Ancient Greek for Everyone

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Ancient Greek for Everyone:
A New Digital Resource for
Beginning Greek
Unit 10:
Greek Pronouns concluded
2013 edition
Wilfred E. Major
[email protected]
Ancient Greek for Everyone
This class
AGE Unit 10: Pronouns concluded
• In Unit 5, you learned a handful of pronouns that declined
either like the definite article or like 3rd declension nouns.
• This unit completes the pronouns, covering those that mix the
two types and/or have individual irregularities.
• These words may well seem familiar, as they have been
glossed frequently in the readings up to this point.
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Review from Unit 5: Introduction to Pronouns
• Pronouns in Greek for the most part work very much as they
do in English, in that they replace nouns.
• Since Greek nouns are distinguished by gender, number and
case, it is logical that pronouns replace them by these same
qualities. That is, a pronoun substitutes for a noun by replacing
it in a form that is the same in gender, number and case.
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
• The 1st person pronoun (I/mine/me, we/ours/us):
• The unaccented singular forms of the genitive, dative and
accusative pronouns are enclitic and less emphatic, but
otherwise the two forms have the same meaning.
singular
ἐγώ
ἐμοῦ, μου
ἐμοί, μοι
ἐμέ, με
plural
ἡμεῖς
ἡμῶν
ἡμῖν
ἡμᾶς
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
• The 2nd person pronoun (you/yours):
• The unaccented singular forms of the genitive, dative and
accusative pronouns are enclitic and less emphatic, but
otherwise the two forms have the same meaning.
singular
σύ
σοῦ, σου
σοί, σοι
σέ, σε
plural
ὑμεῖς
ὑμῶν
ὑμῖν
ὑμᾶς
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
• The nominative forms are often redundant (since normally the
personal ending of the verb tells you the subject), so they
appear for emphasis or are used shorthand for a complete
statement:
– ἐθέλω μένειν. καὶ σύ;
• “I want to stay. And you?”
– ἐγὼ ἐθέλω πορεύεσθαι.
• “Well, I want to keep marching.”
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
• In Unit 5, you learned the pronoun αὐτός αὐτή αὐτό, which is
the Greek equivalent of several English pronouns: he/his/him,
she/hers/her, it/its and they/their/them.
• English combines the personal pronoun and the word “self” to
form reflexive pronouns: “You love yourself.” “We love
ourselves.”
• Greek forms reflexive pronouns in much the same way, using
the personal pronoun and adding the corresponding form of
αὐτός αὐτή αὐτό.
NOTE: Greek does NOT use this combination for emphasis, as English can,
e.g., “I will deliver it only to you yourself.”
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
• The reflexive 1st person pronoun (myself, ourselves):
• Note: Most often Greek combines the singular forms into one
word but does not combine them in the plural.
singular
(no nominative)
ἐμαυτοῦ
ἐμαυτῷ/ῇ
ἐμαυτόν/ήν
plural
(no nominative)
ἡμῶν αὐτῶν
ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς/αὐταῖς
ἡμᾶς αὐτούς/αὐτάς
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
• The reflexive 2nd person pronouns (yourself, yourselves):
• Note: Most often Greek combines the singular forms into one
word but does not combine them in the plural.
singular
(no nominative)
σεαυτοῦ
σεαυτῷ/ῇ
σεαυτόν/ήν
plural
(no nominative)
ὑμῶν αὐτῶν
ὑμῖν αὐτοῖς/αὐταῖς
ὑμᾶς αὐτούς/αὐτάς
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
• The reflexive 3rd person pronouns (himself, herself, itself,
themselves):
• Note: Greek uses the archaic 3rd person pronoun ἑ as the first
unit here.
singular
(no nominative)
ἑαυτοῦ
ἑαυτῷ/ῇ
ἑαυτόν/ήν
plural
(no nominative)
ἑαυτῶν
ἑαυτοῖς/ἑαυταῖς
ἑαυτούς/ἑαυτάς
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
• The reflexive 3rd person pronouns (himself, herself, itself,
themselves):
• Note: Greek can contract this pronoun, with the result that only
the rough breathing distinguishes it from the regular pronoun.
singular
(no nominative)
αὑτοῦ
αὑτῷ/ῇ
αὑτόν/ήν
plural
(no nominative)
αὑτῶν
αὑτοῖς/αὑταῖς
αὑτούς/αὑτάς
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
• Greek has a distinct pronoun that corresponds to the phrase
“each other.” It is called the reciprocal pronoun.
• Example: οἱ Ἕλληνες ἀλλήλοις μάχονται.
“The Greeks are fighting with each other.”
plural
(no nominative)
ἀλλήλων
ἀλλήλοις/αις
ἀλλήλους/ας
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
• In Unit 5, you learned the demonstrative pronouns ἐκεῖνος
ἐκείνη ἐκεῖνο (that/those) and ὅδε ἥδε τόδε (this/these).
• This Unit completes the set of demonstrative pronouns with the
pronoun οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο (this/these).
• The endings of this pronoun are familiar ones from the definite
article (i.e., those of the 1st and 2nd declension), but pay close
attention to the changes in the stem.
• This is an extremely common word, and in most forms, if you
do not recognize it, you are unlikely to be able to look it up,
since it appears in vocabulary lists only under the masculine
nominative singular form οὗτος.
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο this/these
•
•
•
•
Singular
Nom. οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο
Gen. τούτου ταύτης τούτου
Dat. τούτῳ ταύτῃ τούτῳ
Acc. τοῦτον ταύτην τοῦτο
Plural
οὗτοι αὗται ταῦτα
τούτων
τούτοις ταύταις τούτοις
τούτους ταύτας ταῦτα
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
– Notice that the English definitions for ὅδε ἥδε τόδε and
οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο are the same (this/these).
– While they can translate the same in English, generally
speaking,
• οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο points backwards
• ὅδε ἥδε τόδε points forwards
– For example:
τοῦτο λέγω.
I am telling you this (what I just said).
λέγω τόδε.
I am telling you this (what I am about to say).
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
– Like other demonstrative pronouns, οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο
can substitute for, or be added to, a noun (but it never
appears in the attributive position).
– For example:
οἱ ἄρχοντες διδόασι τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισίν.
The rulers give hope to their children.
οὗτοι διδόασι τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισὶ τούτοις.
These (men) give hope to these children.
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
– Adding the prefix τοι- makes οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο refer to the
quality of someone or something (this type, this kind or this sort).
Singular
•
•
•
•
Plural
Nom. τοιοῦτος τοιαύτη τοιοῦτο
τοιοῦτοι τοιαῦται τοιαῦτα
Gen. τοιούτου τοιαύτης τοιούτου
τοιούτων
Dat. τοιούτῳ τοιαύτῃ τοιούτῳ
τοιούτοις τοιαύταις τοιούτοις
Acc. τοιοῦτον τοιαύτην τοιοῦτο τοιούτους τοιαύτας τοιαῦτα
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
– Adding the prefix τοσ- makes οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο refer to the
quantity of someone or something (this amount).
Singular
•
•
•
•
Plural
Nom. τοσοῦτος τοσαύτη τοσοῦτο τοσοῦτοι τοσαῦται τοσαῦτα
Gen. τοσούτου τοσαύτης τοσούτου
τοσούτων
Dat. τοσούτῳ τοσαύτῃ τοσούτῳ τοσούτοις τοσαύταις τοσούτοις
Acc. τοσοῦτον τοσαύτην τοσοῦτο τοσούτους τοσαύτας τοσαῦτα
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
• The remaining pronouns share a pattern:
• They use 3rd declension endings in the masculine and neuter.
• In their feminine forms, however, they change their stem and
use 1st declension endings.
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
• These first two pronouns have the stem παντ-, so, just as
for nouns, when the endings involve adding a sigma to the
stem (nom. sing. = -ς, dat. plu. = -σι),
the final -ντ disappears from the end of the stem.
• Since -τ cannot end a Greek word, in the neuter
nominative/accusative singular, the -τ drops off.
• In the feminine, these pronouns always use the short -ᾰ in
the nominative and accusative singular.
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
πᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν all, every, whole
•
•
•
•
Singular
Nom. πᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν
Gen. παντός πάσης παντός
Dat. παντί πάσῃ παντί
Acc. πάντα πᾶσαν πᾶν
Plural
πάντες πᾶσαι πάντα
πάντων πασῶν πάντων
πᾶσι πάσαις πᾶσι
πάντας πάσας πάντα
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
As an adjective, πᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν translates differently
depending on its position and article:
•
•
•
attributive: “whole”
• ἡ πᾶσα χώρα the whole country
predicate: “all”
• πᾶσαι αἱ χῶραι all the countries
no article (singular): “every”
• πᾶσα χώρα every country
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
There is also a strengthened form, ἅπας ἅπασα ἅπαν, that means roughly “all
together,” which declines and functions the same as the core forms.
•
•
•
•
Singular
Nom. ἅπας ἅπασα ἅπαν
Gen. ἅπαντος ἁπάσης ἅπαντος
Dat. ἅπαντι ἁπάσῃ ἅπαντι
Acc. ἅπαντα ἅπασαν ἅπαν
Plural
ἅπαντες ἅπασαι ἅπαντα
ἁπάντων ἁπασῶν ἁπάντων
ἅπασι ἁπάσαις ἅπασι
ἅπαντας ἁπάσας ἅπαντα
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
• The word for “one” can function as a pronoun or an adjective.
• It has the stem ἐν-, so the masculine nominative singular drops
the -ς and lengthens the stem (compensatory lengthening).
• In the feminine, the word uses a totally different stem, μι-, with
a short -ᾰ in the nominative and accusative singular.
• For logical reasons, this word has only singular forms.
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
εἷς μία ἕν one
Singular
• Nom. εἷς
• Gen. ἑνός
• Dat. ἑνί
• Acc. ἕνα
μία
μιᾶς
μιᾷ
μίαν
ἕν
ἑνός
ἑνί
ἕν
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
• An important compound of εἷς μία ἕν adds the prefixes
οὐ and δε to mean “no one” or “nothing.”
• Plural forms are rare, but regular when they occur.
• Any time that Greek uses μή instead of οὐ for “not,” μή
also replaces οὐ in this pronoun. There is no difference in
meaning.
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
οὐδείς οὐδεμία οὐδέν no one, nothing
Singular
• Nom. οὐδείς
• Gen. οὐδενός
• Dat. οὐδενί
• Acc. οὐδένα
οὐδεμία
οὐδεμιᾶς
οὐδεμιᾷ
οὐδεμίαν
οὐδέν
οὐδενός
οὐδενί
οὐδέν
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns
μηδείς μηδεμία μηδέν no one, nothing
Singular
• Nom. μηδείς
• Gen. μηδενός
• Dat. μηδενί
• Acc. μηδένα
μηδεμία
μηδεμιᾶς
μηδεμιᾷ
μηδεμίαν
μηδέν
μηδενός
μηδενί
μηδέν
Ancient Greek for Everyone
Pronouns concluded
• All the pronouns from Unit 5 and Unit 10 are summarized
together on a single sheet titled “Greek Nouns Adjectives
Pronouns master list of endings.”
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