Ancient River Valley Civilizations

Social Studies
Gateway Review
Content Related material
15 Possible Topics for the Social
Studies Gateway Exam
Ancient Civilization
Byzantine Empire
The Mongols
The Middle Ages
The Renaissance
The Age of Exploration & Discovery
The Reformation
English History
Absolute Monarchs
Enlightenment & Revolution
Industrial Revolution
Age of Imperialism
World War I
A few things to remember…
1. Along with this information, be sure to
include something from your World
History class that you learned.
2. Focus your studying on only the areas
that you are unsure of.
3. Remember this is just a review, use the
documents in the exam to help you too.
Good luck!
The Ancient River
Valley Civilization
Ancient River Valley
1. Mesopotamia: Tigris and Euphrates
2. Egypt: Nile River
3. India: Indus and Ganges Rivers
4. China: Yellow and Yangtze Rivers
The Growth of Civilization
• Agricultural Revolution: farming created
settled communities
• The five traits of a civilization
– Cities
– Writing
– Specialized workers
– Complex institutions
– Technology
Mesopotamia /
Fertile Crescent
Located between Tigris and
Euphrates Rivers
Some Contributions of
Ancient Civilizations
• Sumer: first civilization, plow, sailboat,
wheel, cuneiform, ziggurats, polytheism
• Babylon: Code of Hammurabi
• Phoenicians: the alphabet and improved
• Jews: ethical monotheism, Judaism
• Persians: well-built empire based on
Egypt = “Gift of the Nile”
History of pharaohs
• Around 3200 B.C., King Narmer of Upper
Egypt conquered Lower Egypt and united
the two kingdoms
• The Egyptian kinds used the title of
“pharaoh” and were considered god/kings
Some contributions of
Egyptian civilization
Egyptian religion (polytheistic)
Indus Valley
• Located between Indus and
Ganges Rivers
Some of the many contributions of
Indus Valley civilizations include. . .
Caste system
Complex Institutions
Religion in the Indus Valley
• Hinduism is a mixture of Aryan and
ancient Indian culture
• The sacred writings are the Vedas that
explain the basic philosophy of
• Beliefs include reincarnation, moksha,
and castes.
A second religion of the Indus
Valley is Buddhism
• Founder = Siddhartha Gautama
• Beliefs = Four Noble Truths,
Eightfold Path,
• No complex rituals, as in Hinduism, and it
is taught in the everyday language.
China’s River Valley
• Located between the Yellow (Huang-He)
and Yangtze (Chang Jiang) Rivers
Chinese philosophies
• Confucianism: based on family, respect
and education
• Daoism: based on living simply and
harmony with nature
• Legalism: based on a strict and powerful
Some of China’s many
contributions include. . .
• Printing
• The Great Wall of China
• Dynastic cycle
The Birthplace of Democracy
Geography affected Greece
• ¾ of land is covered by mountains
• Many peninsulas, islands, coastlines and
• No navigable rivers
• Made transportation and travel difficult
– People could not form one united government
so they created many city-states.
Three early civilizations
• Minoans
• Mycenaeans
• Dorians
Lived on the island of Crete
Equality for women
Advanced society
• Used bronzed weapons and tools
• Warriors
• Trojan War
• Less advanced
• Illiterate (Dark Ages)
• Oral tradition
– Homer, The Odyssey
• Epic poems
Greek Religion
• Polytheistic
• Gods took human
form and emotions;
were immortal
• Myths taught to
mysteries of
Greek city-states
• City-state: a city and its surrounding areas
• Citizens (free adult males) served the polis
• Citizen armies
• Public meetings held in the agora (market
place) and acropolis (fortified hilltop)
Contrasting two major city states:
Athens and Sparta
• Government
– Created democracy
• Values
– Life based on
education and culture
– Women had few rights
• Government
– Dual monarchy /
military oligarchy
• Values
– Life based around
– Women enjoyed more
Athenian democracy
• Direct democracy: laws voted on and
proposed directly by assembly of all
• Citizens: male, 18 years of age, born of
citizen parents
• Executive branch: composed of council of
500 men
The Persian Wars
• 490-479 B.C.
• Persia versus Greece
• Persia invaded Athens and the Athenians
• Athens emerged as the most powerful citystate
• Athens became the leader of the Delian
Golden Age of Greece
• Classical culture
• Pericles, a hero from
the Persian Wars,
became leader of
– Strengthened
– Increased wealth and
power of Athens
– Beautified Athens
Contributions of the Golden Age
• Architecture: The
• Sculpture: figures
show grade,
strength and
serenity / bodies in
motion / ideal
beauty (classical art)
• Greeks invent
drama (tragedy and
Peloponnesian Wars
431-404, B.C.
Sparta versus Athens
Sparta won
Ends the Golden Age
Greek philosophers
• Socrates
– First great Western philosopher
– Questioned authority
– Socratic Method
• Plato
– Teacher at The Academy
– Taught through dialogues
• Aristotle
– Teacher at the Lyceum
– Taught by use of logic
Alexander the Great
From Macedonia
Son of King Philip II
Became king at age 20
Student of Aristotle
Invaded Greece, Mesopotamia and India
Wanted to create single empire
Admired other cultures
• Mixture of Greek and Eastern cultures
• Koine = common language spoken in Hellenistic
cities, dialect of Greek
• Alexandria (in Egypt) became center of
Hellenistic culture
– Port city, good for trade
– Statues of Greek gods, a beautiful palace, and the
famous lighthouse
– Center for learning and education
– Many contributions in science, math, architecture, art
and philosophy
The Republic
The Empire
The Origins of Rome
3 founding groups
Latin shepherds
Greek colonies
Etruscan settlements
• Excellent location
• Built on the Tiber
• Mountainous
• Mid-point of Italian
• Center of
Mediterranean Sea
Roman Religion
• Polytheistic
• Blending of Greek
and Roman religions
Social Organization
• Gravitas
• Role of fathers
was important
• Role of women
was less
• Patricians - upper
class, wealthy
• Plebeians - lower
class, farmers,
artisans and
Rome had a balanced government
*form of democracy called a republic
*written law code: the Twelve Tables
• Magistrateconsuls
• AristocracySenate
• DemocracyElection of
• Dictatorshipcrisis times
The plebeians made progress
toward equality
• Tribunes of the “Plebs’
– 10 elected officials to represent the plebeians
in the Senate
– Were granted veto power
• Twelve tables - codified the laws
• Citizens’ Assemblies
– More democratic form of government
– All adult, Roman males could attend and vote
Punic Wars
• Carthage vs. Rome
• Control of trade in
• Three separate wars
• Rome ultimately
won but was
• Lead to rise of
Julius Caesar
• Military/government leader, gained popularity
and power
• Tried to save the Republic
• Made many reforms
– Grants citizenship, expands senate, creates new
jobs, starts colonies, increased pay for soldiers,
Became dictator for life, 44 B.C.E.
People fear his growing power
Assassinated by group of senators
Republic collapses at his death
The Roman Empire
• 1st emperor, Octavian (Caesar’s nephew)
- Ruled as Emperor Augustus for 41 years
- Created a strong government
• Civil service
- Many problems after his death
• Succession crisis
• religion
Contributions of the Roman Empire
• Pax Romana: 207 years of peaceful rule
• Engineering
– Aqueducts
– Complex sewer system
– Thermal baths
– Series of highways
– Coliseum
The Rise of Christianity
• Based on the teachings of Jesus
• Spread rapidly through empire
• Christians persecuted
Fall of the Roman Empire
• Economic Problems - three sources of prosperity
ended (trade, plunder, farms)
• Military Problems - Goths over ran legions,
soldiers fought for money not patriotism
• Political Decay - officials were no longer loyal to
• Social Decay - loss of loyalty for government
• Weakened empire falls after Barbarian attacks
(the Huns)
The Byzantine Empire
(The Eastern Roman Empire)
Byzantine Empire
• Barbarian tribes overran Italy
• Emperor Constantine moved Rome to
• Excellent location for trade
• Located between Asia and Europe
Politics in Constantinople
• Empire Justinian tried to
rebuild Roman glory
• Code of Laws
• Hagia Sophia
The Church Splits
• Differences developed between Eastern
and Western Church
• Christian Church splits
• West = Rome = Pope = icons = Roman
Catholic Church
• East = Constantinople = Patriarch = no
icons = Eastern Orthodox Church
The Islamic Faith
Created by the prophet Mohammed
Monotheistic = Allah
Holy city = Mecca
Religious text = Koran (Qur’ an)
Based on the Five Pillars of Islam
The Spread of Islam
• Spread through jihad, trade and empire
• Divided into two sects
– Shi’ites (minority)
– Sunni (majority)
Contributions of the Arabic
• Translated Greek books into Arabic
• First chemical laboratories
• Treatment of disease (diagnosed smallpox
and wrote an encyclopedia of medicine)
• Created algebra
• Arabic numerals
• Wrote the Arabian Nights
The Mongols
Nomadic, Fierce Warriors, and
Expert Horsemen
The Mongols
• From the steppe in Asia
(dry, grassy region)
• Lived in kinship groups
called clans
• Around 1200, leader
named Temujin (Genghis
Khan) united Mongols
under his leadership.
• Campaign of terror across
Central Asia, destroying
cities and slaughtering
Genghis Khan
Title means “universal ruler”
Brilliant organizer and warrior
Used cruelty and fear as weapons
Died in 1227, but his successors
continued to expand empire
The Mongol Empire
4 regions or khanates
– Mongolia and China
– Central Asia
– Persia
– Russia
Mongol rulers
• Tolerant rulers in times of peace
• Imposed stability, law and order across
Eurasia (Pax Mongolica)
• Provided safety for trade between Europe
and Asia
• Mongol rulers relied on foreigners to help
rule the government
Kublai Khan
Grandson of Genghis Khan, took power in 1260
Founded the Yuan Dynasty
United China for first time in 300 years
Opened China to foreign contacts and trade
Tolerated Chinese culture and government
Lived luxurious life of Chinese emperor
Failed to conquer Japan
Restored the Grand Canal, built paved highway
Encouraged trade
The End of Mongol rule
• Succession crisis after
death of Kublai Khan
• Many rebellions in
• Chinese overthrew
Mongols in 1368
• Other Khanates
declined, except for
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
Invasion of Barbarian tribes caused end of
Roman Empire
• Changed way of life in Europe
– Disruption of trade
– Downfall of cities
– Decline in learning
The Rise of Feudalism
• Feudalism = political
– Based on loyalty and
the exchange of land
for services
• Hierarchy of power
– King>lord>vassal>
• Fief = land
Manor System
Manor = small estate
Lord = owner
Serf = worker; tied to the land
Peasants = freemen; could leave the land
All inhabitants had duties to perform
The Church in the Middle Ages
• Center for education and organization
• Christendom = idea of one kingdom
under God
• Centered around the holy city of
The Crusades
• The “Holy Land” was invaded by Muslims
• The Church called for military aide
• Crusades: “journeys to recapture the “Holy
• Overall, not successful
Results of the Crusades
• The Pope and the feudal nobility both
suffered a loss of power.
• Religious tolerance decreased.
• Hatred between Muslims and Christians
remained high.
• An increase in trade sparked European
The plague hit Europe in 1496
• Expanded trade and
increase in population
caused diseases
• Bubonic plague:
carried to Europe by
fleas via trading ships
• 2/3 of European
population died
The Renaissance
Rebirth of classical culture and
The Renaissance Begins
• Where?
– In Florence, Italy (later spread north)
• When?
– Around 1300
• Why?
– Urban centers, power of the merchants and
influence of the de Medici family
• What?
– New styles in art, writing and thought
Influence of the Crusades
• Brought back learning and new ideas from
the Middle East
• New values:
– Artists and writers were eager to be known as
– Love of classical learning flourished
– Enjoyment of worldly pleasures
– Idea of the ideal man changed
– Idea of the ideal women changed
Renaissance Art
• Artists began painting and sculpting lifelike
• Often art would glorify the human body
• Discovered techniques to use perspective
Renaissance Artists
– David, the Sistine Chapel
Da Vinci
– Mona Lisa, the Last Supper,
– scientific experiments and inventions
– the Flemish School of Art
Writers and the printing press helped
spread the Renaissance spirit
to the rest of Europe.
The Age of Exploration
and Discovery
God, Gold and Glory!
The Age of Exploration and
•Spread Christianity
•Find riches
–Renaissance thirst for knowledge
Portuguese Exploration
• Portuguese explorers
– Prince Henry the
– Dias
– da Gama
– Cabral
• Portuguese colonies
– Brazil
– Parts of Africa
Spanish Exploration
• Spanish Explorers
Christopher Columbus
Amerigo Vespucci
De Soto
• Spanish colonies
– South America (except
for Brazil)
– Mexico
– Southwestern United
– Florida
Land Disputes between
Portugal and Spain
• 1493: Pope
Alexander IV Line of
• 1494: Treaty of
English Exploration
• English explorers
– Sir Walter Raleigh
– John Cabot
– Francis Drake
• English colonies
– Jamestown
– New England
French Exploration
• French explorers
Marquette and Joliet
• French colonies
– Louisiana
– Canada
– Parts of Northern
Dutch Exploration
• Dutch explorers
– Henry Hudson
• Dutch colonies
– New York
The Reformation
Changes in the Catholic church
The Reformation
• Conflicts in the Catholic Church
• Abuses in the Church
– Worldliness of Renaissance popes
– Poorly educated lower clergy—some illiterate
– Lower clergy having semi-official wives
– Selling of indulgences (pardons for sin)
Conflict in the Catholic Church
Reasons for Reform:
* The printing press allows the printing of
the Bible and other literature that
allowed people to read and interpret for
* The people began to see abuses and
wanted higher standards for clergy.
Reform was demanded.
Martin Luther
• Luther is angered over the sale of
• In anger he writes the 95 Theses:
* Salvation by faith alone
* The Bible is the only authority for
Christian life not the church
* The priesthood of all believers;
meaning that all people can
communicate with God as the
priests do
More on Luther…
• Someone took Luther’s ideas and printed them with the
printing press. The document was spread across
• The church was not happy with Luther’s ideas and he was
asked to recant his beliefs.
• Luther refused and was excommunicated.
• Charles V tried Luther at the Diet of Worms. The result
was the Edict of Worms which declared him a heretic and
an outlaw.
• In spite of this, Luther’s ideas took hold and began to
spread across Germany.
John Calvin-- Switzerland
– Everyone is sinful, but God can save you
– Predestination - God knows when you
are born whether you will be saved or not- those who are saved are called “The
– Wanted a theocracy - government ruled
by the Church
– Followers are known as Calvinists
John Knox-- Scotland
Knox put Calvin’s ideas into
practice. His followers
overthrew their Catholic Queen
(Mary Stuart) and set up a
working theocracy.
– Followers were known as
Henry VIII
• Henry broke from the church
when the Pope refused to give
him a divorce from his wife,
Catherine of Aragon. Catherine
could not produce a male heir
and Henry wanted to remarry.
• Henry created the Church of
England and named himself head
of the new church.
(Catholic Reformation)
• Catholics were concerned about Protestants
leaving the church so they began their own
reforms. These reforms are called the “counter”
reforms because they come in response to the
• Pope Paul III called a meeting in Trent.
• The Council of Trent decided. . .
– 1. To end the sale of illegal indulgences
– 2. To clarify church rules, practices, and beliefs
– 3. To set up more education for priests and clergy
St. Ignatius of Loyola
• Founded the Society
of Jesus
– Members were known
as Jesuits.
– The society was run
like an army.
– Their mission was to
win Protestants back
to the Catholic Church.
English History
The Royalties
The Stuarts
The Tudors
Henry VIII (P)
Edward VI (P)
Mary I “Bloody Mary” (C)
Elizabeth I (P)
• Mary “Queen of Scots”
• James I (C)
• Charles I (C)
• <Oliver Cromwell> (P)
• <Richard Cromwell> (P)
• Charles II (C/P)
• James II (C)
• William III and Mary II (P)
The Tudors
• Henry VIII dies, 1547
• Edward VI – young, sickly, Protestant,
rules with help of advisors
• Mary I – succeeds at Edward’s death,
cruel, “Bloody Mary”, Catholic
Elizabeth I: The “Virgin Queen”
• Faces many problems
– Religious conflicts (Protestant vs.
– A rival queen (Mary Stuart)
– Competition from Spain (Philip II)
– Money problems
– Issues with Parliament
• Known as the most powerful English
Solutions to Religious Problems
• Declared the Act of Uniformity
– This act created one legal church in England.
• People must attend or pay a fine.
• Services were held in English.
• Some rituals of the Catholic Church were
kept to make the Catholics happy.
Stopping the Rival Queen
• Elizabeth’s cousin (Mary Stuart)
challenged the throne
• Because Elizabeth had no heirs,
Mary was her successor
• Mary and Philip II of Spain planned
to overthrow her
• The plot failed and Elizabeth
ordered Mary’s execution
The Spanish Threat
• Philip attacked England with the Spanish
– Angered at rejected marriage proposal and
raiding of “Sea Dogs”
• England was victorious
• Spain’s power declined
Financial and Religious problems
with Parliament
• Financial:
– Elizabeth started to build an empire in the Americas
with money from investors
– These investors were part of joint-stock companies
• Religious:
– Towards the end of her reign, Puritan members of
Parliament began asking for religious changes
– Puritans were a strong group in Parliament but
Elizabeth refused to change
James I of England
• James VI (of Scotland) (son of
Mary Stuart) inherits English
throne from Elizabeth and
becomes James I of England
• Clashes with Parliament over
money and the Church
• Believes strongly in idea of
divine right
Charles I of England
Son of James I
Was strong believer in divine right
Spent excess of money on wars
Dissolved Parliament for 11 years
Problems lead to English civil war
Civil War!
• Charles I began to persecute the Puritans.
Many left for the Americas.
• Charles I also tried to make the Scots
worship in the Church of England.
• The Scots began to form an army. War
was coming.
• Charles I has to recall Parliament to get
money for war.
More on Charles I…
• Charles I tried to have key leaders arrested.
• War began!
• The Cavaliers (loyal to the King) vs. the
Roundheads (Puritans).
• Oliver Crowell led the Roundheads.
• The Roundheads won.
• Charles I was executed!
Oliver Cromwell: “Lord Protector”
• Cromwell declared himself “Lord
• He sent Parliament home and
created a republic.
• The republic was really a
• People lost many freedoms.
• When Cromwell died his son took
over. This gave England a chance to
bring back the monarchy.
The Restoration
<Charles II
James II>
• Tired of Puritan rule, England
“restores” the monarchy by
inviting Charles (son of
Charles I) to be King Charles
• Charles II (the “Merry
Monarch”) did not rule by
divine right
• Allowed “habeas corpus”
• Charles II died and left no
• Catholic brother, James
succeeded as King James II
• Ruled under belief of divine
• Forced to abdicate
William and Mary:
The Glorious Revolution
• The British people were desperate for change.
• They asked the Protestant daughter of James II’s first wife
and her husband to come take over the throne.
• William and Mary were able to take over without a war.
• They allowed many positive changes to protect the rights of
the people.
• These changes included:
– The end of the “divine right of kings.”
– The people had more power and representation
– Most importantly…..They signed the Bill of Rights!
Milestones of Democracy:
England 1689
• Limited power of the monarchy.
• The monarchy could not act above the law
or collect taxes without permission.
• Only male property owners could vote.
• Individual rights were protected by the law.
• Some limitations on freedom still existed
for non-Protestants.
Absolute Monarchs
a king of queen who has
unlimited power and seeks to
control all aspects of history
Absolute Monarchs
Spain: Philip II (Hapsburg)
France: Louis XIV (Bourbon)
Russia: Peter the Great (Romanov)
Prussia: Frederick the Great
Philip II
• Defender of Catholicism
• Spanish wealth used to
annihilate Protestants and
• Launched Spanish armada
against England, defeated by
Elizabeth I, weakened Spanish
Louis XIV, the “Sun King”
French Catholic king
Most powerful ruler in French history
Weakened power of the nobles
Helped France attain economic, political
and cultural brilliance
• Patron of the arts
• Attempted to expand France’s boundaries
• His many wars brought ruin to France
Peter the Great
• Russian genius
• Wanted to Westernize
• Established St. Petersburg
• Many successes in
governmental and cultural
• Russia becomes a major
European power
Frederick the Great
• Loved music, philosophy and
• An aggressor in foreign affairs
• Pushed to extend Prussian
• Encouraged religious tolerance
• Supported legal reform
• Earned the title “the Great” by
achieving his goals for Russia
Enlightenment and
Europe and the Americas
A Time of Change
The Enlightenment
• Europe
• 1720-1790
• Changes in thinking led to reforms in
Enlightenment Thinkers
• Thomas Hobbes
– Ideas of a social contract
– Leviathan
– Man is evil, must have a strong government
• John Locke
– Ideas regarding natural rights
– Two Treatises on Government
– Man has rights to life, liberty, property
The Philosophers advocate reason
• Voltaire
– Used satire
– Wrote many essays
– Defended tolerance, reason, freedom of speech and
• Montesquieu
– Political liberty
– Admired Britain’s balanced government
– Separation of powers
• Rousseau
– Committed to individual freedom
– Social contract
– Government by consent of the governed
Impact of the Enlightenment
Secular outlook on life
Importance of the individual
Ideas of freedom and rights
Enlightened despots
The Road to Revolution
• People were dissatisfied with governments.
• Citizens often did not have a voice in
• People decided to fight for their freedom.
• Wars for freedom were called revolutions.
Most of the revolutions occurred between
1775 and 1826.
• 1775 - 1781 = American Revolution
• 1789 - 1799 = French Revolution
(1799 – 1815) = Napoleon’s rule
• 1810 - 1826 = Latin American Revolution
The American Revolution
• Great Britain’s King George
III ruled the American
• The 13 colonies paid taxes to
England but had no
representation in Parliament
• Colonists were angry
• Wrote the Declaration of
• Broke ties with Great Britain
• George Washington led the
American troops to victory!
The French Revolution
• French people were
angry over high taxes,
unfair class systems (3
estates), and poor
standard of living
• Influenced by ideas of
Enlightenment and
American independence,
the French people revolt!
• The Third Estate creates a series of new,
unsuccessful governments
• Many innocent people died in the bloody
• Both King Louis XVI and Queen Marie
Antoinette were guillotined during the reign of
• “Liberty, Equality and Fraternity!” was the slogan
of the revolution
Napoleon’s new government
• Napoleon Bonaparte, a national hero,
leads the new government and appoints
himself Emperor of France.
• Napoleon wants to conquer the world.
• Becomes very powerful and makes his
brother king of Spain.
• After a series of wars with Europe,
Napoleon is defeated and exiled.
Congress of Vienna:
• European countries needed to restore stability
and restructure pre-Napoleonic boundaries
• Austria’s conservative foreign minister
Metternich, led a meeting in Vienna
• His goals were to:
Restore legitimacy of the monarchs
Restore the balance of power
Weaken France
Compensate severely damaged countries
More on the Congress of Vienna…
• The Congress of Vienna was
successful; however, democratic ideas
could not be erased
• New political philosophies were born
– Conservatism: keep the old ways
– Radicalism: violent changes
– Liberalism: small reforms, no violence
– Nationalism: love of one’s country
Latin American Revolutions
• Spain had colonies in Latin America.
• Latin America includes the countries
south of the United States.
• The people of Latin America wanted their
freedom from Spain.
• 1813 - Napoleon lost power in Europe.
• The people of Latin America chose this
time to revolt.
Latin American colonies win
• Haiti was the first colony to win
independence in 1804
• Father Miguel Hidalgo helped Mexico
win its freedom from Spain
• Simon Bolivar fought for the freedom of
Venezuela and many other colonies
• Jose de San Martin fought for
Argentina’s freedom
• Peru was the last colony to gain
independence in 1826
The Industrial
The Industrial Revolution:
Factors aiding industrial growth
• Changes in farming
• Rise in population
• Geographic advances
• New inventions
• Effective banking system
• Politically stable
Great Britain, birthplace of industry
• Great Britain, having all the necessary
factors was the birthplace of the Industrial
• Textiles, the major industry, had been
produced in the homes (cottage industry)
One invention leads to another. . .
• Six Major Inventions Change the Textile
– John Kay - Flying Shuttle
– James Hargreaves - Spinning Jenny
– Richard Arkwright - Water Frame
– Samuel Crompton - Spinning Mule
– Edmund Cartwright - Power Loom
– Eli Whitney - Cotton Gin
Transportation Improves
• To help transport goods faster from place
to place engineers built:
• Better roads (John Mc Adams)
• Canals (human-made waterway)
• Railroads (The Rocket)
Industrial Revolution Changed Lives
The Industrial Revolution spread to other
The growth of factories brought people to the
The working conditions in factories began to
The middle class social structure grew.
Social tensions began to build between the
different classes.
New political systems evolve
• Socialism:
– Robert Owens
– Wealth of country to
be shared equally
– Share ownership of
certain properties
such as factories and
the railroad
• Communism
– Karl Marx
– Communist Manifesto
– Wealth and power to
be shared by all
– In reality, state
controls everything
The Age of
The Age of Imperialism
• Imperialism: the act of
extending one’s rule over
• European countries
needed raw materials to
supply their industries.
• Prestige was associated
with owning many or
large territories.
• Missionaries wanted to
spread Christianity.
• New markets were
needed for European
Britain’s Lead is Challenged
• Up until the late 1800’s Britain was the most
powerful nation in the world.
• Germany and the United States begin to
challenge Britain for economic power.
• Countries begin to tax imported British goods to
protect their own industries.
• Britain has few sources of raw materials and
desperately needs them for production.
• Competition among the
European nations for territories
was strong.
• Just as Britain saw the
advantages of colonies, so did
other European countries.
• Almost every European country
competed for colonies as did
Japan and the US.
European Superiority
• Europeans believed that the new technology
developed during the Industrial Revolution
proved their superiority.
• They would be able to successfully manage
colonies from far away by railroads, telegraph
cables, and steamers.
• Europeans also believed that their religion and
morals were the right way to live and felt a
strong sense of duty to show others “the right
Imperialism in Africa
• Competition for colonies in Africa was so fierce
that European countries feared war.
• A meeting in Berlin in 1884 was called to settle
land disputes. (No African rulers were invited)
• European countries agreed that any European
country could claim land by sending in troops to
occupy that area.
• Border lines were drawn without regard to the
native cultures.
European Countries in Africa
The following countries all had colonies in Africa
during the 1900’s.
• Britain
• France
• Germany
• Italy
• Portugal
• Belgium
• Spain
Africa became a continent of colonies
By the 1900s only two countries remained free
from colonial rule; the rest of Africa had been
carved into colonial territories.
1. Liberia – A country set up by former U.S. slaves
with American support.
2. Ethiopia – Benefited from its mountainous
geography, strategic position between three
major colonial powers and its own strong leader.
Three types of imperialistic rule
• Colony = total rule
• Protectorate = military presence / self rule
• Sphere of influence = pay taxes to
preserve self-rule
The importance of South Africa
• Location of the Cape of Good Hope
• Discovery of diamonds
The reality of Imperialism in Africa
• African were expected to work and pay taxes
• Many were forced to work against their will
• Africans were treated as second class citizens
and faced discrimination
• Europeans found a wealth of mineral resources
in Africa
• Europeans also used the land for cash crops
• They also introduced Christianity to Africans
Imperialism in South Asia
Britain found in India what it did not
in Africa.
– A supplier of raw material for
European factories
– A large market for British goods
– A large workforce for factories
built in India
The British East India Company set
up trading posts in India in the
India became a sphere of influence
under the British East India
Even though the company was
under the control of the British
Crown, the company was free to
govern India as it saw fit. It even
had its own army.
The British Crown did not intervene
until it had to suppress an uprising
called the Sepoy Rebellion.
The Sepoy Rebellion
• Sepoy – Indian soldiers working for the
British East India Company
• Angered by deception of the British East
India Company, led a rebellion.
• The British East India Company could not
control the revolt, so the British troops set
up a colony
Britain controls India
• Britain built transportation and
communication systems
• Projects built and funded by Indians and
their taxes
• Indians were treated as second class
citizens and faced discrimination
Imperialism in China
• China was a self-sufficient
country which meant it did not
need to trade with other
countries. It had little interest in
European goods.
• English merchants smuggled
opium into China and created
a demand.
• The Opium War was fought to
try to end the British control of
the substance but China was
• The Treaty of Nanking was
signed which allowed Britain to
establish spheres on influence
in China.
Open Door Policy
• China was carved into spheres of
• Americans saw what was happening in China
and feared they would lose their trading
opportunities in China.
• The Open-Door Policy was established to
enforce an “open-door” or the freedom to trade
and sell to China for all merchants of all nations.
• This prevented China from being colonized but
its fate lay in hands of other nations.
Chinese Nationalism
• Many Chinese citizens also felt like second class
citizens in their own country.
• Most of their major cities were
controlled by outsiders.
• Nationalist groups such as
the Boxers begin to form
and protest foreign
Japan’s isolation
• Like China, Japan had practiced isolation for a
long time
• Fearing loss of independence, Japan conceded
to trade with the U.S. and agreed to demands of
Mathew Perry
• Japan began to industrialize and modernize its
• Japanese studied the ways of Westerners and
adopted the best ones
• Japan was smart with its finances and stayed
out of debt
Imperialism in the western
• A demand for Latin American goods began to
grow. Latin American countries borrowed money
from American and European banks to fund
• Unable to repay their debts, many of the lending
nations began to take over the industries in Latin
America and influence the countries politically.
– Roosevelt Corollary
The Pacific Islands
• The Pacific Islands were rich in
resources and had military advantages.
• The U.S. was interested in Hawaii and
made it a territory in 1898.
• The U.S.
acquired the
and Guam as a result
of the
Spanish- American War.
World War I
World War I
Underlying causes:
•Alliance system
• The belief that the use of force is an
acceptable way to decide political
• Built large armies and stockpiled weapons
• Developed war plans
• War fought on two fronts
Alliance system
• Fear leads nations to seek
out friends
• Triple Alliance– Germany,
Austria-Hungary, Italy
• Triple Entente– Great
Britain, France, Russia
• Promise to assist if ally is
under attack
• Competition creates tension
between European nations
• Competing for: colonies, new
markets, sources of raw
• Imperialized areas: Africa, India,
parts of the Middle East, China
• Love of one’s country
• Influenced the Great Powers to make their
nation “the best”
• Power includes money, land and control of trade
• Minor countries sought independence
Archduke Franz Ferdinand was murdered
Austria declares war on Serbia
Both alliances mobilize for fighting
Battle zones include: Europe, Asia and Africa
New weapons include: machine guns, tank,
poison gas, flame throwers
The War Ends
• Both sides suffer from loss of life and
widespread destruction
• U.S. enters war in 1918 on the side of the
• November 9th, 1918: Germany surrenders
• Armistice signed November 11– end of
• Treaty of Versailles
• League of Nations