Composition of ad hoc Committees Implications

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Composition of ad hoc Committees
Implications
Nicolas Angelet
I. Policy Issues
A. International and Institutional Proceedings
• No party appointments (Article 52.3)
• In lieu of domestic control (Article 54)
→ Legitimacy towards State Parties
→ Avoid (perceived) domestic or ‘partisan’
influences
I. Policy Issues
B. Annulment proceedings
• Open-ended grounds
• Directed against award = potentially affecting
the arbitrators (cf. Article 52.3)
→ Legitimacy towards State Parties : avoid
domestic or ‘partisan’ positions
→ Fairness towards the arbitrators : maximize
coherence = legal certainty
II. Familiarity with the legal system
involved in the dispute?
A. Broches et al.:
“the requirement of familiarity with the
legal system(s) involved may present
another obstacle” to continuity in the
composition of the Committees
II. Familiarity with the legal system
involved in the dispute?
• Not in line with:
– Annulment as a substitute for domestic
control, i.e., unrelated to the legal
system involved in the dispute
– Annulment as distinguished from appeal
– Need to enhance coherence
III. Committee Members more
experienced than the Arbitrators?
Pierre Lalive:
“.. the choice of committee members has
not always been made … among more
experienced people, than that of the
arbitrators ..”
III. Committee Members more
experienced than the Arbitrators?
• Fairness towards the arbitrators and possibly
legitimacy towards State parties
• Unrelated to coherence
• Arbitrators’ authority often cannot be outclassed
• Experience in what? ICSID arbitration, ICSID
annulment proceedings, domestic proceedings
directed against arbitral awards
IV. Int’l and Domestic Lawyers
Different Legal Cultures
• Public international lawyers:
– Advantages:
• grounds for annulment as treaty law
• public international law issues raised under
a ground of annulment
• safeguarding proceedings against domestic
influences
– Limits: few public international lawyers
experienced in proceedings against arbitral
awards
IV. Int’l and Domestic Lawyers
Different Legal Cultures
• Domestic Lawyers:
– Advantages : larger number with relevant
experience
– Limits: risk of undue domestic influences –
compensation through representation of
different legal cultures
IV. International and Domestic Lawyers
2000 - Present
■
■
International
Domestic
Philippe Gruslin v. Malaysia
Date Registered: December 19, 2000
Composition:
President: Thomas BUERGENTHAL (U.S.)
Members: Kamal HOSSAIN (Bangladeshi)
Gabrielle KAUFMANN-KOHLER (Swiss)
WHL v. Egypt
Date Registered: January 24, 2001
Composition:
President: Konstantinos D. KERAMEUS (Greek)
Members: Andreas BUCHER (Swiss)
Francisco ORREGO VICUÑA (Chilean)
CAA S.A. and VU v. Argentina
Date Registered: March 23, 2001
Composition:
President: L. Yves FORTIER (Canadian)
Members: James R. CRAWFORD (Australian)
José Carlos FERNÁNDEZ ROZAS (Spanish)
CDC Group plc v. Seychelles
Date Registered: April 30, 2004
Composition:
President: Charles N. BROWER (U.S.)
Members: Michael HWANG (Singaporean)
David A.R. WILLIAMS (New Zealand)
Consortium R.F.C.C. v. Morocco
Date Registered: April 30, 2004
Composition:
President: Bernard HANOTIAU (Belgian)
Members: Arghyrios A. FATOUROS (Greek)
Franklin BERMAN (British)
Patrick Mitchell v. DRC
Date Registered: July 15, 200
Composition:
President: Antonias C. DIMOLITSA (Greek)
Members: Robert S.M. DOSSOU (Beninese)
Andrea GIARDINA (Italian)
Repsol
Date Registered: July 15, 2004
Composition:
President: Judd L. KESSLER (U.S.)
Members: Piero BERNARDINI (Italian)
Gonzalo BIGGS (Chilean)
MTD v. Chile
Date Registered: September 30, 2004
Composition:
President: Gilbert GUILLAUME (French)
Members: James R. CRAWFORD (Australian)
Sara ORDOÑEZ NORIEGA (Colombian)
HNS v. United Arab Emirates
Date Registered: November 12, 2004
Composition:
President: Florentino P. FELICIANO
(Philippine)
Members: Omar NABULSI (Jordanian)
Brigitte STERN (French)
JMML v. Egypt
Date Registered: December 22, 2004
Composition:
President: Antonias C. DIMOLITSA (Greek)
Members: Michael HWANG (Singaporean)
José Luis SHAW (Uruguayan)
Lucchetti v. Peru
Date Registered: July 01, 2005
Composition:
President: Hans DANELIUS (Swedish)
Members: Andrea GIARDINA (Italian)
Franklin BERMAN (British)
CMS Gas Transmission v. Argentina
Date Registered: September 27, 2005
Composition:
President: Gilbert GUILLAUME (French)
Members: Nabil ELARABY (Egyptian)
James R. CRAWFORD (Australian)
Azurix Corp. v. Argentina
Date Registered: December 11, 2006
Composition:
President: Gavan GRIFFITH (Australian)
Members: Bola AJIBOLA (Nigerian)
Michael HWANG (Singaporean)
Ahmonseto
Date Registered: November 02, 2007
Composition:
President: Piero BERNARDINI (Italian)
Members: Azzedine KETTANI (Moroccan)
Peter TOMKA (Slovak)
Siemens A.G. v. Argentina
Date Registered: July 16, 2007
Composition:
President: Gilbert GUILLAUME (French)
Members: Florentino P. FELICIANO (Philippine)
Mohamed SHAHABUDDEEN (Guyanese)
M.C.I. Power Group
Date Registered: December 06, 2007
Composition:
President: Dominique HASCHER (French)
Members: Hans DANELIUS (Swedish)
Peter TOMKA (Slovak)
Malaysian Historical Salvors v. Malaysia
Date Registered: September 17, 2007
Composition:
President: Stephen M. SCHWEBEL (U.S.)
Members: Mohamed SHAHABUDDEEN (Guyanese)
Peter TOMKA (Slovak)
Fraport AG
Date Registered: January 08, 2008
Composition:
President: Peter TOMKA (Slovak)
Members: Dominique HASCHER (French)
Campbell McLACHLAN (New Zealand)
V. Investors’ States / Host States
Legitimacy (subjective impartiality)
towards State Parties, in particular Host
States
V. Investors’ States - Host States
2000 - Present
■ Host States
■ Investors’ States
■ In between
Philippe Gruslin v. Malaysia
Date Registered: December 19, 2000
Composition:
President: Thomas BUERGENTHAL (U.S.)
Members: Kamal HOSSAIN (Bangladeshi)
Gabrielle KAUFMANN-KOHLER (Swiss)
WHL v. Egypt
Date Registered: January 24, 2001
Composition:
President: Konstantinos D. KERAMEUS (Greek)
Members: Andreas BUCHER (Swiss)
Francisco ORREGO VICUÑA (Chilean)
CAA S.A. and VU v. Argentina
Date Registered: March 23, 2001
Composition:
President: L. Yves FORTIER (Canadian)
Members: James R. CRAWFORD (Australian)
José Carlos FERNÁNDEZ ROZAS (Spanish)
CDC Group plc v. Seychelles
Date Registered: April 30, 2004
Composition:
President: Charles N. BROWER (U.S.)
Members: Michael HWANG (Singaporean)
David A.R. WILLIAMS (New Zealand)
Consortium R.F.C.C. v. Morocco
Date Registered: April 30, 2004
Composition:
President: Bernard HANOTIAU (Belgian)
Members: Arghyrios A. FATOUROS (Greek)
Franklin BERMAN (British)
Patrick Mitchell v. DRC
Date Registered: July 15, 200
Composition:
President: Antonias C. DIMOLITSA (Greek)
Members: Robert S.M. DOSSOU (Beninese)
Andrea GIARDINA (Italian)
Repsol
Date Registered: July 15, 2004
Composition:
President: Judd L. KESSLER (U.S.)
Members: Piero BERNARDINI (Italian)
Gonzalo BIGGS (Chilean)
MTD v. Chile
Date Registered: September 30, 2004
Composition:
President: Gilbert GUILLAUME (French)
Members: James R. CRAWFORD (Australian)
Sara ORDOÑEZ NORIEGA (Colombian)
HNS v. United Arab Emirates
Date Registered: November 12, 2004
Composition:
President: Florentino P. FELICIANO
(Philippine)
Members: Omar NABULSI (Jordanian)
Brigitte STERN (French)
JMML v. Egypt
Date Registered: December 22, 2004
Composition:
President: Antonias C. DIMOLITSA (Greek)
Members: Michael HWANG (Singaporean)
José Luis SHAW (Uruguayan)
Lucchetti v. Peru
Date Registered: July 01, 2005
Composition:
President: Hans DANELIUS (Swedish)
Members: Andrea GIARDINA (Italian)
Franklin BERMAN (British)
CMS Gas Transmission v. Argentina
Date Registered: September 27, 2005
Composition:
President: Gilbert GUILLAUME (French)
Members: Nabil ELARABY (Egyptian)
James R. CRAWFORD (Australian)
Azurix Corp. v. Argentina
Date Registered: December 11, 2006
Composition:
President: Gavan GRIFFITH (Australian)
Members: Bola AJIBOLA (Nigerian)
Michael HWANG (Singaporean)
Ahmonseto
Date Registered: November 02, 2007
Composition:
President: Piero BERNARDINI (Italian)
Members: Azzedine KETTANI (Moroccan)
Peter TOMKA (Slovak)
Siemens A.G. v. Argentina
Date Registered: July 16, 2007
Composition:
President: Gilbert GUILLAUME (French)
Members: Florentino P. FELICIANO (Philippine)
Mohamed SHAHABUDDEEN (Guyanese)
M.C.I. Power Group
Date Registered: December 06, 2007
Composition:
President: Dominique HASCHER (French)
Members: Hans DANELIUS (Swedish)
Peter TOMKA (Slovak)
Malaysian Historical Salvors v. Malaysia
Date Registered: September 17, 2007
Composition:
President: Stephen M. SCHWEBEL (U.S.)
Members: Mohamed SHAHABUDDEEN (Guyanese)
Peter TOMKA (Slovak)
Fraport AG
Date Registered: January 08, 2008
Composition:
President: Peter TOMKA (Slovak)
Members: Dominique HASCHER (French)
Campbell McLACHLAN (New Zealand)
VI. Continuity in Composition
• Enhances coherence → legal certainty
• Not to the detriment of other criteria
• Obstacle : Increased caseload,
exclusionary rules
• Informal copy of WTO Appellate Body ><
Secrecy of deliberations
VI. Continuity in Composition
1984 -1992
Klöckner I :
Date Registered: 16 February 1984
Composition:
President: Pierre LALIVE (Swiss)
Members: Ahmed Sadek EL-KOSHERI (Egyptian)
Ignaz SEIDL-HOHENVELDERN (Austrian)
Klöckner II:
Date Registered: 1 July 1988
Composition:
President: Sompong SUCHARITKUL (Thai)
Members: Andrea GIARDINA (Italian)
Kéba MBAYE (Senegalese)
Amco I:
Date Registered: 18 March 1985
Composition:
President: Ignaz SEIDL-HOHENVELDERN (Austrian)
Members: Florentino P. FELICIANO (Philippine)
Andrea GIARDINA (Italian)
Amco II:
Date Registered: 18 October 1990 and
20 February 1991
Composition:
President: Sompong SUCHARITKUL (Thai)
Members: Arghyrios A. FATOUROS (Greek)
Dietrich SCHINDLER (Swiss)
MINE:
Date Registered: 30 March 1988
Composition:
President: Sompong SUCHARITKUL (Thai)
Members: Aaron BROCHES (Netherlands)
Kéba MBAYE (Senegalese)
SPP v. Egypt:
Date Registered: 27 May 1992
Composition:
President: Claude REYMOND (Swiss)
Members: Arghyrios A. FATOUROS (Greek)
Kéba MBAYE (Senegalese)
VI. Continuity in Composition
2000 - Present
Philippe Gruslin v. Malaysia
Date Registered: December 19, 2000
Composition:
President: Thomas BUERGENTHAL (U.S.)
Members: Kamal HOSSAIN (Bangladeshi)
Gabrielle KAUFMANN-KOHLER (Swiss)
CDC Group plc v. Seychelles
Date Registered: April 30, 2004
Composition:
President: Charles N. BROWER (U.S.)
Members: Michael HWANG (Singaporean)
David A.R. WILLIAMS (New Zealand)
WHL v. Egypt
Date Registered: January 24, 2001
Composition:
President: Konstantinos D. KERAMEUS (Greek)
Members: Andreas BUCHER (Swiss)
Francisco ORREGO VICUÑA (Chilean)
Consortium R.F.C.C. v. Morocco
Date Registered: April 30, 2004
Composition:
President: Bernard HANOTIAU (Belgian)
Members: Arghyrios A. FATOUROS (Greek)
Franklin BERMAN (British)
CAA S.A. and VU v. Argentina
Date Registered: March 23, 2001
Composition:
President: L. Yves FORTIER (Canadian)
Members: James R. CRAWFORD (Australian)
José Carlos FERNÁNDEZ ROZAS (Spanish)
Patrick Mitchell v. DRC
Date Registered: July 15, 200
Composition:
President: Antonias C. DIMOLITSA (Greek)
Members: Robert S.M. DOSSOU (Beninese)
Andrea GIARDINA (Italian)
Repsol
Date Registered: July 15, 2004
Composition:
President: Judd L. KESSLER (U.S.)
Members: Piero BERNARDINI (Italian)
Gonzalo BIGGS (Chilean)
MTD v. Chile
Date Registered: September 30, 2004
Composition:
President: Gilbert GUILLAUME (French)
Members: James R. CRAWFORD (Australian)
Sara ORDOÑEZ NORIEGA (Colombian)
HNS v. United Arab Emirates
Date Registered: November 12, 2004
Composition:
President: Florentino P. FELICIANO
(Philippine)
Members: Omar NABULSI (Jordanian)
Brigitte STERN (French)
JMML v. Egypt
Date Registered: December 22, 2004
Composition:
President: Antonias C. DIMOLITSA (Greek)
Members: Michael HWANG (Singaporean)
José Luis SHAW (Uruguayan)
Lucchetti v. Peru
Date Registered: July 01, 2005
Composition:
President: Hans DANELIUS (Swedish)
Members: Andrea GIARDINA (Italian)
Franklin BERMAN (British)
CMS Gas Transmission v. Argentina
Date Registered: September 27, 2005
Composition:
President: Gilbert GUILLAUME (French)
Members: Nabil ELARABY (Egyptian)
James R. CRAWFORD (Australian)
Azurix Corp. v. Argentina
Date Registered: December 11, 2006
Composition:
President: Gavan GRIFFITH (Australian)
Members: Bola AJIBOLA (Nigerian)
Michael HWANG (Singaporean)
Ahmonseto
Date Registered: November 02, 2007
Composition:
President: Piero BERNARDINI (Italian)
Members: Azzedine KETTANI (Moroccan)
Peter TOMKA (Slovak)
Siemens A.G. v. Argentina
Date Registered: July 16, 2007
Composition:
President: Gilbert GUILLAUME (French)
Members: Florentino P. FELICIANO (Philippine)
Mohamed SHAHABUDDEEN (Guyanese)
M.C.I. Power Group
Date Registered: December 06, 2007
Composition:
President: Dominique HASCHER (French)
Members: Hans DANELIUS (Swedish)
Peter TOMKA (Slovak)
Malaysian Historical Salvors v. Malaysia
Date Registered: September 17, 2007
Composition:
President: Stephen M. SCHWEBEL (U.S.)
Members: Mohamed SHAHABUDDEEN (Guyanese)
Peter TOMKA (Slovak)
Fraport AG
Date Registered: January 08, 2008
Composition:
President: Peter TOMKA (Slovak)
Members: Dominique HASCHER (French)
Campbell McLACHLAN (New Zealand)
VI. Continuity in Composition
Observations (2000 - Present)
• Out of 38 persons, 11 have served more
than 1 time
• Generally, not in successive Committees
• 7 have served in 2 different Committees
• 3 have served in 3 different Committees
• 1 has served in the 4 last Committees →
Return to continuity?
Conclusion
•
Proposed criteria largely matched
•
Recent return to continuity but loss of
Investors’ State / Host State balance
•
Danger of sacrificing other criteria to
continuity ?
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