Computer/Digital Forensics

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Computer/Digital Forensics
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Hard drive imaging
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Volume structure & analysis
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File system structure & analysis
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Tools
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Case studies
Computer/Digital Forensics
Computer/Digital Forensics:
Acquisition of information on digital devices
1) Rigid recipe
Investigation of digital devices and digital data for
evidence of
1) a crime or violation of stated policy committed by the computer
2) a crime or violation of stated policy against the computer
3) a crime or violation of stated policy using the computer
4) accidental or intentional destruction or corruption of data
Preparation for trial
1) Documentation of evidence
2) Proof the evidence has not been altered
Phases of an Investigation
System Preservation
Phase
Evidence Searching
Phase
Event Reconstruction
Phase
courtesy Priscilla
Layers of Analysis
Application/OS
Analysis
Swap Space Analysis
Database Analysis
File System Analysis
Volume Analysis
Memory Analysis
Network Analysis
Physical Storage Media Analysis
Finding a File
Name:
miracle.txt
Cluster:
345
Cluster 344
Today, the Yankees won the
World Series.
Size:
40
Last Accessed:
October 27,2004
Cluster 345
Today, the Red Sox won the
World Series.
Computer/Digital Forensics
Computer/Digital Forensics
–
Investigation of block devices that contain digital information
–
Procedures that will maintain the integrity of the digital
evidence
–
Analysis of the condition and content of the block device that
will permit the reconstruction of an incident or use
Computer/Digital Forensics
This Part of the Course will cover
–
Hard disk imaging
–
–
–
dd and NIST standards
Volume Analysis
–
Disk layout
–
Partitions
File system analysis
–
Fat, ntfs
–
ext2, ext3
–
UFS1, USF2
Computer/Digital Forensics
Important
●
●
●
●
Maintain chain of custody
A casual exam request from your boss can result in
legal stuff
At first conduct a liturgical exam. You will never
regret it.
Written consent to proceed: business plan or policy
or memo. Don't go to jail or get sued.
Computer Foundations
●
bin-to- hex and back again
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Big/little endian confusion
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Data structures
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Allocation of “space” to a data structure
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bit, byte, etc.
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Size allocated depends on location
Boot Process
Many layered (each hw/os system is different)
1.BIOS – ROM locates HW and initializes some of the
hardware,
2.EPROM – determines boot device and HW
configurations
3.LBA Sector 0/ CHS (0,0,1)
boot code and dereferences kernel code
more
Boot Process
Linux
1. JMP 0xFFFFFFF0
1st instruction after power on is a jump to BIOS (or)
2. Power-On-Self-Test
3. HW detect
4. Load interrupt vector table
5. Find bootable MBS
6. Copy MBS to 0x7C00 - RAM
MBS Structure
000
1BD
Boot code – Master Boot Record, MBR
1BE
1CD
1st Partition Entry
1CE
1DD
2nd Partition Entry
1DE
1ED
3st Partition Entry
1EE
1FD
4st Partition Entry
1FE
1FF
Sector signature = 0x55 aa
Partition Entry Structure
00
00
Bootable flag: 0x80 – bootable, 0x00 – not bootable
01
03
Starting CHS Address – (C, H, S)
04
04
Partition type – 0x83 = linux, 0x82 = swap
05
07
Ending CHS Address
08
0B
Starting LBA Address
0C
0F
Size in Sectors
Booting Cont'd
1. Move MBR to 0x9000 and execute
2. Transfers control to LILO
3. Loads compressed kernel
4. Decompresses itself
5. Log into the blue screen
Hard Disks
Current Technology - Moore's Law
1. Rotating platters
1.Platters: 1 – 12+
2.Heads: 1 - 24+
2. Organized – Cylinders/Tracks, Heads, Sectors
1.Track = Cylinder: tpi = 31,200 per inch
2.Bits per inch of track: bpi = 501,760
3.Areal density: 15.655 Gb/sq in (2000)
329 Gb/sq in (2009) projected 1 Tbit/sq max
3. Cost .50$ per Gbyte
1. Update 1 Tera Byte == $100
2. .10$ per Gbyte
2005
Giant magnetoresistance (GMR)
Antiferromagnetically coupled (AFC) media
Areal Density of Tbit/in2
2013
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/at/2013/521086/
Hard Disks
Geometry
1. CHS Address ( (Cylinder, Head, Sector)
1. Cylinder, Head, Sector
2. Cylinder address is limited to a byte – max = 255
3. Lying must take place at tpi = 32K
4. Most disks – radius = 1.25 inches
5. Sectors = 793 per track (variable)
6. Allocated 1 byte
2. LBA - (Logical Block Address)
1. LBA = (((C*heads-per-cyl) + H) * sectors-per-track) + S – 1
2. LBA = 0 -- CHS = (0, 0, 1)
3. Physical location – addressing
1. Sequential sector number
Hard Disks
Interfaces
1. IDE – ATA/ATAPI/etc
2. SCSI
3. Floppy
4. USB
5. 1394
Many, many flavors of each. Most of the flavors do not affect
the forensic analysis of the actual media.
Hard Disks
ATA/ATAPI
1. AT Attachment Packet Interface
1. 1994 Original
2. Before 1994 was a crap shoot
3. ATAPI spec issued in 1998
2. 2002, ATA/ATAPI-6 allowed 48 bit LBA vs. 32 bit
1. Permitted another factor of 64K sectors to the disk
3. Current rev is 7/8
4. www.t13.org
ATA/ATAPI
Commands
1. Register delivered commands
1.Write command ID and parameters to HD register
2.HD loads parameters into appropriate registers
3.Executes command
4.Loads error values into register
5.Host reads error values
2. Packet delivered commands
1.Used when the command/parameter structure is larger
than the register
ATA/ATAPI
Features
1. Passwords
2. Host Protected Area
3. Device Configuration Overlay
4. Serial ATA
ATA/ATAPI
Passwords
1. User password & master password
2. High security mode
1.Both user and administrator can access the HD
3. Maximum security mode
1.Admin can access HD only after the HD has been
wiped
4. After n password attempts the disk freezes until reboot
ATA/ATAPI
Host Protected Area
1. HPA: Not accessible to the average user
2. Configurable using ATA commands
3. HD vendor can store configuration data that won't be
overwritten by a format command
4. BIOS can write to the HPA at power up time
5. Located at the end of the HD, i.e. highest LBA address
ATA/ATAPI
HPA Commands
1. READ_NATIVE_MAX_ADDRESS
1.Returns the maximum physical address
2. IDENTIFY_DEVICE
1.Returns the max address the user can access
3. HPA = #1 - #2
4. HPA is created with a SET_MAX_ADDRESS
ATA/ATAPI
HPA Commands
1. The HPA may contain
1.BIOS settings
2.System files
3.Vendor information
4.Hidden information (Oh paranoia)
2. The HPA can be password protected
ATA/ATAPI
Device Configuration Overlay
Another way to hide data from the user
Changes the apparent capabilities of the disk to be limited
User Addressable Space
HPA
IDENTIFY_DEVICE
READ_NATIVE_MAX_ADDRESS
DEVICE_CONFIGURATION_IDENTIFY
DCO
ATA/ATAPI
Device Configuration Overlay
1. A DCO can cause the IDENTIFY_DEVICE command to lie
about supported features
2. A DCO can show a smaller disk size than actually exists
3. DEVICE_CONFIGURATION_SET changes or creates a
DCO
4. DEVICE_CONFIGURATION_RESET removes a DCO
5. The DCO remains unchanged through reboots and resets
ATA/ATAPI
Serial ATA
1. 7 versus 40+/- connectors
2. No device chaining
3. A little more flexible
ATA/ATAPI
BIOS vs Direct Access
1. Direct: the SW must know the geometry and translation
equations to access the HD. It is the fast method for disk
access and data transfer.
2. BIOS: services disk commands through software interrupt
0x13 etc.
SCSI
SCSI vs ATA
1. More devices per bus
2. No controller required only a bus controller
3. Many more flavors: connectors, commands, etc.
SCSI
Flavors of SCSI
1. Mostly transfer speed and connector types
2. Cable specs have changed
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