WRITING E-MAILS & FORMAL LETTERS expressions Snail mail, paper mail, postal mail, land mail, or simply (air)mail and post. are all conventional postal delivery services (not via internet) “correspondence” Which of the following defines correspondence? a) talking to people on the phone b) answering enquiries from customers c) sending and answering letters, faxes and e-mails As a form of communication, many people see email as being … than a phone call. a) more personal b) less direct c) less intrusive “infoglut” What is infoglut? a) not enough information b) a flood of information c) a form of passing on information TIPS ARE EMAILS ALWAYS INFORMAL? They can be both. They are usually shorter and more like spoken English compared to letters. Formal communications and contracts are sent in letter form because they need handwritten signatures. Emails and symbols 1 @ a underscore 2 . b hyphen 3 - c forward slash 4 _ d backslash 5 / e at 6 \ f full stop/dot Match the Beginning and endings Dear John Yours sincerely Dear Mr Green Kind regards Hi John Cheers John Bye for now Match the Beginning and endings Dear John Kind regards Dear Mr Green Yours sincerely Hi John Bye for now John Cheers Opening and closing Dear Sir/Madam …..... Yours faithfully Dear Mr Smith …...... Yours sincerely Best wishes/ Best regards: is normally used in e-mail as it is less formal. Dear Jane Best regards/Best wishes When addressing a good friend or colleague. when you know the name use “yours sincerely” When 'Yours faithfully' and when 'Yours sincerely' in a business letter? When the recipient's name is unknown to you: Dear Sir ... Yours faithfully Dear Madam ... Yours faithfully Dear Sir or Madam ... Yours faithfully Addressing whole departments: Dear Sirs ... Yours faithfully When you know the recipient's name: Dear Mr Hanson ... Yours sincerely Dear Mrs Hanson ... Yours sincerely Dear Miss Hanson ... Yours sincerely Dear Ms Hanson ... Yours sincerely Mr, Mrs, Miss or Ms, Dr, etc If you know the name, use the title (Mr, Mrs, Miss or Ms, Dr, etc.) and the surname only. If you are writing to a woman and do not know if she uses Mrs or Miss, you can use Ms, which is for married and single women. Dear Mr Jenkins, Letter layout What to include ? Salutation: “Dear ... Name and address of person/company you are writing to Address of person writing the letter The date Ending: eg: “Yours faithfully.” Signature Your name in print (under signature) Layout Put your address in top right-hand corner with the date underneath. Your name + address of person you are writing to on the left-hand. Don't use contractions in letters. Use paragraphs (to clarify ideas and structure) Write full name under your signature SEE LAYOUT IN DISPENSA p.123 Opening lines Why do we need an opening line in a business letter or email? - to make reference to previous correspondence - to say how you found the recipient's name/address - to say why you are writing to the recipient. 10 Good Opening Lines: 1. With reference to your letter of 8 June, I ... 2. I am writing to enquire about ... 3. After having seen your advertisement in ... , I would like ... 4. After having received your address from ... , I ... 5. I received your address from ... and would like … 6. We/I recently wrote to you about ... 7. Thank you for your letter of 8 May. 8. Thank you for your letter regarding ... 9. Thank you for your letter/e-mail about ... 10.In reply to your letter of 8 May, ... Closing lines Why do we need a closing line in a business letter or email? - to make a reference to a future event - to repeat an apology - to offer help 10 Good Closing Lines 1. I look forward to your reply. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. I look forward to hearing from you. I look forward to seeing you. Please advise as necessary. We look forward to a successful working relationship in the future. Should you need any further information, please do not hesitate to contact me. Once again, I apologise for any inconvenience. We hope that we may continue to rely on your valued custom. I would appreciate your immediate attention to this matter. Requests and Apologies levels of directness Put into order of formality: 5 = most formal; 1= least formal Could you... Please could you... I would be greatful if you could... Can you... Do you think you could... I'm sorry about... I would like to apologise for... Sorry about... I would like to offer our apologies for... Please accept our most sincere apologies for... Requests and Apologies Put into order of formality: 5 = most formal; 1= least formal Could you...2 Please could you...3 I would be greatful if you could...5 Can you...1 Do you think you could...4 I'm sorry about...2 I would like to apologise for...3 Sorry about...1 I would like to offer our apologies for...4 Please accept our most sincere apologies for...5 Different level of formality by choice of verbs: Match the verbs with similar meanings Talk about a) Assist Ask b) Contact someone Ask for c) Enquire Help d) Meet Think about e) Purchase Get f) Request Buy g) Inform someone Get together h) Receive Let someone know i) Discuss Get i touch with j) Consider KEY Different formality also depends on choice of verbs: • Talk about • a) Discuss • Ask • b) Enquire • Ask for • c) Request • Help • d) Assist • Think about • e) Consider • Get • f) Receive • Buy • g) Purchase • Get together • h) Meet • Let someone know • i) ) Inform someone • Get in touch with • j) Contact someone Indirect questions Which question/request is more polite? Where and when is the next conference taking place? Could you tell me where and the next conference is taking place? Indirect form is therefore used to be less direct and therefore more polite. Ways to start formal requests: Enquiring… • Can.... • Could.... • Would you mind (telling me/ finding out...) • Would it be possible (to find this out for me) • Do you think.... • May I.... Transform these direct requests into formal requests. What time is it? Where are the application forms? When are you arriving? Whose mobile phone is it? Turn off your mobile phone! KEY Make formal requests What time is it? Where are the application forms? When are you arriving? Whose mobile phone is it? Turn off your mobile phone! Can/Could you tell me what time it is? Would you mind telling me where the application forms are? Do you know whose mobile phone this is? Would it be possible to turn off your mobile phone Translating from Italian Mi dispiace informarla che lei non è stata selezionata per il posto di lavoro. I am terribly sorry to inform you that you were not selected for the post. DO NOT USE THIRD PERSON: “SHE” / “HE” to be more polite Contracted form “I'm” or “I am” When writing letters use full form: I am..... Eg: I am writing to find out about..... When writing e-mails the contracted form is acceptable. To make email more formal you may also use the full form. EG. I'm now seeking to move into a more challenging role. Expressing best wishes/good luck We wish you all the best in the future for finding the most suitable job in your career. All the best of luck for finding a more suitable job in your field. We would like to wish you all the best of luck in finding a more suitable job. The use of “if” to be polite If you have any further queries, do not hesitate to contact me. I wonder if you would mind calling this person back informing him about the bad news. I wonder if you could..... (is more formal than: could you...) Please tell me if you would like me to take this matter further. (is more formal than: would you like me to take this matter further?) Conditional instructions Let me know if I can be of further assistance. Please write again if you need more information. Please contact me if you would like me to clarify anything. This form is used to ask someone to do something in particular circumstances. It is also used to offer assistance in Letters Content of a Formal Letter • First paragraph The first paragraph should be short and state the purpose of the letter- to make an enquiry, complain, request something, etc. • The paragraph or paragraphs in the middle of the letter should contain the relevant information behind the writing of the letter. Most letters in English are not very long, so keep the information to the essentials and concentrate on organising it in a clear and logical manner rather than expanding too much. • Last Paragraph The last paragraph of a formal letter should state what action you expect the recipient to take - to refund, send you information, etc. Abbreviations Used in Letter Writing • The following abbreviations are widely used in letters: • asap = as soon as possible • cc = carbon copy (when you send a copy of a letter to more than one person, you use this abbreviation to let them know) • enc. = enclosure (when you include other papers with your letter) • pp = per procurationem (A Latin phrase meaning that you are signing the letter on somebody else's behalf; if they are not there to sign it themselves, etc) • ps = postscript (when you want to add something after you've finished and signed it) • pto (informal) = please turn over (to make sure that the other person knows the letter continues on the other side of the page) • RSVP = please reply Different letters and e-mails for the exam: For making/confirming arrangements To arrange or cancel meetings/appointments For making apologies To making complaints To place an order Making enquiries Thank you letters Responding to job applications/cover letters Rejection letters/acceptance letters Job interview invitations Letters of apology Useful phrases: We would like to offer our sincere apologies for… Please accept our apologies for The delay/mistake/damage was due to circumstances beyond our control… Please accept our reassurances that …. We can guarantee/promise that… Let me personally assure you that… Thank you letters See dispensa Outline: A Covering/Cover Letter • A covering letter is the one that accompanies your CV when you are applying for a job. Here is a fairly conventional plan for the layout of the paragraphs. • Opening Paragraph Briefly identify yourself and the position you are applying for. Add how you found out about the vacancy. • Paragraph 2 Give the reasons why you are interested in working for the company and why you wish to be considered for that particular post. State your relevant qualifications and experience, as well as your personal qualities that make you a suitable candidate. • Paragraph 3 Inform them that you have enclosed your current CV and add any further information that you think could help your case. • Closing Paragraph Give your availability for interview, thank them for their consideration, restate your interest and close the letter. Job application letters/Letter of Application Dear Sirs, I wish to apply for the post of [incarico]. I believe my skills and experience in [non più di 20 parole] mean that I am ideally qualified for the post. Poi descrivi le tue competenze personali ... per esempio leadership skills, communication skills, team working skills ... come le hai acquisite e dimostrate, una alla volta ... non più di 40 parole per ogni punto. Poi fai una breve sintesi delle tue competenze tecniche. Non bisogna ricopiare il curriculum. I look forward to the opportunity to discuss how my skills and competences might contribute to your success. Yours faithfully, Letter of application Mr Robinson,Lloyd Company group25 Regent Street LONDON E14 5BH •Dear Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms ... •I should like to apply for the post advertised in [dove?] and have pleasure in enclosing my curriculum vitae for your attention. •I am an experienced [che esperienze hai] and have worked in/with ... In my most recent role, I have ... •I am now seeking an opportunity to fulfill my career aspirations with a ...I believe I can offer the company/group/agency [qualità che hai] •I look forward to discussing this opportunity further with you at a future interview and look forward to hearing from you. •Yours sincerely, •[firma] •encl: curriculum vitae LINKERS Discourse markers (linkers) are used to structure and clarify ideas. Firstly, secondly, therefore, also, in order to, finally, because, then, for example, additionally, hense, Indeed, however, more importantly etc. Link words allow you to follow the argument of a text and can help you to check your understanding of words and phrases. For example, if you see but, although or despite in the middle of a sentence, you know that the idea after it will contrast with the idea in the first part. See page 168 in dispensa Put these linkers in the correct groups firstly, therefore, also, in order to, finally, because, then, for example, what's more, additionally, as a result, due to, as, so 1) showing sequence or order: 2) introducing new information: 3) Linking cause and effect: 4) Exemplifying a point: Put these linkers in the correct groups firstly, therefore, also, in order to, finally, because, then, for example, what's more, additionally, as a result, due to, as, so 1) showing sequence or order: firstly, then, finally 2) introducing new information: Also, additionally, what's more 3) Linking cause and effect: as, so, because, therefore, as a result, due to, owing to (= thanks to) 4) Exemplifying a point: for example, See dispensa for more practice Focus on: As a result of the recession unemployment has gone up. Due to lower prices the sales have gone up. Look at the e-mail written by a student in an exam: Can you correct it? How would you improve it? Write a letter including following points to a candidate who failed their interview for a job • Thank the applicant for coming to the interview • All the candidates were very strong • You regret that despite their skills you are unable to offer them job. • You will keep the applicant’s name on file and let them know about any future openings. • Thank the applicant for their interest in the job. • close on an encouraging/optimistic note. Dear Mr Sanders, I would tell you thanks for the letter, because I like to have a personnal confrontation with other members of staff. But I am sorry to inform you that you aren't in a short list for the post of senior project manager. The most important reasons are about your imcomplete experience in the meduinm-long term because your recent employmnet isn't good for us and the company.So even your age is younger than other managers that have more experience in this ambient. I'm so sorry to regret your proposal but actually we search another kind of person. In case of liberation of other post in the same sector we will call you to met. For new,I wish the best for your future. Some regards, Dear Mr Sanders, We would like to thank you for coming to the interview that took place on the 8 March regarding the post of senior project manager with our company. Indeed we like to meet our potential members of staff personally. All the candidates were very strong and we regret that despite your skills and experience we are unable to offer you this job. You have some interesting experience in human resources but this is not really the field we are interested in. Additionally we were also looking for managers with at least 5 years of experience in the similar field. However we will keep your name on file and let you know about any future job openings with our company. Thank you again for your interest in the job and for coming to the interview and we wish you all the best of luck for finding a more suitable job. Yours Sincerely, Robert Jacobson, Head of Recruitment Department Sample answer letter to reply to a problem Dear Sir, Thank you for your letter of December 1° concerning our reminder to settle invoice no.TB/245/c. Please accept our apologies for indeed sending you this reminder by mistake. Upon/When checking our records, we realised that an invoice meant for another customer bears/has a very similar reference number, hence the confusion. We would like to thank you for the prompt settlement of the above invoice, and will do our utmost/best to avoid such mistakes in the future. We are sorry for the inconvenience caused and look forward to doing further business with you. Yours faithfully, Martin Jones Sales Director Sample letter (reply to job acceptance letter) Dear Ms Poulson, Re: Assistant Project manager, Kazakhstan Thank you very much for the particulars of the post attached. I am delighted to have been selected, and would like to confirm that I do wish to take up the post and will be available to start work on April 8. I enclose a full medical report from Bolton General Hospital. I look forward to receiving the contract. Yours sincerely, Andrew Harris Correct these sentences • Please accept my sincere apologise • I look forward to hearing you • Your sincerely • Thank you very much for your availability of this interview • I’ll promise you that your name and your information aren’t delete by our database. • I’ve received your letter yesterday • We regret not being able to offer she the job. • I would tell you thanks for…. KEY - Correct these sentences • Please accept my sincere apologies • I look forward to hearing from you • Yours sincerely • Thank you very much for your availability of this interview • I promise you that your name and personal data will not be deleted from our database. • I received your letter yesterday • We regret not being able to offer you the job. • I would like to thank you for…. Confusing terms In fact / Indeed 1. Which one introduces a contrast? 2. Which one expands the previous idea mentioned? 3. Which one is similar to actually? It was very difficult to make a final decision. ……. all the candidates were very strong with similar experience. We were expecting to have many more candidates apply for the job. …….only 3 applied. Exam note • For the exam you are often asked to write follow-up letters. • To include a list of points (indicated) • To express some kind of feeling/condition/situation: (thanks/apology/concern/regret/confusion/confirmation/ misunderstanding/suggestion) • You also need to be able to invent part of the information in an adequate way. • Maintain a high level of formality in business letters. • You will be asked to write about 100 words in the letter • In the exam there will also be a little exercise linked to email writing.