Books and Treatises ALWD Citation Manual Rule 22 Copyright 2003, 2006. Darby Dickerson. Permission given to use for educational purposes. Application Rule 22 applies to: Books Treatises Pamphlets Published reports Similar sources Components of Full Citation (in order) Author’s name, Title Pinpoint reference Editor (if applicable), Translator (if applicable), Edition (if applicable), Publisher Printing number (rarely included) Date. Rule 22.1: Author’s Name Include the author’s full name as it appears on the source (usually on the title page). John B. Smith G. Jane Jones For two authors: Separate names with an ampersand (&). John B. Smith & G. Jane Jones For three or more authors: Separate names with a comma, but insert an ampersand between the last two. John B. Smith, Michael B. Taylor & G. Jane Jones Include designations such as Jr. and III, but not degree information (such as J.D.) or titles (such as Hon. or Dr.). Rule 22.1(a)(3): Organizational Authors Abbreviate all words in the name that appear in Appendix 3; you may omit prepositions that are not needed for clarity. Example: National Distribution Organization Becomes: Natl. Distrib. Org. Example: Stetson University College of Law Becomes: Stetson U. College L. Rule 22.1(b): Title Always italicize the title (also see ALWD Rule 1). Retain the original spelling in the title (ALWD Rule 3). Conform all titles to ALWD Rule 3 on capitalization. Prepositions, articles, and conjunctions normally are not capitalized. See new chart in ALWD third edition listing commonly used prepositions. Nouns, verbs, pronouns, and adverbs are always capitalized. Titles – continued Typically include subtitles. Place only one space between a colon that separates a title from a subtitle. Omit colon if main title ends in a question mark or exclamation point. If the cover page or title of a book does not include punctuation between a title and subtitle, add a colon in the citation. Titles – continued Do not put a comma after the title unless the title ends with a numeral. Examples: William L. Burdick, Handbook of the Law of Real Property § 56 (West 1914). Linda Pollock, Forgotten Children: Parent-Child Relations from 1500 to 1900, at 30 (Cambridge U. Press 1983). Rule 22.1(c): Pinpoint References For multi-volume sets, include the volume number after the title. Criminal Law vol. 2 Note: This rule differs from the Bluebook rule. In the Bluebook, a volume number falls before the author’s name. Also include “smaller” pinpoint references, such as section numbers, paragraph numbers, or page numbers. (ALWD Rules 5-7 & 9) Separate pinpoints with a comma: Criminal Law vol. 2, § 21(a), 112 Rule 22.1(d): Editor’s Name Include listed editors, even if there is an author (you can have both in a citation). An editor’s name falls first in the date parenthetical and is followed by the abbreviation “ed.” for one editor and “eds.” for multiple editors. (John H. Smith ed., West 2006). (John H. Smith & Carlos J. Paz eds., Aspen Publishers 2006). Write editors’ names just as authors’ names – use the name as it appears on the source (ALWD 22.1(a)). Rule 22.1(f): Editions If there is an edition – and it is not the first edition – cite it in the parenthetical immediately after the editor. If there is no editor, edition information comes first. (John H. Smith ed., 3d ed., West 2005). (2d ed., Found. Press 2006). Include a printing within an edition only if it contains significant changes that affect the substance of the cited material (ALWD Rule 22.1(g)). Rule 22.1(i): Publisher’s Name Always include the publisher’s name. Abbreviate any word listed in Appendix 3. U. Chi. Press The publisher name falls after the editor and edition (if any). Note: Because the Bluebook does not require this information, cite and sourcers will need to take care to add this information for all books and similar sources. (Carlos J. Paz, 7th ed., Lexis 2005). Do not insert any punctuation after the publisher’s name. Rule 22.1(j): Date The date should be the final component in the parenthetical. Include the most current year listed on the copyright page. For multi-volume works, use the year of the volume you are citing. Use Rule 8 to determine whether and how to cite a main volume or supplement. Rule 22.1(l): Collected Works of One Author Components: Author’s Name, Title of Shorter Work, in (no italics) Title of Larger Work Initial Page of Shorter Work, Pinpoint Reference within Shorter Work (Editor (if any), Edition (if any other than the first), Publisher Date). Rule 22.1(m): Collected Works of Several Authors Components: Author of Shorter Work, Title of Shorter Work, in (no italics) Author of Larger Work (if any), Title of Larger Work Initial Page of Shorter Work, Pinpoint Reference within Shorter Work (Editor (if any), Edition (if any other than the first), Publisher Date). Rule 22: Short Citations Use id. when appropriate. Review Rule 11.3. For “regular” sources (Rule 22.2(c)): Author’s last name, supra n. __, at pinpoint. Rhode, supra n. 14, at 23. Note: The Bluebook does not place a after after n., so you will need to insert those spaces. Thus: n.14 would become n. 14. For works in a collection, consult Rule 22.3(b).