AN OVERVIEW OF THE BIBLE Part 3 The Gospels - Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John They record what happens from about 6 B.C. – A.D. 30. The Gospels Matthew Mark Luke John Unique 42% 7% 59% 92% 93% 41% 8% In 58% common The Gospel of Matthew • Written around A.D. 50 – 60 • Matthew was written to the Jews • Quotes the O.T. around 60 times and makes around 130 references to O.T. events. Matthew 21:43 "Therefore I say to you, the kingdom of God will be taken from you and given to a nation bearing the fruits of it. Matthew 8:11 "And I say to you that many will come from east and west, and sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 12:21 And in His name Gentiles will trust." Matthew records: • 20 miracles The words of Jesus such as: • The sermon on the Mount (5-7) • The parables about the kingdom (13) • The Olivet discourse (24-25) • The 7 woes (23) • The Great Commission (28) The Gospel of Mark Mark: • Was the son of Mary (Act 12:12) • The cousin of Barnabas (Col. 4:10) • Had a close relationship with Peter (1Pet. 5:13) Mark was written around A.D. 60-68 to the Romans Mark 7:2 Now when they saw some of His disciples eat bread with defiled, that is, with unwashed hands, they found fault. 3 For the Pharisees and all the Jews do not eat unless they wash their hands in a special way, holding the tradition of the elders. • He explained the value of Jewish money in Mark 12:42 in which two mites makes a quadrans. • Mark only refers to the OT 19 times. • He uses this word servant 14 times • He records 19 miracles of Jesus Mark also makes it clear that Jesus is the Son of God through the: • Testimony of God (Mk. 1:11; 9:7) • Testimony of Jesus (Mk. 13:32; 14:61-62) • Testimony of demons (Mk. 3:11; 5:7) • Testimony of the Roman Centurion (Mk. 15:39) The Gospel of Luke • Written around A.D. 60 -68 • Written mainly to the Greeks Luke: • Gives the most complete record of Jesus’ birth and childhood (Luke 1, 2) • Traces Christ’s lineage to Adam • Captures Jesus’ human traits such as weeping and being in agony (Luke 19:41, 22:44) • Out of the 15 prayers Jesus made in the Gospels, Luke records 11 of them • He records 20 miracles with 6 of them being unique to Luke • He believed in the virgin birth (Lk. 1:26-38) He was writing to Gentiles because he explained: • That Capernaum was city of Galilee (4:31) • That the country of the Gerasenes was over against Galilee (8:26) • That the town of Emmaus was 7 miles from Jerusalem (24:13) …I bring you good tidings of great joy which will be to all people (Luke 2:10) A light to bring revelation to the Gentiles, And the glory of Your people Israel (Luke 2:32) Luke 4:25 "But I tell you truly, many widows were in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the heaven was shut up three years and six months, and there was a great famine throughout all the land; 26 "but to none of them was Elijah sent except to Zarephath, in the region of Sidon, to a woman who was a widow. 27 "And many lepers were in Israel in the time of Elisha the prophet, and none of them was cleansed except Naaman the Syrian." The parable of the Good Samaritan (10:25-37). Luke is known for the following: The rich fool (12:13-21) The prodigal son (15:11-32) The rich man and Lazarus (16:19-31) The Pharisee and the publican (18:9-14) The Gospel of John • Written around A.D. 60 – 95 • Written to everyone John 20:30 And truly Jesus did many other signs in the presence of His disciples, which are not written in this book; 31 but these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in His name. A few things we learn about John: 1. His father’s name was Zebedee (Mt. 4:21). 2. His mother’s name was Salome (Compare Mk. 15:40 to Mt. 27:56). 3. His brother’s name was James (Mt. 4:21). 4.He was one of the twelve apostles (Lk. 6:1314). 5. Many times He was in the company of Simon Peter, and he and his brother had a partnership with Peter and his brother in their fishing business (Lk. 5:10). 6. He was in Jesus’ inner circle of friends (Mk. 5:37ff; Mt. 17:1ff) Jesus Deity is proven by 7 I AM statements and 7 miracles. Some unique features about the Gospel of John: 1. It has no parables (John 10:1ff is a proverb). 2. The synoptic Gospels begin with Adam and work their way to Christ, but the Gospel of John begins with God. 3. It fills in the details the synoptic Gospels leave out. 4. It records Jesus’ longest prayer (John 17). 5. It teaches many details about the work of the Holy Spirit. 6. It is written in the most simplistic form of Greek, yet it teaches a deep spiritual message. The Book of Acts Acts 1:8 "But you shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be witnesses to Me in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth." Acts: • Focuses on what Peter and Paul did as they went around spreading the good news • Was written by Luke around A.D. 62 – 64 • Records what happens from about A.D. 30 – 62. • Records the birth of the church (Acts 2) • Records many conversions of Jews and Gentiles • Records the first martyred Christian • Records how Saul turned from being the persecutor of the church to an apostle of Christ • Ends with Paul being in chains in Rome • During Paul’s 2nd missionary journey (Acts 1518), he wrote 1 and 2 Thessalonians around A.D. 52-53. • During Paul’s 3rd missionary journey (Acts 18 21), he wrote Galatians, 1 and 2 Corinthians, and Romans around A.D. 57. • During Paul’s 1st Roman imprisonment (Acts 28), he wrote Colossians, Philemon, Ephesians, and Philippians around A.D. 62. • Shortly after he was released from Roman imprisonment, he wrote 1 Timothy and Titus around A.D. 64. • During his 2nd Roman imprisonment, he wrote 2 Timothy around A.D. 66-67. The Book of Romans • One the greatest letters Paul wrote • Deals with the necessity to be saved by having an obedient faith • Tells how sin will separate us from God • Tells how we are not justified by the Law of Moses, but by the Law of Christ through faith • Explains in detail what the grace of God is • Tells us what happens at our baptism (Rom. 6) • Romans 12 gives some great advice on Christian living and Romans 8 ensures us that nothing will separate us from the love of God. • This letter was written to the Roman Christians Romans 1:16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God to salvation for everyone who believes, for the Jew first and also for the Greek. The Book of 1 Corinthians • Was written because of bad news concerning the church • Tells them how they should united not divided Paul addresses many other problems: 1. Corrupting the Lord’s Supper 2. Eating meats offered to idols 3. Disputing over spiritual gifts 4. Marriage and divorce, etc. Chapter 13 is known as the love chapter, but it also teaches that once God’s Word was fully revealed miracles would end The Book of 2 Corinthians • Was written by Paul after he heard how the Corinthians responded to his first letter • They had repented and corrected their sins (2 Cor. 2, 7) • Some Judaizing teachers had made their way into Corinth and were teaching false doctrine and saying that Paul wasn’t really an apostle When Paul wrote this letter: • He praised them for obeying his first letter (7:4, 15). • He urged them to express their love and encouragement to the brother who repented (2:6-9). • He warned them about false teachers (11:3-4). • He defended his apostleship (11, 12). • He told them how we will all have to stand before the judgment seat of Christ and give an account for our actions (2 Cor. 5:10). The book of Galatians • One of Paul’s more severe letters in which he tries to get these Christians back on track • Some Judaizers were claiming that salvation came by the works of the Law of Moses and they were attacking Paul’s apostleship In this letter Paul: • Shows that the Law of Moses has been replaced with the Law of Christ • Shows that justification comes from an obedient faith in Christ not by works of Law of Moses • Defends His apostleship • Says we can fall from grace (Gal. 5:4) • Says anyone can become a child of God that is willing to be baptized into Christ (Gal. 3:27-29). The book of Ephesians • The first half of the book deals with doctrine and last half with living a Christ centered life • Paul uses the phrase in Christ 30 times • He stresses that we are no longer under the Law of Moses • Teaches we have to be in Christ to have all the spiritual blessing (Eph. 1:3) • Teaches we can have the understand of an apostle (Eph. 3:4). • Says there is only one body (Eph. 4). If we are not in that one body we will not be saved (Eph. 5:23) • He encourages the Ephesians to stay away from evil and gives some great advice on how to have marriage that will last and be pleasing to God (Eph. 5) • He also gives some good parenting advice and tells how we should put on the whole armor of God so we withstand the whiles of the devil (Eph. 6) AN OVERVIEW OF THE BIBLE Part 4 The Book of Philippians • It is full of love, gratitude, joy, and cheerfulness Paul said to rejoice in the Lord always (Phil. 3:1) • Paul encourages unity and warns about false teachers • The majority of the letter full of praise. Philippians 4:2 I implore Euodia and I implore Syntyche to be of the same mind in the Lord. 3 And I urge you also, true companion, help these women who labored with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the Book of Life. The Book of Colossians • Is very similar to the book of Ephesians • Has about 78 verses similar to Ephesians • False teachers were trying to bind festivals and other rituals on the people • Paul stresses the supremacy of Christ over man Chapter 2: Stresses how we should not get caught up in philosophies of men. Says we are buried with Christ in baptism and our sins are removed by our faith in the operation of God (Col. 2:11ff) Chapter 3: Stresses keeping our thoughts on heaven and to do all things in the name of Christ Chapter 4: More practical thoughts about living the Christians life The book of 1 Thessalonians Paul’s objective was to comfort these Christians in their affliction and correct some misconceptions they had about the dead and Jesus’ second coming. Paul commended them for: • Their acceptance and practice of the gospel (1:1-10) • Their genuine Christian character and for being an example to all (1:7) • Their faith, evangelistic zeal, and long suffering (1:8; 2:14) • Their genuine love of the brethren (4:9-10) Paul wrote to them to: • Encourage them in the midst of persecution (2:14) • Assure them of his love for them and his desire to see them again (2:17-20; 3:6-8) • Warn them about the sin of the flesh and being idle (4:1-8; 11-12) • Comfort the bereaved and teach them about Jesus’ second coming (4:13-18; 5) Chapter 5:14-22 is a list of Christian duties that is a great companion to Romans 12. The Book of 2 Thessalonians • Offers comfort to the persecuted Christian • Warns how disobedience to God’s commands will cause one to face everlasting punishment (2 Thess. 1:7ff) • Teaches about Jesus’ second coming again 2 Thessalonians 2:1 Now, brethren, concerning the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ and our gathering together to Him, we ask you, 2 not to be soon shaken in mind or troubled, either by spirit or by word or by letter, as if from us, as though the day of Christ had come. 3 Let no one deceive you by any means; for that Day will not come unless the falling away comes first, and the man of sin is revealed, the son of perdition, The Book of 1, 2 Timothy and Titus Seven main points: 1. The qualification of elders. 2. The qualification of deacons. 3. Instructions to various groups in the church such as men, women, widows, virgins, the young, the old, servants, the rich, backsliders, and heretics. 4. Preaching the Word is stressed. 5. Live as an example of Christ. 6. Keep the church pure. 7. Rebuke false teachers. Paul had warned the Ephesians elders: Acts 20:28 "Therefore take heed to yourselves and to all the flock, among which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God which He purchased with His own blood. 29 "For I know this, that after my departure savage wolves will come in among you, not sparing the flock. 30 "Also from among yourselves men will rise up, speaking perverse things, to draw away the disciples after themselves. Paul charged Timothy: • To wage the good warfare and to hold on to his faith and good conscience (1 Tim. 1:18-19). • To remind the brethren of what they are supposed to do as Christians and to show them by being a good example (1 Tim. 4:6, 12). • He was to take heed to himself and to the doctrine (4:16). • He was to flee youthful lust and follow after righteousness (1 Tim. 6;11-12). • He was to keep the commandments and fight the good fight of faith (1 Tim. 6). What you will find is this letter: 1. A warning about false teachers and that Jesus came to save sinners. 2. We are taught to pray for everyone, and we learn that God wants everyone to learn about His Word and be saved. 3. We are given the qualifications of elders and deacons. 4. A warning of how some will depart from the faith and how Timothy is to be a good servant of Christ. 5. Instructions are given on how we should treat each other. 6. Another warning about false teachers and the dangers of pursuing riches. A quick look at what you will find is this letter: 1. We learn about Timothy’s mother and grandmother and how Paul encourages Timothy not to be ashamed of the gospel. 2. Paul tells Timothy to be a good soldier of Christ and to pass on what he has learned to others so they can teach the truth. He also encourages him to study the Scriptures and to rightly divide them. 3. Paul warns Timothy about how people will get involved in all kinds of sin, and he encourages him to remember what he has been taught from the Scriptures. 4. Paul tells Timothy to preach the Word and to look forward to the day Jesus will return. He asked Timothy to come to him and bring him his cloak, books, and parchments. A quick look at what you will find is this letter: 1. Qualifications of elders are given and the elders are told to shut the mouths of those who are teaching false doctrine. 2. Instruction are given to older men and women, younger men and women, and to slaves. The older women are instructed to teach the younger women. 3. Paul encourages them to be ready for every good work and to respect those who are over them and each other. The book of Philemon • Shows the transforming power of the gospel. • Is about Onesimus, a runaway slave (Phm. 1:18). He fled to Rome and was converted by Paul. • Paul sends Onesimus back to his master with this letter, in which Paul asked Philemon to receive him back as a brother in Christ (Phm. 1:16). • Paul promised to pay Philemon back if Onesimus owes him anything. • Paul appealed to Philemon instead of commanding him (Phm. 1:8). • Paul had no doubt that Philemon would take Onesimus back and treat him fairly. The Book of Hebrews It was written before the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70 because the temple was still standing (Heb. 9:6-8; 10:1). So, I will date it around A.D. 64 – 68. • This letter was addressed to the Hebrew Christians • The author expected to visit them soon with Timothy (13:18-19, 23). • This letter encourages Christians to be faithful, and it warns against falling away. • It shows how Christ is superior over all things and how Christianity is superior over all religions. • It shows we are under a new better covenant under Christ (Heb. 7:22; 8:6). • It has around 100 references to the O.T. • Reassure the Hebrews that Jesus has fulfilled the O.T. prophecies and is now our High Priest. • Encourages Christians not neglect the assembly of Saints (Heb. 10:25), and not to allow themselves to drift away from God and lose their salvation (Heb. 2:1-3). • It explains that when we sin willfully, it is like trampling Jesus under our foot and counting the blood of the covenant a common thing (Heb. 10:26-29). Hebrews 13:5 Let your conduct be without covetousness; be content with such things as you have. For He Himself has said, "I will never leave you nor forsake you." 6 So we may boldly say: "The LORD is my helper; I will not fear. What can man do to me?" The Book of James • James was prominent figure in the church at Jerusalem around A.D. 44 until he was martyred around A.D. 62. • Some date this writing as early as A.D. 44 – 47 • James 1:1 … To the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad • Many call this book “The Proverbs of the New Testament.” • It promotes living a Christian life by being a doer of God’s Word, instead of hearer (Jam. 1:22) • James teaches that we show our faith by our works (Jam. 2). • Galatians 2:16 … a man is not justified by the works of the law but by faith in Jesus Christ • Paul teaches that we must have an obedient faith and work out our own salvation (Phi. 2:12). • Paul mentions the need for an obedient working faith in many other passages as well (Acts 26:20; Eph. 2:10; Rom. 1:5; 6:17; 16:26; Gal. 5:6). • James 2:20 But do you want to know, O foolish man, that faith without works is dead? A quick look at what you will find is this letter: 1. Talks about pure religion and how we should find joy in trials and pray for wisdom without doubting. Tells how sin develops, and we are taught that God’s Word saves, so we should be doers of it. 2. Teaches that we should treat the rich and the poor alike, and that faith without works is dead. 3. Teaches us about the destructive nature of the unbridled tongue. 4. Warns against worldliness and about boasting about tomorrow because tomorrow may never come. 5. Warns the rich about being selfish. Teaches us to be patient until the coming of the Lord and tells what fervent prayers can do. The book of 1 Peter • Written by Peter (A.D. 63-68) to the elect scattered throughout Asia to both Jews and Gentiles (1:1-2; 2:9-10). 1 Peter 5:12 I have written to you briefly, exhorting and testifying that this is the true grace of God in which you stand. • These Christians were persecuted (3:17; 4:1219) The main points of each chapter are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Salvation. Spiritual growth and behavior. Honoring Christ. Suffering for Christ. The true grace of God. Christ can be found in ever chapter: 1. Christ, our source of hope and redeemer (3, 1819). 2. Christ, the chief cornerstone, our example, and sin-bearer (6, 21, 24). 3. Christ, our Lord (15, 22). 4. Christ, our suffer (1, 13). 5. Christ our Shepherd (4). The Book of 2 Peter 2 Peter 1:1 those who have obtained like precious faith Written around A.D. 63-68 to encourage the scattered Christians to grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord (2 Pet. 3:18). A quick look at these 3 chapters: 1. Peter teaches about the all sufficiency of Scripture and gives a recipe for guaranteed spiritual growth. 2. He warns about false teachers and how cunning they can be. 3. He tells how Jesus will come again and how heaven and earth will be destroyed. The book of 1 John • Written to churches in Asia Minor around A.D. 60-95. • The them of this letter is fellowship with God and Christ (1:3). He wrote it to: • Add to their joy (1:4) • Guard them against sin (2:1) • Confirm that the faithful have overcome the evil one (2:12-14) • Warn them against false teachers (2:21, 26) • Strengthen their faith in Christ and assure them of eternal life (5:13). The book of 2 John Written to the elect lady and her children. The book of 3 John • Written to Gaius • There are 3 men with name of Gaius in the N.T. (Acts 19:29; 1 Cor. 1:14; Rom. 16:23) • He was good example to other believers. • He showed hospitably to traveling evangelist. • John says great things about Demetrius. • John had harsh words about Diotrephes who would not receive travelling evangelist and would kick members of the church out that would receive them. The book of Jude • Written around A.D. 64-68 Jude 1:1 to those who are called, sanctified by God the Father Jude 1:3 Beloved, while I was very diligent to write to you concerning our common salvation, I found it necessary to write to you exhorting you to contend earnestly for the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints. • Warns against false teachers and encourages Christians to remain faithful to God. The Book of Revelation Revelation 1:3 Blessed is he who reads and those who hear the words of this prophecy, and keep those things which are written in it; for the time is near. The two most popular views: 1. Some believe it is talking about how Christians were struggling against Judaism and the Roman Empire under the reign of Nero A.D. 3768 who was known for persecuting Christians. This early view holds that most of the book records what happened before the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70 and it speaks of the destruction of the Jerusalem written around A.D. 64. 2. Others believe that the text focuses on how Christians would be persecuted by the Romans under the reign of Domitian who reigned from A.D. 51-96. They believe this book talks about the downfall of the Roman Empire written around A.D. 96. • The theme of Revelation is the glorious triumph of Christ and the ultimate victory of the righteous. • Its message is designed to comfort and support Christians under trials and persecutions by assuring them that all the enemies of righteousness will be destroyed and the church and its members will be victorious in the end. A quick outline of this book would be: • • • • • • The seven churches (1-3). The seven seals (4-7). The seven trumpets (8-11). The enemies of the church (12-14). The seven bowls of wrath (15-16). Destruction of most of the enemies of the church (17-19) • The destruction of the dragon followed by new heaven and earth (20-22).