Ar-Rajulayn /
• ‫ كليهما‬/ ‫كالهما‬Kilahuma/kilayhima
• (both two men)
Male Intact Plural -Regular
• Male Intact Plural cannot be applied to nouns ending
with a suffix (ta): Fatimah ‫فاطمة‬
• Male Intact Plural cannot be applied to a compound
statement : Abdullah ‫ عبدهللا‬, Hamzah ‫حمزء‬
• And cannot be for foreign nouns ‫أبراهيم‬
• Male Intact Plural cannot be for original Female.
Zainab ‫زينب‬,Wet Nurse ‫ مرضع‬,Pregnant ‫وحمراء‬
• A broken plural is a plural where the original letters of the word
are reformed by either adding or decreasing at least one letter
i.e. breaking the original noun and not keeping it intact as in
male/female intact plural and dual forms. example: ‫(کتاب‬book)
becomes ‫( ُکتب‬books).
• or by changing the form –vowel signs (USDON),
• Therefore there are three types of broken plurals:
A. by changing the verbalization of the word, for example: ‫أسد‬
(ASADON) (lion) becomes ‫( أُسد‬USDON) (lions).
B. by erasing one of the letters of the word, for example: ‫َرسول‬
(messenger) becomes ‫( ُرسُل‬messengers).
C. by adding letters to the word, for example: ‫( َرجُل‬man) becomes
‫( ِرجال‬men).
Standard forms for certain nouns
• Broken plural forms for some nouns :
A. ‫ َف َعل‬becomes ‫ فِعال‬, : ‫(ج َمل‬camel)
becomes ‫جمال‬
ِ (camels)
B. ‫ فِ َعل‬becomes ‫ أفعال‬,  : ‫(ع َنب‬grape)
becomes ‫( أعناب‬grapes)
C. ‫ َف ِعل‬becomes ‫ أفعال‬,  : ‫( َک ِتف‬shoulder) becomes ‫أکتاف‬
D. ‫ فِعل‬becomes ‫ أفعال‬,  : ‫(طفل‬child)
becomes ‫( أطفال‬children)
E. ‫ فُعلَة‬becomes ‫ فُ َعل‬,  : ‫(عُل َبة‬box) becomes ‫( ُعلَب‬boxes)
F. ‫ فِعلَة‬becomes ‫ فِ َعل‬,  : ‫حرفة‬
ِ (occupation) becomes ‫ح َرف‬
G. ‫فاعل‬
ِ becomes ‫ َفواعل‬,  :‫( خا ِتم‬ring) becomes ‫( خواتم‬rings)
H. ‫ فاعلة‬becomes ‫ َفواعل‬,  ‫( قائمة‬leg) becomes ‫( قوائم‬legs)
I. ‫ فعيلة‬becomes ‫ َفعائل‬,  ‫( قبيلة‬tribe) becomes ‫( قبائل‬tribes)
J. ‫ فعيلة‬becomes ‫ َفعايل‬,  ‫( مکيدة‬scheme) becomes ‫مکايد‬
K. ‫ ِمف َعل‬becomes ‫فاعل‬
ِ ‫ َم‬,  ‫نجل‬
َ ‫( ِم‬sickle) becomes ‫جل‬
ِ ‫( َمنا‬sickles)
L. ‫ ِمفعال‬becomes ‫ َمفاعيل‬,  ‫( ِمفتاح‬key) becomes ‫( َمفاتيح‬keys)
• All quadriliteral nouns where a long vowel is added before its last
letter become:
• ‫ َفعاليل‬, for example: ‫عُصفور‬becomes ‫َعصافير‬
Broken plural forms for adjectives
• Standard forms for some adjectives (derived
A. ‫ أف َعل‬which becomes feminine in the following form
‫ َفعالء‬becomes ‫( فُعل‬FUO’LON) , for example: ‫أح َمر‬
(red) becomes ‫حُمر‬
B. ‫ أف َعل‬which is the comparative/superlative form
becomes ‫أفاعل‬
ِ (AFAAE’L), for example:‫ضل‬
َ ‫( أف‬better)
becomes ‫أفاضل‬
, ‫ أکبر‬becomes‫أکابر‬
Few rules of broken plural
1. ‫فاعلة‬
ِ becomes ‫ َفواعل‬or ‫ فُعَّل‬, for example: ‫ عا ِذلة‬becomes ‫و َعوا ِذل‬
‫ع َُّذل‬
2. ‫ َفعيل‬when it means subject becomes ‫ أفعال‬, for example: ‫َشريف‬
= ‫ أشراف‬, if it indicates a character trait it becomes ‫ فعال و فُ َعالء‬,
for example: ‫ َکريم‬becomes ‫ کرام و ُکرماء‬,
3. and if it is a double-lettered word or a defective word it
becomes ‫( أفعالء‬AFE’LAA), for example: ‫ شقي‬becomes ‫أشقياء‬
4. ‫ َفعيل‬if it has the meaning of object indicating becomes ‫علی‬
َ ‫َف‬
for example: ‫ جريح‬becomes ‫رحی‬
َ ‫َج‬
5. ‫ َفعُول‬meaning subject becomes ‫ أفعال‬, for example:‫عدو‬
becomes ‫أعداء‬
6. ‫ َفعالن‬becomes ‫ فُعالی‬or‫ فِعال‬, for example: drunk ‫= سکران‬
‫سُکاری‬, = ‫ غضاب‬angry ‫غضبان‬
Broken plural from the aspect of the
There are two types of broken plurals: a plural of small
number)‫(قلة‬, which is a plural that indicates three to ten, and a
plural of large number (‫(كثرة‬, which is a plural that indicates
three or more.
• There are four forms for the plural of small number:
1. ‫ أفعُل‬, for example: ‫ أنفُس‬souls
2. ‫ أفعال‬, for example: ,‫ أجداد‬, grand fathers
3. ‫ أف ِعلَة‬for example: ‫ أعمدَة‬, pillars
4. ‫ ِفعلَة‬, for example ‫ ِفت َية‬. Youth
Any other form used as a broken plural is a plural of large number.
These forms are used interchangeably (KATHRA for QILLAH and vice
versa) metaphorically.
Plural of the plural
The form of a plural of a plural is any plural where after there
are two letters with vowel signs after an added alif, for
example: ‫ دَ را ِهم‬, or if a yā’ falls in between three letters, for
example: .‫ريا ِحين‬
• A plural is made plural to increase the number of whatever it is
making plural, for example: ‫ األيادي‬which is the plural of ‫األيدي‬
which is the plural of .‫اليد‬
• Two forms that are used to make a plural of plural in the same
way that a singular noun is made plural according to its form:
1. ‫ أنمل= أنامل‬finger tips
2. ‫ أظفار = أظافير‬nails
• Plural in its origin indicates a group which has no singular for it .
‫ َشعب‬but these can be made plural in the same way as singular
nouns according to their forms, as an example the plural of ‫قوم‬
becomes .‫أقوام‬
• Plural by removal of tā’, for example ‫احة‬
َ ‫ ُت َّفا َح= ُت َّف‬, or a yā’, for
example: .‫أفرنج=إفرنجي‬