Chapter 1
IDE and Tools
Developing CLR-based Programs
Yingcai Xiao
Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
(1) IDE: all-in-one programming tools
(2) Includes: editor, compiler, linker, loader, debugger, profiler,
project organizer, context-sensitive help, form designer,
programming code libraries, application framework templates, …
(3) IDE you may have used: Eclipse, jGRASP, NetBeans, BlueJ
(4) Microsoft IDEs:
MS Visual Studio 6.0: last non .NET version.
MS Visual Studio 7.0 => MS Visual Studio .NET
MS Visual Studio 8.0 => MS Visual Studio .NET 2005
MS Visual Studio .NET 2010
Start->All Programs->Microsoft Visual Studio 2010->
Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Documentation
Learn how to use VS 2010 there.
Create your first C# program
• If you are on a CS computer, refer to the following link to setup
the Z drive.
Use C drive if you have problem mount the Z drive. Remember
to copy your code to a flash drive and delete what’s on the C
drive before logging out from the CS computer.
Use C drive if you are on a home computer.
In the following examples, replace drive letter Z with C if you
are using the C drive.
Create your first C# program using Visual Studio .NET
(1) Create a project
Start->All Programs->Microsoft Visual Studio 2010-> Microsoft Visual Studio 2010
Start Page -> New Projects
Visual C#->Windows->Console Application
Name: Hello
Solution name: Hello
Browse Folders->Computer->Z->WP (New Folder) -> Select Folder
(Default on winserv1: C:\users\xiaotest\documents\visual studio 2010\Projects)
(2) Code
System.Console.WriteLine ("Hello, world!");
System.Console.WriteLine ("Hit any key to end.");
(3) Run
F5 (Debug->Start Debugging)
VS Project Directory
z:\WP\Hello ( the solution directory)
Hello.sln (solution info)
Hello (project directory, there can be more than one project)
z:\WP\Hello->Hello ( the project directory)
Hello.csproj (C# project info)
Program.cs (the C# source file)
bin (directory for the executables to be delivered)
obj (directory for the object files, working directory)
Properties (AssemblyInfo.cs)
z:\WP\Hello->Hello->bin (directory for the executables to be delivered)
Release->Hello.exe (the non-debugable executable, smaller)
Debug->Hello.exe (the debugable executable, larger)
Debug->vshost.exe (VS hosting process for debugging)
Create the same program using Notepad
(1) Edit (create the source code using Notepad)
Start->All Programs->Microsoft Visual Studio 2010->Visual Studio
Tools->Microsoft Visual Studio Command Prompt (2010)
mkdir WP
cd WP
mkdir Hello2
cd Hello2
notepad Hello.cs & (background process)
Copy code from the next page.
(2) Compile (using the C-Sharp Compiler)
csc /target:exe /out:Hello.exe Hello.cs
(csc Hello.cs)
(3)Excute Hello.exe
Create the same program using Notepad
namespace Xiao
class MyApp
static void Main ()
System.Console.WriteLine ("Hello, world");
System.Console.WriteLine ("Hit any key to end.");
// Don’t call “exit”. Why?
Inside .NET Programs: FCL & CLR
 FCL (.NET framework class library):
object-oriented API for writing managed applications
more than 7,000 classes in named spaces:
e.g. System.Windows.Forms, System.IO
stored as DLLs (Dynamically Linked Libraries).
 CLR (common language runtime): execution engine for managed
.NET Architecture for Language and Platform Independence
(fan-in and fan-out on MSIL)
Source Code for Language 1
Source Code for Language 2
Language 1 Compiler on OS1
Language 2 Compiler on OS2
MSIL Code Confirming CTS (Managed Code)
CLR on OS1
CLR on OS2
Binary Code for OS1
Binary Code for OS2
Managed and Unmanaged Code
 Managed Code: application code whose every action is subject
to approval by the CLR (common language runtime) and its
compiler conforms to the CLS (common language
specification) and supports the CTS (common type system).
 Unmanaged Code: native machine code that runs without CLR.
 Advantages of running managed code through CLR:
Type safe (type checked by CLR at runtime)
Light weight (multiple applications per process)
Garbage collection
An Example Assembly
 Contents of a managed module:
• CIL instructions generated from the source code
• Metadata describing code inside the module
• A CLR header containing important information about the module
• A Windows Portable Executable (PE) file header
 Metadata: a collection of tables that describe the code.
• TypeDef
• Class Names
 Assembly: is a collection of one or more files (modules) grouped
together to form a logical unit.
Manifest: metadata for an assembly.
Name, version, data types exported.
 AL (Assembly Linker): joins files into assemblies.
Reflection: runtime understanding of the code (data types,
program organizations, …)
 Reflection APIs: programming tools in System.Reflection
namespace to read metadata.
 ILDASM: a program in .NET SDK to view the metadata using
the reflection APIs
 DIA SDK: Debug Interface Access SDK
The Microsoft Debug Interface Access Software Development Kit
(DIA SDK) provides
access to debug information stored in program database (.pdb) files
 CIL: Common Intermediate Language (e.g. MSIL)
Other languages are merely syntactic devices for producing CIL.
Microsoft provides CIL compilers for five languages:
C#, J#, C++, Visual Basic, and JScript.
Other companies provide: Perl, Python, Eiffel, and, even COBOL.
Managed applications are Applications that target the .NET
framework, written in one of the high-level languages, and
translated into CIL code (managed code) by the compilers.
CIL cont.
 CIL compilers:
translate code from other languages into CIL code.
CIL is like a pseudo-assembly language that defines a native
instruction set for the CLR (a virtual processor), there are
about 100 instructions: ADD, BEQ (branch if equal), RET,
The code translated into CIL
// Load a 32-bit (i4) 3 onto the stack
// Store it in local variable 0 (a)
// Load a 32-bit (i4) 7 onto the stack
// Store it in local variable 1 (b)
// Load local variable 0 onto the stack
// Load local variable 1 onto the stack
// Add the two and leave the sum on the stack
// Store the sum in local variable 2 (c)
int a = 3; int b = 7; int c = a + b;
Each file is compiled into a managed module that can be run by CLR.
In the VS Command Prompt window, cd z:\WP\Hello2, ildasm Hello.exe
.method private hidebysig static void Main() cil managed
// Code size
30 (0x1e)
.maxstack 8
IL_0000: nop
IL_0001: ldstr "Hello, world"
IL_0006: call
void [mscorlib]System.Console::WriteLine(string)
IL_000b: nop
IL_000c: ldstr "Hit any key to end."
IL_0011: call
void [mscorlib]System.Console::WriteLine(string)
IL_0016: nop
IL_0017: call
int32 [mscorlib]System.Console::Read()
IL_001c: pop
IL_001d: ret
} // end of method MyApp::Main
Understanding CIL
Examples in CS, V++ and VB at
T:Xiao\Windows Programming\Examples\C1\Simple
Check out the source code and the “executables.” Appreciate the
statement: “Other languages are merely syntactic devices for producing
Understanding CIL: CSCA.cs
class Compute
public int Factorial(int f)
int i;
int result = 1;
for (i=2; i <=f; i++)
result = result * i;
return result;
Understanding CIL: CSCA.cs
class ComputeFactorial
static void Main(string[] args)
Compute c = new Compute();
int v = 5;
System.Console.WriteLine("{0} factorial: {1}", v, c.Factorial(v));
Understanding CIL: CSCA.exe
.method public hidebysig instance int32 . .
.Factorial(int32 f) cil managed
// Code size
24 (0x18)
.maxstack 2
.locals init (int32 V_0,
int32 V_1,
int32 V_2)
IL_0000: ldc.i4.1
IL_0001: stloc.1
IL_0002: ldc.i4.2
IL_0003: stloc.0
IL_0004: br.s
IL_0006: ldloc.1
IL_0007: ldloc.0
IL_0008: mul
IL_0009: stloc.1
IL_000a: ldloc.0
IL_000b: ldc.i4.1
IL_000c: add
IL_000d: stloc.0
IL_000e: ldloc.0
IL_000f: ldarg.1
IL_0010: ble.s IL_0006
IL_0012: ldloc.1
IL_0013: stloc.2
IL_0014: br.s
IL_0016: ldloc.2
IL_0017: ret
} // end of method Compute::Factorial
Understanding CIL: CSCA.exe
.method private hidebysig static void
Main(string[] args) cil managed
// Code size
43 (0x2b)
.maxstack 4
.locals init (class Compute V_0,
int32 V_1)
IL_0000: newobj instance void
IL_0005: stloc.0
IL_0006: ldc.i4.5
IL_0007: stloc.1
IL_0008: ldstr "{0} factorial: {1}"
IL_000d: ldloc.1
IL_000e: box
IL_0013: ldloc.0
IL_0014: ldloc.1
IL_0015: callvirt instance int32
IL_001a: box [mscorlib]System.Int32
IL_001f: call void
IL_0024: call string
IL_0029: pop
IL_002a: ret
} // end of method ComputeFactorial::Main
Understanding CIL: VBCA.vb
Module Module1
Class Compute
Function Factorial(ByVal F As Integer) As Integer
Dim I As Integer
Dim Result As Integer = 1
For I = 2 To F
Result = Result * I
Return Result
End Function
End Class
Understanding CIL: VBCA.vb
Sub Main()
Dim C As Compute = New Compute()
Dim V As Integer = 5
System.Console.WriteLine("{0} factorial: {1}", V, C.Factorial(V))
End Sub
End Module
Understanding CIL: VBCA.exe
. .method public instance int32
Factorial(int32 F) cil managed
// Code size
28 (0x1c)
.maxstack 2
.locals init (int32 V_0,
int32 V_1,
int32 V_2,
int32 V_3)
IL_0000: nop
IL_0001: ldc.i4.1
IL_0002: stloc.2
IL_0003: ldc.i4.2
IL_0004: ldarg.1
IL_0005: stloc.3
IL_0006: stloc.1
IL_0007: br.s
IL_0009: ldloc.2
IL_000a: ldloc.1
IL_000b: mul.ovf
IL_000c: stloc.2
IL_000d: nop
IL_000e: ldloc.1
IL_000f: ldc.i4.1
IL_0010: add.ovf
IL_0011: stloc.1
IL_0012: ldloc.1
IL_0013: ldloc.3
IL_0014: ble.s IL_0009
IL_0016: ldloc.2
IL_0017: stloc.0
IL_0018: br.s
IL_001a: ldloc.0
IL_001b: ret
} // end of method Compute::Factorial
Understanding CIL: VBCA.exe
.method public static void Main() cil
.custom instance void
r() = ( 01 00 00 00 )
// Code size
46 (0x2e)
.maxstack 4
.locals init (class
VBCA.Module1/Compute V_0,
int32 V_1)
IL_0000: nop
IL_0001: newobj instance void
IL_0006: stloc.0
IL_0007: ldc.i4.5
IL_0008: stloc.1
IL_0009: ldstr "{0} factorial: {1}"
IL_000e: ldloc.1
IL_000f: box
IL_0014: ldloc.0
IL_0015: ldloc.1
IL_0016: callvirt instance int32
IL_001b: box
IL_0020: call
IL_0025: nop
IL_0026: call
IL_002b: pop
IL_002c: nop
IL_002d: ret
} // end of method Module1::Main
Three Components of CLR
(1) A just-in-time (JIT) compiler which converts CIL code into
native binary machine code.
(2) A CTS: Common Type System which defines data types
supported by .NET.
(3) A CLS: Common Language Specification which defines the
language rules supported by .NET.
Chapter Summary
(1) .NET Framework is a platform for CLR applications (Windows,
Web, anywhere CLR is supported)
(2) Applications that target the .NET Framework are managed
(3) They’re (a) made of CIL and metadata, (b) JIT compiled at run
time, and (c) executed by the CLR.
(4) Languages such as C# .NET are syntactic tools for generating
(5) IDEs are all-in-one software development tools.
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