12_-_writing_-_emails_and_letters

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WRITING
E-MAILS & FORMAL LETTERS
expressions

Snail mail,

paper mail,

postal mail,

land mail,

or simply (air)mail and post.
are all conventional postal delivery services
(not via internet)
“correspondence”
Which of the following defines correspondence?
a) talking to people on the phone
b) answering enquiries from customers
c) sending and answering letters, faxes and e-mails
As a form of communication, many people see email as being … than a phone call.
a) more personal
b) less direct
c) less intrusive
“infoglut”
What is infoglut?
a) not enough information
b) a flood of information
c) a form of passing on information
TIPS
ARE EMAILS ALWAYS INFORMAL?
They can be both. They are usually shorter
and more like spoken English compared to
letters. Formal communications and
contracts are sent in letter form because
they need handwritten signatures.
Emails and symbols

1 @

a underscore

2
.

b hyphen

3
-

c forward slash

4
_

d backslash

5
/

e at

6
\

f
full stop/dot
Match the Beginning and endings

Dear John

Yours sincerely

Dear Mr Green

Kind regards

Hi John

Cheers

John

Bye for now
Match the Beginning and endings

Dear John

Kind regards

Dear Mr Green

Yours sincerely

Hi John

Bye for now

John

Cheers
Opening and closing

Dear Sir/Madam …..... Yours faithfully

Dear Mr Smith …......

Yours sincerely
Best wishes/ Best regards: is normally used in
e-mail as it is less formal.

Dear Jane
Best regards/Best wishes
When addressing a good friend or colleague.
when you know the name use “yours sincerely”
When 'Yours faithfully' and when 'Yours
sincerely' in a business letter?
When the recipient's name is unknown to
you:
Dear Sir ... Yours faithfully
Dear Madam ... Yours faithfully
Dear Sir or Madam ... Yours faithfully
Addressing whole departments:
Dear Sirs ... Yours faithfully
When you know the recipient's
name:
Dear Mr Hanson ... Yours sincerely
Dear Mrs Hanson ... Yours sincerely
Dear Miss Hanson ... Yours sincerely
Dear Ms Hanson ... Yours sincerely
Mr, Mrs, Miss or Ms, Dr, etc
If you know the name, use the title (Mr, Mrs, Miss
or Ms, Dr, etc.) and the surname only.
If you are writing to a woman and do not know if
she uses Mrs or Miss, you can use Ms, which is
for married and single women.
Dear Mr Jenkins,
Letter layout
What to include ?


Salutation: “Dear ...
Name and address of person/company you are
writing to

Address of person writing the letter

The date

Ending: eg: “Yours faithfully.”

Signature

Your name in print (under signature)
Layout


Put your address in top right-hand corner with
the date underneath.
Your name + address of person you are writing
to on the left-hand.

Don't use contractions in letters.

Use paragraphs (to clarify ideas and structure)

Write full name under your signature
SEE LAYOUT IN DISPENSA p.123
Opening lines
Why do we need an opening line in a
business letter or email?
- to make reference to previous
correspondence
- to say how you found the recipient's
name/address
- to say why you are writing to the
recipient.
10 Good Opening Lines:
1. With reference to your letter of 8 June, I ...
2. I am writing to enquire about ...
3. After having seen your advertisement in ... , I would
like ...
4. After having received your address from ... , I ...
5. I received your address from ... and would like …
6. We/I recently wrote to you about ...
7. Thank you for your letter of 8 May.
8. Thank you for your letter regarding ...
9. Thank you for your letter/e-mail about ...
10.In reply to your letter of 8 May, ...
Closing lines
Why do we need a closing line in a business
letter or email?
- to make a reference to a future event
- to repeat an apology
- to offer help
10 Good Closing Lines
1. I look forward to your reply.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
I look forward to hearing from you.
I look forward to seeing you.
Please advise as necessary.
We look forward to a successful working relationship in
the future.
Should you need any further information, please do not
hesitate to contact me.
Once again, I apologise for any inconvenience.
We hope that we may continue to rely on your valued
custom.
I would appreciate your immediate attention to this matter.
Requests and Apologies
levels of directness
Put into order of formality: 5 = most formal; 1= least formal





Could you...

Please could you...

I would be greatful if
you could...
Can you...
Do you think you
could...



I'm sorry about...
I would like to
apologise for...
Sorry about...
I would like to offer
our apologies for...
Please accept our
most sincere
apologies for...
Requests and Apologies
Put into order of formality: 5 = most formal; 1= least formal





Could you...2

Please could you...3

I would be greatful if
you could...5
Can you...1
Do you think you
could...4



I'm sorry about...2
I would like to
apologise for...3
Sorry about...1
I would like to offer
our apologies for...4
Please accept our
most sincere
apologies for...5
Different level of formality by choice of verbs:
Match the verbs with similar meanings

Talk about

a) Assist

Ask

b) Contact someone

Ask for

c) Enquire

Help

d) Meet

Think about

e) Purchase

Get

f) Request

Buy

g) Inform someone

Get together

h) Receive

Let someone know

i) Discuss

Get i touch with

j) Consider
KEY Different formality also
depends on choice of verbs:
• Talk about
• a) Discuss
• Ask
• b) Enquire
• Ask for
• c) Request
• Help
• d) Assist
• Think about
• e) Consider
• Get
• f) Receive
• Buy
• g) Purchase
• Get together
• h) Meet
• Let someone know
• i) ) Inform someone
• Get in touch with
• j) Contact someone
Indirect questions
Which question/request is more polite?
Where and when is the next conference taking
place?
Could you tell me where and the next conference
is taking place?
Indirect form is therefore used to be less direct
and therefore more polite.
Ways to start formal requests:
Enquiring…
• Can....
• Could....
• Would you mind (telling me/ finding out...)
• Would it be possible (to find this out for me)
• Do you think....
• May I....
Transform these direct requests
into formal requests.





What time is it?
Where are the
application forms?
When are you
arriving?
Whose mobile phone
is it?
Turn off your mobile
phone!
KEY Make formal requests





What time is it?

Where are the
application forms?

When are you
arriving?
Whose mobile phone
is it?

Turn off your mobile
phone!

Can/Could you tell me
what time it is?
Would you mind
telling me where the
application forms are?
Do you know whose
mobile phone this is?
Would it be possible
to turn off your mobile
phone
Translating from Italian
Mi dispiace informarla che lei non è stata
selezionata per il posto di lavoro.
I am terribly sorry to inform you that you were not
selected for the post.
DO NOT USE
THIRD PERSON: “SHE” / “HE”
to be more polite
Contracted form “I'm” or “I am”

When writing letters use full form: I am.....
Eg: I am writing to find out about.....

When writing e-mails the contracted form is
acceptable. To make email more formal you
may also use the full form.
EG. I'm now seeking to move into a more
challenging role.
Expressing best wishes/good luck



We wish you all the best in the future for finding
the most suitable job in your career.
All the best of luck for finding a more suitable
job in your field.
We would like to wish you all the best of luck in
finding a more suitable job.
The use of “if” to be polite



If you have any further queries, do not hesitate
to contact me.
I wonder if you would mind calling this person
back informing him about the bad news.
I wonder if you could.....
(is more formal than: could you...)

Please tell me if you would like me to take this
matter further. (is more formal than: would you
like me to take this matter further?)
Conditional instructions





Let me know if I can be of further assistance.
Please write again if you need more
information.
Please contact me if you would like me to clarify
anything.
This form is used to ask someone to do
something in particular circumstances.
It is also used to offer assistance in Letters
Content of a Formal Letter
• First paragraph The first paragraph should be short
and state the purpose of the letter- to make an enquiry,
complain, request something, etc.
• The paragraph or paragraphs in the middle of the
letter should contain the relevant information behind the
writing of the letter. Most letters in English are not very
long, so keep the information to the essentials and
concentrate on organising it in a clear and logical
manner rather than expanding too much.
• Last Paragraph The last paragraph of a formal letter
should state what action you expect the recipient to
take - to refund, send you information, etc.
Abbreviations Used in Letter Writing
• The following abbreviations are widely used in letters:
• asap = as soon as possible
• cc = carbon copy (when you send a copy of a letter to more than
one person, you use this abbreviation to let them know)
• enc. = enclosure (when you include other papers with your
letter)
• pp = per procurationem (A Latin phrase meaning that you are
signing the letter on somebody else's behalf; if they are not there
to sign it themselves, etc)
• ps = postscript (when you want to add something after you've
finished and signed it)
• pto (informal) = please turn over (to make sure that the other
person knows the letter continues on the other side of the page)
• RSVP = please reply
Different letters and e-mails for the
exam:

For making/confirming arrangements

To arrange or cancel meetings/appointments

For making apologies

To making complaints

To place an order

Making enquiries

Thank you letters

Responding to job applications/cover letters

Rejection letters/acceptance letters

Job interview invitations
Letters of apology
Useful phrases:
We would like to offer our sincere apologies for…

Please accept our apologies for

The delay/mistake/damage was due to circumstances
beyond our control…

Please accept our reassurances that ….

We can guarantee/promise that…

Let me personally assure you that…

Thank you letters

See dispensa
Outline: A Covering/Cover Letter
• A covering letter is the one that accompanies your CV when you
are applying for a job. Here is a fairly conventional plan for the
layout of the paragraphs.
• Opening Paragraph Briefly identify yourself and the position
you are applying for. Add how you found out about the vacancy.
• Paragraph 2 Give the reasons why you are interested in
working for the company and why you wish to be considered for
that particular post. State your relevant qualifications and
experience, as well as your personal qualities that make you a
suitable candidate.
• Paragraph 3 Inform them that you have enclosed your current
CV and add any further information that you think could help
your case.
• Closing Paragraph Give your availability for interview, thank
them for their consideration, restate your interest and close the
letter.
Job application letters/Letter of
Application





Dear Sirs,
I wish to apply for the post of [incarico]. I believe my skills and
experience in [non più di 20 parole] mean that I am ideally qualified
for the post.
Poi descrivi le tue competenze personali ... per esempio leadership
skills, communication skills, team working skills ... come le hai acquisite
e dimostrate, una alla volta ... non più di 40 parole per ogni punto. Poi
fai una breve sintesi delle tue competenze tecniche. Non bisogna
ricopiare il curriculum.
I look forward to the opportunity to discuss how my skills and
competences might contribute to your success.
Yours faithfully,
Letter of application
Mr Robinson,Lloyd Company
group25 Regent Street
LONDON E14 5BH
•Dear Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms ...
•I should like to apply for the post advertised in [dove?] and have pleasure in
enclosing my curriculum vitae for your attention.
•I am an experienced [che esperienze hai] and have worked in/with ... In my
most recent role, I have ...
•I am now seeking an opportunity to fulfill my career aspirations with a ...I believe
I can offer the company/group/agency [qualità che hai]
•I look forward to discussing this opportunity further with you at a future interview
and look forward to hearing from you.
•Yours sincerely,
•[firma]
•encl: curriculum vitae
LINKERS


Discourse markers (linkers) are used to
structure and clarify ideas.
Firstly, secondly, therefore, also, in order to,
finally, because, then, for example, additionally,
hense, Indeed, however, more importantly etc.



Link words allow you to follow the argument of
a text and can help you to check your
understanding of words and phrases.
For example, if you see but, although or
despite in the middle of a sentence, you know
that the idea after it will contrast with the idea in
the first part.
See page 168 in dispensa
Put these linkers in the correct
groups
firstly, therefore, also, in order to, finally, because,
then, for example, what's more, additionally, as
a result, due to, as, so
1) showing sequence or order:
2) introducing new information:
3) Linking cause and effect:
4) Exemplifying a point:
Put these linkers in the correct
groups
firstly, therefore, also, in order to, finally, because,
then, for example, what's more, additionally, as
a result, due to, as, so
1) showing sequence or order: firstly, then, finally
2) introducing new information: Also, additionally,
what's more
3) Linking cause and effect: as, so, because,
therefore, as a result, due to, owing to (= thanks
to)
4) Exemplifying a point: for example,
See dispensa for more practice
Focus on:


As a result of the recession unemployment has
gone up.
Due to lower prices the sales have gone up.
Look at the e-mail written by a student in an exam:
Can you correct it?
How would you improve it?
Write a letter including following
points to a candidate who failed
their interview for a job
• Thank the applicant for coming to the interview
• All the candidates were very strong
• You regret that despite their skills you are
unable to offer them job.
• You will keep the applicant’s name on file and let
them know about any future openings.
• Thank the applicant for their interest in the job.
• close on an encouraging/optimistic note.
Dear Mr Sanders,
I would tell you thanks for the letter, because I like to have a
personnal confrontation with other members of staff. But I am sorry
to inform you that you aren't in a short list for the post of senior
project manager.
The most important reasons are about your imcomplete experience
in the meduinm-long term because your recent employmnet isn't
good for us and the company.So even your age is younger than
other managers that have more experience in this ambient.
I'm so sorry to regret your proposal but actually we search another
kind of person. In case of liberation of other post in the same
sector we will call you to met.
For new,I wish the best for your future.
Some regards,
Dear Mr Sanders,
We would like to thank you for coming to the interview that took place on the 8
March regarding the post of senior project manager with our company. Indeed
we like to meet our potential members of staff personally.
All the candidates were very strong and we regret that despite your skills and
experience we are unable to offer you this job. You have some interesting
experience in human resources but this is not really the field we are interested
in. Additionally we were also looking for managers with at least 5 years of
experience in the similar field.
However we will keep your name on file and let you know about any future job
openings with our company.
Thank you again for your interest in the job and for coming to the interview and we
wish you all the best of luck for finding a more suitable job.
Yours Sincerely,
Robert Jacobson,
Head of Recruitment Department
Sample answer letter to reply to a problem
Dear Sir,
Thank you for your letter of December 1° concerning our reminder to settle
invoice no.TB/245/c.
Please accept our apologies for indeed sending you this reminder by mistake.
Upon/When checking our records, we realised that an invoice meant for another
customer bears/has a very similar reference number, hence the confusion.
We would like to thank you for the prompt settlement of the above invoice, and
will do our utmost/best to avoid such mistakes in the future. We are sorry for the
inconvenience caused and look forward to doing further business with you.
Yours faithfully,
Martin Jones
Sales Director
Sample letter (reply to job
acceptance letter)
Dear Ms Poulson,
Re: Assistant Project manager, Kazakhstan
Thank you very much for the particulars of the post attached. I am delighted to
have been selected, and would like to confirm that I do wish to take up the post
and will be available to start work on April 8.
I enclose a full medical report from Bolton General Hospital.
I look forward to receiving the contract.
Yours sincerely,
Andrew Harris
Correct these sentences
• Please accept my sincere apologise
• I look forward to hearing you
• Your sincerely
• Thank you very much for your availability of this interview
• I’ll promise you that your name and your information aren’t
delete by our database.
• I’ve received your letter yesterday
• We regret not being able to offer she the job.
• I would tell you thanks for….
KEY - Correct these sentences
• Please accept my sincere apologies
• I look forward to hearing from you
• Yours sincerely
• Thank you very much for your availability of this interview
• I promise you that your name and personal data will not be
deleted from our database.
• I received your letter yesterday
• We regret not being able to offer you the job.
• I would like to thank you for….
Confusing terms
In fact / Indeed
1. Which one introduces a contrast?
2. Which one expands the previous idea mentioned?
3. Which one is similar to actually?
It was very difficult to make a final decision. ……. all the
candidates were very strong with similar experience.
We were expecting to have many more candidates apply
for the job. …….only 3 applied.
Exam note
• For the exam you are often asked to write follow-up
letters.
• To include a list of points (indicated)
• To express some kind of feeling/condition/situation:
(thanks/apology/concern/regret/confusion/confirmation/
misunderstanding/suggestion)
• You also need to be able to invent part of the
information in an adequate way.
• Maintain a high level of formality in business letters.
• You will be asked to write about 100 words in the letter
• In the exam there will also be a little exercise linked to
email writing.
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