The History of the English Language Research paper Copy this thesis on to a card. It is the last sentence of your introduction. • The English language developed over a long period of time and is divided into three periods: Old English, Middle English, and Modern English (Beers, 55). Standard • 1.2 Understand the most important points in the history of English language and use common word origins to determine the historical influences on English word meanings. Choosing a website • .Org (non-profit) • .Edu (education) • .gov (government) • Better than .com • www.bibme.org • Google I feel lucky Research Question • How did the English language develop and why is it the largest in the world? Thesis Statement • The English language developed over a long period of time and may divided into three periods: Old, Middle, and Modern English. etymology • The study of word origins or the history of a word •(www.brainpop.com) Map of Europe England The Celts Old English #1 • Celtic language first in Britain. • Scots, Irish, Welsh descendants of Celtic Romans: Julius Ceasar They spoke Latin; He conquered, but they did not leave their language since Rome was falling. • Romance Languages: French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian. Old English begins when the Anglos, Saxons, Jutes invade England in 500 A.D. (Light History) • Old English is an Anglo-Saxon Germanic language Old English Source #3 • A.D. 450-1066 • In the 5th century, the tribes of Anglo-Saxons from Northern Europe arrived in Britain. They found a Celtic speaking people who had earlier been conquered by the Romans. They combined their Germanic language with the Celtic and started to form a new language (Beers, 55). Old English continued on the next slide. #3 Old English Continued (p. 55) • A.D. 450-1066 • Then the Vikings or Norsemen who spoke Norse arrived from Scandinavia. These languages (Celtic, Anglo-Saxon Germanic, Norse) formed Old English, an oral language. • Mostly one syllable words • The written language was Latin. • Horse, Night and Wife are O.E. • (Beers, 55) #3 Old English Continued (p. 55) • A.D. 450-1066 • Then the Vikings or Norsemen who spoke Norse arrived from Scandinavia came. These languages formed Old English, an oral language. • The written language was Latin. • Horse, Night and Wife are O.E. • (Beers, 55) Beowulf, an Old English Epic Poem Source #1 • Most famous work of Old English literature Source 1(Light History) • Almost every one syllable word we speak is from Anglo Saxon German • Old English 500-1065AD Middle English 1066-1550AD • In 1066, William the Conqueror from Normandy, France invades England. William the Conqueror from Normandy, France The Norman Conquest/ The Battle of Hastings England becomes bilingual during Middle English • English: ox, sheep, swine, calf • French: beef, mutton, pork, veal • The rich and upper class spoke French Latin, but the lower class spoke AngloSaxon German (Beers, 55). Middle English #3 • Three words that survive today from French/Latin Middle English are government, justice, and literature (Beers, 55). Chaucer was a 14th century author of The Canterbury Tales written in Middle English Caxton invented the Printing Press in 1476 Modern English is 1500 to present • Renaissance was the rebirth of interest Greek and Roman art, literature • Astro-star • Naut-sailor • Astronaut Modern English • Great vowel shift • In Middle English the last vowel of a word was emphasized, but in Modern English, the first vowel is typically stressed. William Shakespeare • Used 21,500 different words • 3,000 invented words Shakespeare invented: • Words Shakespeare Invented • Academe accused addiction advertising amazement arouse assassination backing bandit bedroom beached besmirch birthplace blanket bloodstained barefaced blushing bet bump buzzer caked cater champion circumstantial Shakespeare invented these • Coldblooded compromise courtship countless critic dauntless dawn deafening discontent dishearten drugged dwindle epileptic equivocal elbow excitement exposure eyeball fashionable fixture flawed frugal generous gloomy gossip green eyed gust hint hob nob hurried impede impartial invulnerable jaded label lackluster laughable lonely Shakespeare • Lower luggage lustrous madcap majestic marketable metamorphize mimic monumental moonbeam mountaineer negotiate noiseless obscene obsequiously ode olympian outbreak panders pedant premeditated puking radiance rant remorse less savagery scuffle secure skim milk submerge summit swagger torture tranquil undress unreal varied vaulting worthless zany gnarled grovel King James Bible 1604 1755 Johnson’s Dictionary Johnson’s Dictionary helped standardize spelling Good • Good, gode, guod, guode, goode, goed, gowd, godd, guid guide, gud, gwde, guyd, gewd • 7 years in the making. This dictionary helped standardize spelling. Source #1 • Engel, Elliot. A Light History of the English Language. Raleigh: Media Consultants, 1997 Source # 2 • www.brainpop.com • Etymology- the history of a word or word origin Source # 3 Works Cited • Beers, Kylene. Holt Literature and Language Arts. Austin: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2001.