File - M. 1 English

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School / Class Rules
• Respect each other’s space, property and ideas.
• Be ready to work, improve, learn and share ideas.
• Do not talk while anyone (teacher/student) is
speaking to the class.
• Be prepared for class (GO TO LOCKERS ONLY BEFORE PERIOD 1, AT
BREAK/LUNCH TIME, AFTER SCHOOL.) and arrive on time (3 minutes
after the scheduled class time). When you arrive, take out
homework, notebook, pen and text books.
• Leave the desks and room the same as when you
entered. You are responsible for your own desk.
• No food, drinks, electronics… are allowed in class.
Grades
• You’ve seen the official Excel breakdown of grades.
This is an easier way to think about them:
Midterm Exam (July)
20%
Final Exam (October)
20%
Class notes/Class work/Homework
10%
Writing
10%
Listening & Speaking/Behavior/Participation
10%
Project
10%
Quizzes/Tests
10%
*#!*#!*#!*#!
10%
• PREFIXES
Add a prefix to the beginning of a word to change the meaning of the word.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------“un-” and “in-” mean “not.”
happy  unhappy effective  ineffective kind  unkind active -> inactive
“dis-” means “the opposite of.”
appear  disappear organized -> disorganized
“re-” means
“again.” write -> rewrite
trust -> distrust
do -> redo heat -> reheat
“over-” means “too much.” cook -> overcook
dramatic -> overdramatic
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Add a prefix to the following words and write them in your notebook:
educated  _______ forgettable  ______ accurate  ________
due  ________ charge  ________ visible __________
complete  ________ certain  _________ priced  ___________
obey  ________ try  __________ unite ____________
unite  __________ comfort  _____________
order ________ qualify  __________ build ____________
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------able  _______ used -> ____________
• Prefixes
Add a prefix to the beginning of a word to change the meaning of the word.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------“un-” means “not.”
happy  unhappy
organized  unorganized
kind  unkind
“dis-” means “the opposite of.”
appear  disappear organized -> disorganized
trust -> distrust
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Add a prefix to the following words and write them in your notebook:
educated  _______ forgettable  ___________ well  ________
usual  _________ natural  ________ aware ______
real  ________ certain  _________ expected  ___________
obey  ________ allow  __________ loyal ____________
advantage  __________ comfort  _____________
order ________ qualify  __________ respect ____________able  _______ used -> ____________
Suffix: “-ness” / “-tion” / “-ation”
• Add a suffix to the end of a word to change the Part of Speech (P.O.S.)
• ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------• -ness means “full of” and changes an adjective to a noun.
happy  happiness good  goodness kind  kindness sad  sad_____
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tion and -ation mean “state of being” or “condition of”
and
change a verb to a noun.
observe  observation conserve  conservation prepare prepar______
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Other words with these suffixes are:
educate  _______ create  _______ demonstrate  ___________
forgive  ________ lazy  _________ great  ________ aware ______
invent  ________ populate  _________ expire  ___________
fierce  ________ admire  __________ consider  ____________
imagine  __________ transport  _____________
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Root Words and Suffixes
Root Word – is a word without a prefix or suffix
-----------------------------------------------------------------Choose 3 root word adjectives and 3 root word verbs from the last
slide.
-Write 2 sentences for each root word.
-The 1st sentence must be the original root word. The 2nd sentence must have
the suffix added to the root word to make a noun.
Use the words in the correct P.O.S.
EXAMPLE: frustrate (v)  frustration (n)
AC Milan frustrated (v) Ronaldo with their great defense.
Ronaldo felt frustration (n) because he could not score for 90 minutes.
Root Words and Suffixes
• Apple created (v) the iPad.
Apple’s new creation (n) is the iPad.
• Teachers help, but students must educate (v) themselves.
• The best education (n) is to be a self-teacher.
15 million people populate (v) Bangkok. Bangkok’s population (n) is 15 million.
I will ____ going with you, but I’m not sure. He has ___ for his mom on her birthday.
We ___ experiments in science class. Our ___ is that too much salinity kills plankton.
The fruit will _____ and go bad soon.
The _____ date is tomorrow.
The BTS ____ many people each day. The BTS is a type of ________.
Root Words and Suffixes
I smile when I’m happy (adj). Happiness (n) makes me smile.
The student is bored because he is lazy (adj). His laziness (n) makes him bored.
Top students are aware (adj) in the classroom.
awareness (n) lets them absorb information.
A tiger’s _________is scary.
Their
Tigers are ________animals.
The ____ movie made me cry. There was too much ______ to enjoy it.
The ____ of the boy made him help the old woman. He is such a ___ boy.
____ had nothing to do with it.
Introduce Yourself
•
•
•
•
• 10 marks - Wednesday, May 22nd
Talk about your past present and future. What are
your habits and hobbies? What are your strengths
and weaknesses? What makes you interesting and
unique?
You must speak for 2 – 3 minutes.
You must speak in an audible voice so that the
whole class can hear.
For full marks, because you are only speaking for a
few minutes, you must speak naturally and with a
good pace without pausing.
• Action verbs – actions / doings
• She sings for the school chorus. You play for the school team.
• Linking verbs – links/connects the subject to a noun or adjective
• John is a student. She was happy after school. They are tall.
• Helping verbs – There must be at least 2 verbs for 1 subject.
• --used in the Continuous and Perfect tenses –
He is going to the store.
He has been to Mars.
• --used in questions and negative statements in simple tenses • Do you like spicy food? Steve does not drink coffee.
• Modal verbs – changes the mode of a verb
• You must study for every test. They should be more careful.
• I will do my best. Can you swim? He could not finish dinner.
Create your own examples.
• Action verbs: Write 2 sentences that use action verbs in a simple
tense.
• Linking verbs: Write 2 sentences using linking verbs in a simple
tense.
• Helping verbs: Write 4 sentences using helping verbs. Do 1
sentence in a continuous tense, 1 in a perfect tense, 1 simple
negative statement and 1 simple tense question.
• Modal verbs: Write 2 sentences using 2 different modal verbs.
To Conjugate a verb…
• We conjugate verbs so that the subject and verb agree
with each other.
• To conjugate a verb is to change it from the infinitive to the
proper:
• 1) tense – present, past, continuous, perfect…
• 2) person – 1st person (I/we) 2nd person (you)
3rd person (he/she/it/they)
• 3) number – singular (I/you/he/she/it) or
- plural (we/you/they)
Conjugations of “to be”
• Conjugations of “to be” are most often used as a
linking verb.
She is cute.
I was asleep. You will be fine.
• “TO BE” is also used as a helping verb in the
Continuous Tenses.
• I am going to the movies.
You
were floating on air.
He will be collecting your notebooks soon.
“TO BE” – Conjugated in the Present Simple Tense
• + subject
•
I
She
•
We
• •
•
•
+ “TO BE” + object.
am
glad
to meet you.
is
a teacher at BCC.
are
happy during English class.
subject +
The tiger
The books
I
“TO BE” + not + object.
is
not
orange.
are
not
under the chair.
am
not
bored.
• ?
“TO BE” + subject
•
Are
you
•
Why
are
they
•
Am
I
+
object?
serious?
absent
late?
from class?
Simple Present Tense (Action Verbs)
+ Subject + “Verb”
+ (object).
A good student finisheS the work
Mike
trieS
his best
every time.
**^ ADD “-s” to the verb for “he/she/it” nouns. ^**
Batman and Robin save the day
once again.
- Subject + “do/does” +not + (Verb#1) +
object.
My teacher
does
not
give too much homework
We
do
not
like
grammar lessons.
? question word + “do/does” + subject + (Verb#1) + object?
What
do
you
like
to do on the weekend?
Does
she
miss
school often?
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Complete 2 positive, 2 negative and 2 question sentences.
“TO BE” – Present/Past Simple
• +
•
•
•
• •
•
subject
+ “TO BE” + object.
I
She
We
subject +
The tiger
The book
• ?
“TO BE”
•
Are
•
Why were
am
glad
to meet you.
is
a teacher at BCC.
were
sad
during the end of the film.
“TO BE” + not
was
not
is
not
+
subject
you
they
+ object.
orange.
under the chair.
+
object?
serious?
absent
from class?
• Simple Present – Action Verbs vs. “To Be”
• ACTION VERBS
+ Subject + “Verb” + (object).
Mike
trieS his best
every time. <<<< Add “-s” to the verb for
They
save the day
once again.
“he/she/it” subjects.
- Subject + “do/does” +not + (Verb#1) +
object.
My teacher
does
not
give too much homework.
? question word + “do/does”
What
do
+ subject + (Verb#1) + object?
you
like
to do on the weekend?
“TO BE” (no helping verb)
?
subject +
The movie
“TO BE”
Why
are
“TO BE” + not
is
not
+
subject
they
+ object.
very good.
+
object?
absent
from class?
“TO BE” – Modal Tense
• +
•
•
•
• •
•
• ?
•
•
•
subject
I
She
We
+ modal + be +
should be
will be
can be
a
object.
better
in class.
doctor after 2 more years.
anything if we try hard.
subject +
modal + not + be + object.
The elephant
could not be
bigger.
The computer
can not be
broken
modal +
Where must
May
Will
Why won’t
subject
I
we
you
you
already.
+ be + object?
be
at 4:00?
be
excused from dinner?
be
in class tomorrow?
be
there?
Simple Present Tense
•
•
•
•
Use the present simple to talk about facts.
-Water freezes at zero degrees Celsius. This class has 25 people.
-Lions are larger than tigers.
I am 13 years old.
-Plants require sunlight. The moon doesn’t revolve around the sun.
• Use the present simple to talk about habits/hobbies and things
that happen often.
• -Sometimes I play basketball after school.
• She travels to Hong Kong every month.
• She does not travel to Beijing. He goes to school on the BTS.
•
•
Present Simple Tense
POSITIVE STATEMENTS
• Positive: (I/you/we/they) + verb1 + object.
•
We
play
football.
•
My brothers
like
to read books.
•
•
(He/she/it) + (verb1 + s) + object.
•
She
goes
home on the train.
•
This class
ends
40 minutes from now.
•
NEGATIVE STATEMENTS
• (I/you/we/they) + (do not/don’t) + verb1 + object.
• We
do not
sing
karaoke
• They
don’t
have the books.
well.
• (He/she/it) + (does not / doesn’t) + verb1
+
object.
• He
doesn’t
eat
spicy
food.
• She
does not
have enough money.
QUESTIONS
• ?: Do + (I/you/we/they) + (verb1) +
•
Do
you
have
•
Do
your parents
like
Japanese
•
•
Does + (he/she/it) +
verb1 + object?
•
Does
the show
start
•
Does
your sister
go
there
object?
fun at school?
food?
at 8:00?
often?
Spelling
• -Add “-s” when the subject is 3rd person singular (A bird flies… The
student studies… Mike plays…)
• -Add “-s” when the subject is “he/she/it.”
• With a 3rd person singular subject and when a verb ends in a
“consonant + y” change “-y” to “-ies”
• fly  It flies
study  Mike studies
try  He tries
• With a 3rd person singular subject and when a verb ends in a “-ch, o, -sh, -ss,” add “-es” to the verb.
•
Prefix
• Prefix – goes at the beginning of a word to change the meaning.
• 2 common prefixes in English are “un-” and “dis-”. They can mean
“not” or “the opposite of”.
•
•
•
•
•
uncertain = not certain unexplained = not explained
disapprove = reject / opposite of approve
disappear = vanish / opposite of appear
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Use 5 of these words in your own sentence: disagree (v),
uncertain (adj), unidentified (adj), unexplained (adj), disapprove (v),
disappear (v), unfair (adj), unkind (adj), unknown (adj)
USE 1 - Repeated Actions (habits, hobbies, jobs, ) an action is repeated or
usual.  I usually play football at 3:00.
USE 2 - Facts or Generalizations / Physical or Character Traits
a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future.
USE 3 Scheduled Events in the Near Future
• to talk about scheduled events in the near future.
Present Continuous Tense
+ subject
+
I
You/We/They
He/She/It
“to be” +
am
are
is
verbING +
object.
teaching English class.
writing
class notes.
flying
above the clouds.
-
subject
+ “to be” + not + verbING
+ object.
I
am
not
eating
lunch today.
You/We/They
are
not
having the
test this period.
He/She/It
is
not
going.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Create 3 of your own Present Continuous Tense positive statements.
Use each of is/am/are in at least 1 sentence.
Create 3 of your own Present Continuous Tense negative statements.
Use each of is/am/are in at least 1 sentence.
Present Continuous Tense - Questions
?
“to be” + subject +
Am
I
Where
are
you/we/they
Is
he/she/it
verbING
+
object?
wearing the correct uniform?
playing
football after class?
doing the homework correctly?
• -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------•
Create your own questions. Use is, am and are in at least one question.
• Present Simple vs. Present Continuous
• Present Simple – is used to talk about facts / something that is true at
anytime. 
She usually works on Silom Rd.
• Present Continuous - is used to talk about something happening right now
or around now.  Today she is working in the office on Sathorn Rd.
• Present Simple is used to talk about events that last for a long time /
actions that are often repeated.
•
He often plays football after school.
•
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
•
past
present
future
• Present Continuous is used to talk about events that last for a short/limited time.
•
( They are practicing for cheering for a few weeks. )
-----------------(--------------------------------------------------)-------------------
long past
( short past
present 90% sure in future ) long future
Structure of Present Continuous
+ subject
+
I
You/We/They
He/She/It
-
“to be” +
am
are
is
verbING +
object.
teaching English class.
writing
class notes.
flying
above the clouds.
subject
+ “to be” + not + verbING
+ object.
I
am
not
eating
lunch today.
You/We/They
are
not
having the
test this
period.
He/She/It
is
not
going.
?
“to be” + subject + verbING
+
object?
Am
I
wearing the correct uniform?
Where
are
you/we/they
playing
football after class?
Is
he/she/it
doing the homework correctly?
Usage of Present Continuous
• We use the present continuous tense to talk about
something that is happening right now.
• Right now I am speaking, and you are listening.
• We use the present continuous tense to talk about
something happening around now or for sure to
happen in the future
• Tomorrow I’m going by bus. This weekend my family is going to
the beach.
• --------------------------------------------------------------• You are also responsible for irregular spelling rules in
“Table C” on p. 95 of Grammar Spectrum. For example:
• win  winning come  coming
getting
die  dying get 
Usage of the Present Continuous Tense
• We use the present continuous tense to talk about
something that is happening right now.
• Right now I am speaking, and you are listening.
• We use the present continuous tense to talk about
something happening around now or for sure to happen in
the future
• Tomorrow I’m going by bus. This weekend my family is going to the beach.
• --------------------------------------------------------------• You are also responsible for irregular spelling rules in
“Table C” on p. 95 of Grammar Spectrum. For example:
• win  winning come  coming
die  dying get  getting
Present Continuous Tense to talk about the future
is/am/are + subject + verbING? Subject + is/am/are + verbING
Where
are
you
going ?
I
am
going to Brazil .
•
Use the Present Continuous to talk about future plans that are set already. The plans
are 90% definite and should not change.
I’m playing football after school with some teachers.
M.1 is starting the fairy tale project this week.
You are taking finals in September.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Use “be going to VERB1…” if it is something you hope to do but are not sure.
The P.1 student says that he is going to be a doctor when he is older.
The medical student is starting work in a hospital when he graduates.
If I have enough money one day, I am going to buy a Ferrari.
I won the lottery, so I am buying a Ferrari.
(is/am/are) + going + to + verb
• This is also a type of Present Continuous Tense (“be” + verbING), but it is when the
future action is 50/50%.
• I am going to be a football star sometime in the future.
• You are going to see a film if you have time after you study.
He is going to travel to Antarctica if Punyapat lets him borrow the red jacket.
Simple Past Tense
• Conjugate regular verbs into the simple past tense by adding “-ed”
walkwalked openopened applyapplied stopstopped
*** See “Table D” on p. 95 for other spelling rules.***
There are also irregular verbs. See “Table E” on p.96 for more irregular verbs.
do  did have  had bewas/were say  said go  went
Simple Past Tense
+
Subject +
I/She/He/It
You/We/They
We
She
verbED/irregular + object.
was
good.
were
happy to be at school.
stopped
the
car
at a rest stop.
bought
a
coffee from the street stall.
helping verb
- action Subject
+
did not + verb1 + object.
We
did not
start
class
yet.
They
didn’t
come
to the party.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- “to be” Subject + was/were not + object.
My friend
was
not
at the market.
The taxis
weren’t
yellow when I was in Bangkok.
helping verb
? action
Did
+
subject + verb1 +
object?
Did
someone
ring the
doorbell?
How
did
they
plan their
project?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------? “to be” Were/Was + subject + object?
Were
you
tired after school?
Where
was the conference?
- “to be”
Subject + was/were not + object.
My friend
was
not
at the market.
The taxis
weren’t
yellow when I was in Bangkok.
helping verb
? action
Did
+
subject + verb1 +
object?
Did
someone
ring the
doorbell?
How
did
they
plan their
project?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------? “to be” Were/Was + subject + object?
Were
you
tired after school?
Where
was the conference?
Use 1 – For a completed past action / series of past actions
• I did my homework last night. I finished work and then walked to the beach.
•
Use 2 – for an action that lasted for a time, but stopped in the past
• I lived in Brazil for two years. Shauna studied Japanese for five years.
Use 3 – Past habits / Past facts – facts that are not true now, but were true
• I studied French when I was a child. She was shy as a child, but now she isn’t.
Past Continuous Tense
• + subject
+
•
I
You/We/They
•
He/She/It
“to be” + verbING +
object.
was
teaching English class.
were
writing
class notes.
was
flying
above the clouds.
• - subject
•
I
You/We/They
He/She/It
“to be” + not + verbING
+
was
not
eating
were not
having the
was
not
going.
+
object.
lunch today.
test this period.
• ?
“to be” + subject + verbING
+ object?
•
Was
I
wearing the correct uniform?
Where were
you/we/they
playing
football after class?
•
Was
he/she/it
doing the homework correctly?
Past Simple vs. Past Continuous Tense
• Use the past simple tense to talk about a completed event, an event that started
and finished, in the past.  I studied the past simple tense last night.
• Use the past simple + “for/from…until” to talk about an event that continued and
ended in the past.
 I studied English from 7:00 until midnight. I lived in Baltimore for 4 years.
• Use the past continuous tense to talk about an action in progress in the past.
What was M doing when you saw him last night? He was waiting for the bus.
-------(----------------------------X----------------------------------)---------------
M started ^ waiting.
You saw ^ M.
M stopped ^ waiting for the bus.
The past continuous is often used with the conjunction, “while,” to talk about 2 events
in the past that were happening at the same time.
I was studying math while my brother was playing games.
While you were sleeping, I was searching for the answer
Past Simple & Past Continuous
• The past simple and past continuous tenses are often used together with
the conjunction, “when,” to show that a 2nd action interrupts/stops a 1st
action.
• The 1st action was happening for some time and the 2nd quickly interrupted.
• Usually the 2nd action is more interesting/important than the 1st.
• The past simple follows “when”.
• I was brushing my teeth when an alien appeared outside the window.
•
P.C.
P.S.
• She was walking down Silom when a truck swerved onto the sidewalk.
•
P.C.
P.S.
• When Mary woke up this morning, it already was raining outside.
•
P.S.
P.C.
Present Perfect Tense
• +
helping verb
• subject
+ “to have” +
I
have
You/We/They
have
• He/She/It
has
•
verb3 +
object.
been
to Mars.
flown
a helicopter.
played
a game with Messi.
• helping verb
•
subject
+ “to have” + not +
I/You/We/They
have
not
He/She/It
has
not
Everest.
•
verb3
+
eaten dog
climbed
object.
meat.
Mt.
Present Perfect Tense
• helping verb
•
subject
+ “to have” + not +
•
I/You/We/They
have
not
He/She/It
has
not
Everest.
• ?
helping verb
•
“to have” + subject +
•
Have
I
Where have (you/we/they)
•
Has
( he/she/it )
verb3
done
gone
had
verb3
+
eaten dog
climbed
+
object?
the homework
the
soup
object.
meat.
Mt.
correctly?
in Europe?
yet?
Present Perfect Tense
• ?
helping verb
•
“to have” + subject +
•
Have
I
Where have
(you/we/they)
•
Has
( he/she/it )
•
verb3 +
object?
done
the homework
gone
had
the
soup
correctly?
in Europe?
yet?
-
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• The subject (owns/has/possesses) an (experience/action/event/verb).
•
Have you had that experience? Yes, I have had that experience.
• The Present Perfect tense is use to talk about an
(event/action/experience/verb ) that the subject owns because it has done
the action at least once.
Present Perfect is used to talk about the past, but not the exact time in the
past. (Past simple is used to tell exact time) 
P.P.
A: Have you been to England before?
B: Yes, I have been there before. I went last April.
P.P
P.S.
•
•
•
The subject (owns/has/possesses) an (experience/action/event/verb).
Have you had that experience? Yes, I have had that experience.
The Present Perfect tense is use to talk about an (event/action/experience/verb ) that the
subject owns because it has done the action at least once.
Present Perfect is used to talk about the past, but not the exact time in the past. (Past simple is
used to tell exact time) 
A: Have you been to England before?
When did you go?
B: Yes, I have been there before.
I went last April.
P.P
P.S.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Use Present Perfect to talk about an event from the past that has a cause / effect
relationship on the present time.
I’ve seen this movie already, so I don’t want to see it again now.
Today’s class is review because they have studied the present perfect tense already.
Use Present Perfect with “for” and “since” to talk about an action/event that started in
the past and is still true today. I have taught at BCC for a little over 1 year.
-2008-----------2009-----------------------X 2010----------------------2011--
He has been in M.2
since this past May.
--March--------April---------- X May--------------June--
Present Perfect Tense + already/yet
• Already and yet are 2 adverbs that are commonly used with the present
perfect.
• Present Perfect is used to talk about actions that happened in a general
past time. You are not sure exactly when it happened, but you are sure
that it happened already.
• Simple Past Tense: It happened ( last year/week).
• past -------------------//------------------------------------//-----------present
•
last year
last week
• Present Perfect Tense: It has happened already.
• past--(---------action finished anytime in the past----------)--//present
*****Irregular Past Participles / Verb#3 are listed in Table E on p.96
Grammar Spectrum. *****
of
Present Perfect vs. Simple Past
Simple Past Tense is used to talk about an event that happened at a specific
time in the past. The event started and finished in the past.
When did Jane return from India? He played football from 5 until 6:30.
I met most of your parents on parent-teacher day.
past--3 years ago---(---He studied in Japan for 2 years---)----now----future
He studied in Japan for the last 2 ^ years, but he just came back to Thailand.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Present Perfect Tense is used to talk about events from the past without a
specific time. The subject owns that experience. The subject has that event.
Has Jane returned from India yet? He has played football sometime in the past.
I have met most of your parents.
-Use Present Perfect Tense to talk about an event that started in the past, but
that is still true now.  Thailand has been a democracy since the 1970s.
- Use Present Perfect if an event from the past (with no specific time) has a
cause/effect relationship on the present or future. 
I have studied for the test, so I will get a good grade.
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
• Use the Present Perfect Continuous when an action began in the past and
continues until now in the present.
past---- ( X action began in the past and continues to the  present)
I
have been waiting
from 7:00
until now.
The Present Perfect is different because the action began and finished in the past.
•
It has happened already.
• past--(---------action finished anytime in the past----------)--//present
“for” and “since” are prepositions of time often used with both the PPC and PP.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The PPC is used for actions that happen many times in the past and continues until
now in the present.
past- ( X action repeated in the past and continues to repeat in the  present)
You have been learning in E.I.P. since grade 1.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
“How long…?” is often used for questions in the PPC.
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
+ Subject + “to have” + “been”-verb3
He
has
been
They
have
been
+ verbING.
learning his lines for the play.
taking
piano lessons for years.
-
Subject + “to have” + not + “to be” – verb3 + verbING.
She
has not
been
reading the book lately.
hasn’t
been
sleeping in the house.
The announcements haven’t
been
making
sense recently.
My dogs
have not
been
behaving since Tuesday.
?
“to have” + subject + “to be” – verb3 + verbING?
Have
you
been
playing football since lunch?
How long has your father
been
working in China?
Where has
he
been
going
after school?
What have
we
been
studying for the last week?
The cat
Present Perfect Tense - Structure
+ Subject + “to have”
+ (past participle/verb 3).
subject + present tense +
verb + “-ed/-en” .
He already
has
washed
the dishes.
have
taken
the photo already.
- Subject + “to have + not” + (past participle/verb 3).
subject + present tense +
verb + “-ed/-en” .
She
has not
started
her homework yet.
The exam
hasn’t
begun
already.
The announcements haven’t
made
it clear.
My dogs
have not
run
away from home.
?
“to have” + subject + past participle ?
present tense + subject + verb + “ed/en” ?
Have
you
washed
the dishes yet?
Has
your father
brought
the computer?
Where
has
he
been?
They
Coordinating conjunctions join words, phrases, or clauses.
They are words such as: and, but, for, nor, or, so, and yet.
Conjunctions join words to create compound nouns.
EXAMPLE: Five and five is ten.
Conjunctions join phrases:
EXAMPLE:
The fisherman is walking along the beach and carrying a bucket of fish.
Conjunctions join clauses:
EXAMPLE:
He walked to his car. He got into it.  He walked to his car and got into it.
____________________________  She is tired but she cannot sleep.
Write the sentences. Label if the conjunctions joins words, phrases or clauses.
I missed the ending part and I'm guessing who the murderer is. ___________
I'd like to go but I'm too busy. ___________
The audience wasn't very impressed by his performance nor his jokes. _____________
He doesn't have a sister or a wife. ________________
The rain got heavier, so the match had to be abandoned. ______________
He's only a little boy, and yet he is able to carry such a heavy load. _____________
Relative clauses give more information about a noun. There are
subject and object relative clauses. They can split or follow an
independent clause.
3 relative clause pronouns are who(m), that and which.
In a subject relative clause, the relative clause pronoun is the subject
of the dependent relative clause.
Jane who is the president works long hours.
(splits clause)
We went to the restaurant that won many awards. (follows clause)
The car which was missing was found near the railroad tracks.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------An object relative clause gives more info about the subject or an
object of an independent clause. The relative clause pronoun is the
object of the verb.
The teacher whom you had last year is leaving for Korea.
I ate the main course which the waiter served before the
appetizer.
Punctuation for Conjunctions
-When joining 2 words or phrases, a comma is not needed.
Cats and dogs are common pets. He is reading or studying.
-When joining 3 or more words or phrases, a comma is needed.
Cats, dogs, and birds are common pets
-When joining 2 clauses, a comma is needed.
Bob likes coffee, but he doesn’t like tea.
…UNLESS…
because is between 2 clauses
Your fairy tales must be complete soon because I need them for Academic Day.
Correlative conjunctions come in the form of pairs of
words: either ... or;neither ... nor; both ... and; not
only ... but also, and whether ... or.
• EXAMPLES:
You can have either this one or that one.
They are neither our friend nor our ally.
Pepe can both juggle and perform magic tricks.
He has not only been reprimanded but also faces
possible expulsion.
I couldn't decide whether to marry her or her sister.
Verb + Gerund(verb+ing)
•
•
A Gerund is an action that is used as a noun. To box is an action. Boxing is the sport
To make a GERUND: verb + “ing”
•
Gerunds commonly follow these verbs: avoid, can’t stand, enjoy, like, finish, hate, keep, miss, stop
•
•
(verb)
+
(verb+ing / gerund)
Past / present / future +
always the same
•
Indirect Objects
•
•
•
•
The action / verb happens to the Direct Object
The Indirect Object replaces a prepositional phrase and goes before the direct object.
I
gave
a present
to Mom.
Subject + verb + direct object + prepositional phrase
•
•
I
gave
Subject + verb
mom
+ indirect object
a present.
+
direct object
Object Pronouns - me, you, him, her, it, us, them
I
Subject
+
gave
verb
her
+ indirect object pronoun
+
it.
direct object pronoun
Indirect Objects
• Object Pronouns - me, you, him, her, it, us, them
• The action/verb happens to the Direct Object. The D.O. receives the action.
The Indirect Object is “for whom” or “to whom” the action is done. The I.O. replaces a
prepositional phrase and goes before the direct object.
• Subject + verb + direct object +
• I
gave
a present
We
bought
a bag of food
prepositional phrase
to Mom.
for the dog.
Subject + verb + indirect object
• She
gave
mom
I
have brought
her
They
are giving
the class
+
direct object
a
present.
the homework.
a
presentation.
Comparative Adjectives
• For short adjectives (usually 1 syllable) add “-er” to the adjective.
•
long – longer big – bigger hot – hotter new – newer
• For adjectives ending in “-y,” change “y” to “i” and add “-er”
•
happy – happier
hungry – hungrier
easy - easier
For long adjectives (usually 2 syllables or more) add “more” before the ADJ.
expensive – more expensive difficult – more difficult excited – more excited
Irregular Adjectives:
good – better
bad - worse
These adjectives are used in sentences with “than” to compare 2 or more things.
Subject + “to be” + Comparative ADJ + than + object .
BCC
is
bigger
than many schools.
The midterm
was
easier
than the
final.
Bangkok
is
more crowded
than
Chiang Mai.
Shrek
was
better/worse
than
Shrek 2.
Comparative ADJ and comparing with “as…as”
These adjectives are used in sentences with “than” to compare 2 or more things.
Subject + “to be” + Comparative ADJ + than + object .
BCC
is
bigger
than many schools.
The midterm
was
easier
than the
final.
Bangkok
is
more crowded
than
Chiang Mai.
Shrek
was
better/worse
than
Shrek 2.
To compare 2 things that are equal use, “as… ADJ… as…”
They are as happy as a clam. The new book is as interesting as the old one.
To compare 2 things that are not equal use, “not as… ADJ… as…”
The old hotel is not as expensive as the new hotel. Turtles are not as fast as rabbits.
Comparative Adverbs
The same form as adjectives can be used for adverbs, but for long form adjectives, use
“more” + adverb form (“-LY”)
Subject + “verb” + Comparative ADJ + than + object .
BCC
plays
better
than many schools.
The students scored higher on the midterm than the
final.
Clowns
act
more playfully
than
mimes.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------To compare 2 things that happen equally use, “as… ADVERB… as…”
They play guitar as loudly as annoying M.4 students in the corridor.
The new car drives as quickly as a cheetah.
To compare 2 things that don’t happen equally use:
“to do + not + verb + as…ADV as…”
Chale doesn’t play as skillfully as Messi.
Some students didn’t study as well as they should have studied.
Superlative Adjectives
• For short adjectives use: “ the + “ADJ + -est”
long – the longest big – the biggest hot – the hottest new – the newest
For adjectives ending in “-y,” use: “the + “ADJ + -iest”
happy – the happiest
hungry – the hungriest
easy - the easiest
For long adjectives add “the most” before the ADJ.
the most expensive
the most difficult
the most excited
Irregular Adjectives:
good – better – the best
bad – worse – the worst
Subject + “to be” + Superlative ADJ + “object / what you compare.” Elephants
are
the biggest
animals on land.
The midterm
was
the easiest
of our 4 major tests.
Bangkok
is
the most crowded
city in Thailand.
Shrek
was
the best / the worst
of all the Shrek movies.
make/do/have/get
make – to create/produce something  They made a campfire.
mom often makes me lunch. T. Patrick is making himself a cup of coffee.
make + something + adjective Don’t make me annoyed.
Students can make you crazy. Make your mother happy tomorrow.
My
do – to work/act. “Do” is like the pronoun of verbs because it can replace most
actions, and therefore it is the helping verb for the simple tenses. 
I am doing my homework. Has he done it yet? Did you do the project yet?
have + noun – is used to describe activities. They often have lunch together.
They had a game yesterday. We are having a test next period.
get – a situation/condition/state changes.  I’m getting tired. It gets cold during
winter and gets hot in the summer. They got soaked by the monsoon.
something/somebody/someone/somewhere – are usually used in positive sentences and
questions --. Someone is absent. Something happened on the BTS. I live somewhere in
Bangkok.
anything/anybody/anyone/anywhere – are usually used in negative statements and questions.
-- Is anyone there? I didn’t answer anything on the test. Have you been anywhere in South
America? I didn’t see anybody on the bus this morning.
nothing/nobody/nowhere/no one - usually are used before or after positive verbs
Nothing can save you now. No one went to the extra class. I’ll go nowhere without you.
There was nobody who could do the math problem.
“ELSE” – is often used after something, anybody, nowhere, etc…
I told you and no one else. Anywhere else would be a better place than here.
Can someone else try to answer?
These words can also be used before adjectives.
Did I do anything wrong? Have you been anywhere nice?
something exciting.
They met no one more boring than Chaichontat.
We did
all/some/most/none
ADJ:
(all/most/some + noun) 
All students…
Most times…
Some friends…
NOUN: (all/most/some/none)+ of + the/my/his… + noun/pronoun
All of his grades…
Some of the best times…
None of your pets…
Most of our classes…
“ALL”: 1. can be used without “of” ---
I do it all the time.
2. is often used to talk about time --All + morning, evening, night, day, week, month, year, decade...
It means, “the whole.”
too / enough
•
“TOO” is an adverb
“ENOUGH” is an adjective, adverb or NOUN
too + adjective  It is too hot to go outside. I’m too tired to play.
too many + plural noun  Some schools have too many students.
Too many cars are on the roads of Bangkok.
too much + uncountable noun  Don’t eat too much food before dinner.
too + adjective + “to verb”  They’re too young to drive.
• =======================================================
ADJ + enough – Is it warm enough for you? Yes, it’s warm enough.
enough + noun – Do you have enough time for the project?
(enough / not enough) + ADJ + “to verb” You’re old enough to learn on your own.
•
ADVERBS: Regular/Comparative/Superlative
Adverbs describe “how” an action happens  happiLY
How does he run?
How does he play?
He runs quickLY (ADV).
He plays well (ADV).
comfortabLY excitedLY
He is quick (ADJ).
He is a good (ADJ) player.
Irregular Adverbs:
good – well – better – the best  This time he did better. He did the best in 1/9.
fast – fast – faster – the fastest  He eats very fast. He eats faster than her.
hard – hard – harder – the hardest  He played hard. He played the hardest of all.
For regular comparative adverbs use:
“more + adverb.”
He writes more neatly than a typewriter.
She measured the liquid more accurately with a beaker.
For regular superlative adverbs use:
“the most + adverb”
She acts the most politely around her parents.
Students walk the most slowly when going to the chapel.
“-ed” / “-ing” Adjectives
“-ed” Adjectives describe the nouns feelings. The noun feels/gets the adjective.
He was excited by the movie. He felt excitement.
The students were interested in class. They felt interest.
The fans were disappointed when their team lost. They felt disappointment.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------“-ing” Adjectives describes the noun that creates / makes a feeling.
The movie was exciting. It made him feel excitement.
The class was interesting. It made them feel interest.
The game was disappointing. They felt disappointment when their team lost.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Complete the example and create 3 of your own.
((confuse)) The ___________ chemistry problem made her feel __________.
Question Tags
When you think a statement is true, but you want to make sure, use a Question Tag.
The question tag depends on: 1. the type of verb in the statement
and 2. whether the verb is positive or negative.
Verb type
^
+ statement
- question
“to be” –
He is a writer,
isn’t he?
action -
You studied hard, didn’t you?
- statement
+ question
She wasn’t at the party, was he?
They don’t drive yet,
do they?
helping – You would try, wouldn’t you?
He isn’t speaking Chinese, is he?
Mark has been to India, hasn’t he?
We will come back,
won’t we?
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Create (4) positive and negative question tags for “to be” and action verbs.
Create (6) positive and negative question tags for modal, con’t and perfect tenses
Conditionals – “If I am late…”
• To talk about facts that are generally true, use one of these structures:
If + Present Simple,
+
Present Simple
If
Man. U. scores the 1st goal, the team usually wins the match.
OR…
Present Simple + if + Present Simple
We study hard
if
we have a grammar test.
To talk about something that might happen in the future and its effect, use:
If + future possibility (Present Simple), + Modal Tense
If
we don’t take a motorbike today,
then we will be late.
If
you don’t like hot weather,
you shouldn’t go to Thailand.
OR…
Modal Tense
+ if + future possibility (Present Simple)
You will get a good grade
if
you do your homework.
Adjectives
Adjectives can go before a noun: The cute cat was… The fierce lion roared.
The hungry students ate… The smart boy studied… The English speaker…
When there are 2 adjectives before a noun, put a comma between them.
The nice, young child… The small, wooden table… The old, green hat…
Adjectives go in a certain order:
Size + Age + Color + Nationality + Material
A small, old, blue, Thai style,
wooden house…
A huge , new, grey,
metal
table…
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Adjectives can also be the object of linking verbs (to be).
The dog is kind. They were absent. The meals are delicious.
The class is being annoying. He was tired. I am American.
Simple Future / Modal Tense
The simple future tense talks about future facts and events that will happen in the future.
Also use the simple future when you choose in the moment to do something in the
future.  Now the phone is ringing, so I will answer it.
+ subject + modal (will/shall) + verb1 + object .
•
I
will
finish my fairy tale soon.
•
He
will
be
happy when he hears.
• My parents
will
turn
50 years old tomorrow.
- subject + modal (will/shall + not) + verb1 + object .
My friends
will not
eat
squid at tonight’s dinner.
The dog
won’t
ever
fetch a ball .
? modal (will/shall) + subject + verb1 +
object .
Will
you
go
to the party
with me?
Will
he
complete the project
on time?
Adverb + Adjective
Adverbs before an adjective can make the adjective stronger:
• very good
extremely tiring
really tired
• Adverbs can also make an adjective weaker:
•
fairly exciting
quite excited
pretty cute
I was extremely tired after the marathon, so I fell asleep as soon as I got home.
The game was fairly exciting to watch, but the score wasn’t close at the end.
• Adjective + Adjective
• When using adjectives together, they go in a certain order:
OPINION, SIZE, OTHER ADJ
OPINION, SIZE, OTHER ADJ
amazing, tall, new
skyscraper… funny, big black
dot
The magical, small, grey stone stopped everything from aging and growing.
•
Adverbs can also make an adjective weaker:
•
fairly exciting
quite excited
pretty cute
I was extremely tired after the marathon, so I fell asleep as soon as I got home.
The game was fairly exciting to watch, but the score wasn’t close at the end.
•
•
Adjective + Adjective
• When using adjectives together, they go in a certain order:
OPINION, SIZE, OTHER ADJ
OPINION, SIZE, OTHER ADJ
amazing, tall, new
skyscraper… funny, big black
dot
The magical, small, grey stone stopped everything from aging and growing.
Noun + Noun
When 2 nouns are together, the 1st noun acts as an adjective of the 2nd noun.
basketball player
comic book
fairy tale
video game
The basketball player was reading a comic book during halftime.
Modal Helping Verbs
Modal Helping Verbs: will, shall, can, could, should, would, may, might, must
CAN: means that the verb is possible / able to happen.
COULD: 1)) means that the verb would be possible in the future, or…
2)) means that the verb once was generally possible in the past
^(((like past tense of “can”)))^
MAY: means 1)) “are allowed” / “have permission.”
2)) “maybe”
MIGHT: means “maybe”
+ subject +
•
I
My parents
•
He
modal + verb1
+ object .
can
eat very spicy food.
could
help
us,
if I ask them later.
could
run extremely fast when he was younger.
- subject + modal + not
+ verb1
+
object .
My friends cannot / can’t
fly
an airplane.
The jester could not / couldn’t entertain the Queen of Hearts
? modal + subject + verb1 +
object ?
Can
you
make
it
to my party on Saturday?
Could
they
complete the project
on time?
Modal Helping Verbs
+ subject +
•
I
My parents
•
He
modal + verb1
+ object .
can
eat very spicy food.
might
help
us,
if they are free later.
could
run extremely fast when he was younger.
- subject + modal + not
+ verb1
+
object .
My friends cannot / can’t
fly
an airplane.
The jester could not / couldn’t entertain the Queen of Hearts.
M.2
may not
do
a
fairy tale for the project.
? modal + subject + verb1 +
object ?
Can
you
make
it
to my party on Saturday?
Could
they
complete the project
on time?
• May
I
go
to the bathroom, please?
Modal Helping Verbs
Modal Helping Verbs: will, shall, can, could, should, would, may, might, must
CAN: means that the verb is possible / able to happen.
COULD: 1)) means that the verb would be possible in the future, or…
2)) means that the verb once was generally possible in the past
^(((like past tense of “can”)))^
+ subject + modal + verb1
+ object .
•
I
can
eat very spicy food.
My parents could
help
us,
if I ask them later.
•
He
could
run extremely fast when he was younger.
- subject + modal + not
+ verb1
+
object .
My friends cannot / can’t
fly
an airplane.
The jester could not / couldn’t entertain the Queen of Hearts.
? modal + subject + verb1 +
object ?
Can
you
make
it
to my party on Saturday?
Could
they
complete the project
on time?
Modal Questions
+ subject + modal + verb1
I
can
eat
+
very spicy
- subject + modal + not
+
My friends cannot / can’t
verb1
fly
object .
food.
+
an
object .
airplane.
? modal + subject + verb1 +
object ?
Can
you
make
it
to my party on Saturday?
Could
they
complete the project
on time?
Will
the project
be
ready
by Friday?
Shall
we
begin?
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Create 4 modal questions using each of the 4 modal helping verbs.
Adverbs
An adverb describes “how” an action happens  happiLY comfortabLY excitedLY
Irregular Adverbs:
good – well
fast – fast
How does he run?
She runs quickLY (ADV).
How does he play?
He plays well (ADV).
hard – hard
late – late
She is quick (ADJ).
He is a good (ADJ) player.
They were excitedly(ADV) completing their fairy tales.
They were excited(ADJ) to create a story.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Complete 3 examples following ^ these^ ^models.^
You must have 6 sentences in total.
You must have 3 adverb/action verb sentences and 3 adjective/linking verb sentences.
Adverbs of Frequency
• Adverbs of frequency tell about how often or how much something happens.
• never = 0% hardly ever = 5%
• Often = 70% normally = 80%
rarely = 10% sometimes = 30%
usually = 90% always = 98%
• These adverbs go after “to be,” after a helping verb, or before an action verb.
• He is often late for school.
I am always happy to help.
I have usually done well on exams.
She would never do that.
We hardly ever watch T.V.
To tell exactly how often something happens, use:
every… once a…. twice a….. three/four/etc… times a….
Students go to school five times a week. They have math class once a day.
Past Perfect Tense
The past perfect tense is used to talk about an event that happened before another
event in the past.
+ Subject +
“had”
+ (past participle/verb 3).
subject +
past tense +
verb + “-ed/-en” .
He
had
left
his wallet at home,
so he couldn’t pay the bill.
When the hurricane hit, he had already prepared the family’s supplies.
- Subject + “to have + not” + (past participle/verb 3).
She
hadn’t
studied
for the test, so
she tried to cram before the final exam for an hour before it began.
?
“to have” + subject + past participle ?
Had
you
been
to England before
you went there last summer?
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Create 3 example cause and effect sentences combining the
past
perfect tense and simple past tense.
Articles
• a / an - is used to talk about a general noun. It is not a specific noun, and probably
hasn’t been identified earlier.
• the – is used to talk about a specific noun, or a noun already specified in the
conversation. Use “the” when there is only one of something.
• I bought a banana and an apple from the cafeteria.
•
Was the apple red or green?
Modal Verbs
Modal Helping / Auxiliary Verbs: will, shall, can, could, should, would, may, might, must
MUST: means that the verb is necessary / required.
+ subject + Modal + verb1 .
•
I
must
try
harder this time.
You
must
arrive on time.
We
must
make a movie this semester.
- subject + Modal + not
My dog
must not
Students
must not
+
verb1
+
object .
eat chicken bones.
forget their homework.
? Modal + subject + verb1
+
object ?
Must
we
make a serious movie?
Must
Charlie
wear
those
clothes
to dinner?
**^ Create 2 positive statements, 2 negative statements and 2 questions using “must.”^**
Yes/No Questions
• “To Be” Questions:
“to be” + subject +
object ?
Are
you
busy
this weekend?
Is
he
a new student?
Was your house
flooded?
Were
you
in Bangkok over the break?
*** ^ Complete 1 present tense and 1 past tense example. ^ ***
Action Verb Questions:
“To Do” + subject + action ?
Do
you
like
the book?
Does
she
come
here often?
Did
our group
win
the competition?
*^ Complete 1 present tense and 1 past tense example.^*
Action Verb Questions:
“To Do” + subject + action ?
Do
you
like
the book?
Does
she
come
here often?
Did
our group
win
the competition?
*** ^ Complete 1 present tense and 1 past tense example. ^ ***
Helping / Auxiliary Verb Questions:
“helping” + subject + action ?
Are
you
having lunch together?
Has
he
been
to Spain?
Will
they
finish
on time?
Should
we
begin
now?
*** ^ Complete 2 examples using different helping verbs. ^ ***
Yes/No Answers
• “To Be” Questions and Answers:
• Are you happy with that?
•
Y: Yes, I am.
N: No, I am not.
• Was his house flooded?
•
Y: Yes, it was.
N: No, it was not.
***^ Complete 1 present tense and 1 past tense question/answer example. ^***
Action Verb Questions and Answers:
• Do you like action movies?
•
Y: Yes, I do.
N: No, I do not.
• Did you see that?
•
Y: Yes, I did.
N: No, I did not.
***^ Complete 1 present tense and 1 past tense question/answer example. ^***
Action Verb Questions and Answers:
• Do you like action movies?
•
Y: Yes, I do.
N: No, I do not.
• Did you see that?
•
Y: Yes, I did.
N: No, I did not.
***^ Complete 1 present tense and 1 past tense question/answer example. ^***
Helping / Auxiliary Verb Questions and Answers:
Are you playing in the band?
Y: Yes, I am.
N: No, I am not.
Has he done the project?
Y: Yes, he has.
N: No, he has not.
Will you be there on Friday?
Y: Yes, I will.
N: No, I will not.
***^ Complete 1 continuous, 1 perfect and 1 modal tense example. ^***
Passive Voice
****THIS HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH AUTHOR’S or CHARACTER’S VOICE. ****
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------In Passive Voice the action happens to the subject of the sentence.
Passive Voice can be used in all verb tenses. These are simple tense examples:
PASSIVE VOICE STATEMENTS
SUBJECT + “TO BE” + VERB #3
The classroom
is
cleaned on Fridays.
I
am
taught
by native English speakers.
The guns
are not
hidden
well by the bank robbers.
The games
were
lost
because of the team’s errors.
The window
was not
broken
by the baseball.
Your projects
will be
done
before the end of the semester.
SUBJECT + “TO BE” + VERB #3
The guns
are not
hidden
well by the bank robbers.
The games
were
lost
because of the team’s errors.
The window
was not
broken
by the baseball.
Your projects
will be
done
before the end of the semester.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PASSIVE VOICE QUESTIONS
“TO BE” + SUBJECT + VERB #3
Is this newspaper delivered daily?
Where are
you
dropped off by your parents?
Was your camera
stolen by someone?
When were
you
born?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------MODAL TENSE PASSIVE VOICE QUESTIONS
MODAL + SUBJECT + (BE + VERB #3)
Should
he
be chosen
as the 1st pick?
Will
the tiger
be set
free when it recovers?
Can
the jacket
be washed
normally?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Create 3 passive statements using all 3 simple tenses (present / past / modal).
Create 3 passive questions using all 3 simple tenses (present / past / modal ).
PassiveVoice vs. Active Voice
• There are 2 “voices” in English: Active and Passive
We use Active Voice more often and it is more direct. The subject does the action/verb
which happens to the direct object. The subject is most important.
All grammar covered so far has been in the Active Voice.
John  finished  the homework. Peter  scored  a goal.
The Passive Voice is used when what receives/feels the action is most important. Usually
what does the action is not important or not even mentioned.
The Great Wall of China  was begun in 220 B.C.  by the 1st emperor.
The members  were elected a few months ago.
Glass  is made from sand.
Problems  are discussed  by the whole family.
1. LABEL THE VERB TENSE OF EACH PASSIVE VOICE SENTENCE/CLAUSE.
2. CONVERT THE PASSIVE VOICE SENTENCES TO THE ACTIVE VOICE.
---Make sure to keep the same verb tense and meaning of the original.
We were invited to attend the party. PAST  They invited us to attend the party.
Most problems are shared by all members of the group.
The letter must be mailed before this Friday.
The Earth is heated by the sun.
The world record was broken by the star athlete.
The hamburgers were finished when I arrived.
If they meet, the cat will be chased by the dog.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
New apartments are being built across the street.
The Grand Palace has been visited by many tourists.
Gerunds and Infinitives
Gerund – is (verb + ING). We use gerunds as nouns, so it is different from the
Continuous Verb Tenses. A gerund can be a subject , direct object or object of a
preposition. A gerund can have its own object object.
Playing music is fun. Her singing is beautiful. I’m going shopping. Let’s go skiing.
We’re talking about writing in English.
Infinitive – is (to + verb). An infinitive can be the subject or direct object. An infinitive
can have its own object.
To learn guitar is difficult. To talk annoys the teacher. He learned to play well.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sometimes you can use either a gerund or an infinitive…
I like to do homework. I like doing homework. Voting is important. To vote is important.
but sometimes they mean different things.
We stopped to play football with T. Paul. We stopped playing football at 5:00.
He stopped eating to run around the field.
He went to eat after playing football in P.E.
Subject Questions / Object Questions
Subject Questions ask about the subject of an action. The speaker wants to know
who/what did the action. The question word is the subject of the verb.
Do not change word order to ask a subject question
Subject + (Whole Verb) + Object
Who
finished
the work?
John finished the work.
Who
is playing
basketball on Friday? Class 2/9 is playing.
Who
was
absent?
Many students were absent.
What
costs
the most?
The red one costs the most.
What
can fly?
Birds, insects and airplanes can fly.
What
has changed your mind?
Their scores have changed my mind.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Object Questions are more common, and they follow the structure that we have
learned so far. The speaker wants to know about the object of an action. The question
word is the object of the verb.
Object Questions are more common, and they
follow the structure that we have learned so far.
The speaker wants to know about the object of
an action. The question word is the object of the
verb.
(? Word) + Helping Verb + subject + Action ?
Who
did
they
beat last night? They beat the Lakers.
What
can
I
do for you? You can help with this problem.
Where
have
you
been on holiday? I have been many places.
What
was
he
trying to do? He was trying to learn the drums.
Object Questions are more common, and they follow the structure that we have
learned so far. The speaker wants to know about the object of an action. The question
word is the object of the verb.
(? Word) + Helping Verb + subject + Action ?
Who
did
they
beat last night? They beat the Lakers.
What
can
I
do for you? You can help with this problem.
Where
have
you
been on holiday? I have been many places.
What
was
he
trying to do? He was trying to learn the drums.
Possessive Questions – “Whose...?”
Whose is the question word to ask about possession (the owner of something.)
It’s the same as saying, “Who is the owner of the…?”
We answer the question with a possessive noun (singular noun) + ( ‘s) 
Steve’s… Mary’s… The doctor’s… Some kid’s…
(regular plural noun) + (s’)  The kids’… The girls’… The doctors’…
(irregular plural noun) + (‘s)  The children’s… The men’s… The people’s..
possessive pronoun 
(mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs)
Whose + thing/object + verb + …
Whose
car
is
outside?
John’s is.
Whose
books
are
under the desk? Hers are.
Whose
motorbike
drives
the fastest?
His does.
Whose
project
was
the best?
Yours was.
Whose
team
won
the game?
1.9’s team did.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Who’s is a contraction that means “Who is / Who has.”
Relative Clauses
Relative clause, or adjective clause, is a dependent clause that gives more information
about a noun. There are subject and object relative clauses.
3 relative clause pronouns are who(m), that and which.
In a subject relative clause, the relative clause pronoun is the subject of the
dependent clause.
Jane who is the president works long hours.
We went to the restaurant that won many awards.
The car which was missing was found near the railroad tracks.
I have been on one vacation that was better than all the others.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------An object relative clause gives more info about the object of an independent clause.
The relative clause pronoun is the object of the verb in the clause.
The teacher whom you had last year is leaving for Korea.
They are my favorite shoes that I wear for basketball.
Many awards that the restaurant won are prestigious.
I ate the main course which the waiter served before the appetizer.
Jane who is the president works long hours.
We went to the restaurant that won many awards.
The car which was missing was found near the railroad tracks.
I have been on one vacation that was better than all the others.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------The teacher whom you had last year is leaving for Korea.
They are my favorite shoes that I wear for basketball.
Many awards that the restaurant won are prestigious.
I ate the main course which the waiter served before the appetizer.
Present Tenses with “when, before, after, until…”
When school finishes, I’ll meet some friends at the mall.
After she eats dinner, She is going to watch the new movie.
I will wake up to finish my homework and study before the sun rises.
You’re not leaving this room until I know what happened.
When using these words as conjunctions, we usually use the present simple tense
after when, before, after, until and as soon as because it is a type of cause and effect
sentence where we assume the event will happen. So, the cause is present simple and
the effect is a future tense (simple, pres. con’t…)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------When I have completed the project, I will ask T. Patrick to check the grammar.
They will take a bus into the city when they have landed in Bangkok .
Use the present perfect when the action must be completed before the effect.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------After (I graduate, / I have graduated,) I will go to medical school.
Both tenses can be used with “after” without a change in meaning.
Conjunctions
and – links together 2 similar ideas to make a compound.
“and” can link nouns, verbs, adjective or 2 complete sentences.
Jane and I are getting married. We are going to Hawaii and San Diego after the wedding. We are
having a live band, and we are inviting a lot of people.
but – links together 2 opposing ideas to make a compound sentence.
He likes football, but he can’t swim. They eat a lot, but they still didn’t finish.
so – links together a cause and an effect. The effect always follows “so.”
I studied hard, so I did well on the exam. The team played well, so they won.
because – links together a cause and effect. The cause always follows “because.”
He goes to extra class because he likes to learn. Because I am tired, I am going to bed early.
or / either…or – talks about 2 possibilities
Either you finish your homework, or you will not get enough marks.
neither…nor – puts together 2 negative statements. The verb form is always positive.
Neither John nor Sally is coming to my party.
Subject
I
you
he
she
it
we
they
SUBJECT / OBJECT / POSSESSIVE Pronouns & POSSESSIVE Adjectives
Object
Possessive Pronoun Reflexive Pronoun Possessive ADJ
me
mine
myself
my
you
yours
yourself / yourselves
your
him
his
himself
his
her
hers
herself
her
it
its
itself
its
us
ours
ourselves
our
them
theirs
themselves
their
I saw him at the store, and he was buying his favorite drink.
She bought a new car yesterday, so that new Honda is hers.
You know that they will enjoy themselves at the concert.
They ate lunch a little bit late because their teacher talked to them after class.
You must finish the work by yourselves if you are going to learn.
We went to our grandparent’s house. Ours are the best grandparents.
Neither mine nor yours is good enough to get an A+.
My favorite drink is coffee because it is delicious.
Complete 10 sentences using at least 2 of each type.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
M.2 Grammar Final (Fundamental English)
Create sentences using all verb tenses covered in the Grammar Spectrum book
(positive/negative statements & questions). Use them in the proper time and meaning.
Complete sentences that have question tags. (ch. 21)
Create conditional sentences using various conjunctions. (ch. 13/14)
Past Continuous and Simple Past used in a sentence together with the conjunction, “when.”
(ch. 5)
Create sentences using comparative adjectives and adverbs. (ch. 36/40)
Create sentences using “as…ADJ/ADV…as” for comparison. (ch. 37/40)
Convert ADJ and ADV sentences into the other type. (ch. 36/37/40)
Create sentences using possessive pronouns, possessive pronoun adjectives and reflexive
pronouns.
Create sentences and demonstrate meaning of participle ADJs. (ch. 39)
Convert sentences with indirect objects and prepositional phrases (to/for) into the other
type. (ch. 32/42)
Convert passive voice sentences into the active voice while keeping the same verb tense.
(ch. 26)
Create subject questions using “who” & “what.” (ch. 19)
Create sentences with relative clauses that define the subject or object of your main clause
as directed. (ch. 44)
Create sentences that use infinitives and gerunds as subjects or objects as directed. (ch.
27/28)
M.1 - Grammar Final – Fundamental English
1. Create sentences using all verb tenses covered in the Grammar
Spectrum book (positive/negative statements & questions). Use
them in the proper time and meaning. Also, complete questions
using specific question words.
2. Create sentences using comparative and superlative adjectives.
3. Convert ADJ and ADV sentences into the other type.
4. Create sentences using adverbs of frequency.
5. Create sentences using subject pronouns, object pronouns,
possessive pronoun adjectives and possessive pronouns.
6. Create sentences using prepositions to talk about location and time.
7. Identify the 4 types of verbs.
8. Use conjunctions to create sentences.
sensory details – writing to appeal to the 5 senses (sight, sound, smell, taste,
touch.) The author’s sensory details made me imagine that I was eating the
delicious cake.
imagery – descriptive and creative language using sensory details that creates
a picture in the reader’s mind.
The writer focused on sensory details, so I had visual imagery in my
imagination as a read the story.
Character and Character Traits
• character - The people or animals in a story.
• character traits - things that you notice about a
character’s personality. I can understand
characters’ traits from what they say, what they
do, what happens to them and from what other
characters say about them.
• -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Conflict
• Conflict – The conflict in a story is the problem that the main character must solve.
A story’s conflict usually has 5 parts.
• Background/introduction – This part of the conflict introduces the reader to
characters and the setting. We learn about the history of the fiction world (story.) It
is also the beginning of the conflict.
• Rising action – The main character’s problem gets worse.
• Climax – is when the main character’s problem is the worst. It may seem like the
main character will fail, but then the character will start to solve the problem.
• Resolving action – The main character solves the problem and things get better.
• Results – are what the main character learned by solving the problem. Also, what
will the future be like for the main character in the fiction world?
Narrator
• Narrator – is who explains the story to the reader. The author creates the narrator.
The narrator is not the author.
• 1st Person Narrator – The main character is the narrator of the story, so the
character narrator often uses “I” and “We.”
• 3rd Person Limited Narrator – This narrator is not a character and is outside of the
story, but knows everything about the main character including thoughts, feelings
and personal history.
• 3rd Person Unlimited Narrator – This narrator is not a character and is outside of
the story, but knows everything about every character including thoughts, feelings
and personal histories.
Voice
• Voice is the author’s particular pattern of
speech for a character or narrator. In “Brother
Wolf,” Brandenburg writes in the voice of a
wolf.
Voice is one way an author creates the story’s
tone.
• ------------------------------------------------------------• Find a quote from “Brother Wolf” that shows
Brandenburg writes in the voice of wolves.
•
VOICE in “Brother Wolf”
•
• For example, the wolf narrator calls dogs “the
tame ones.”
Moral Folktale
• Folktales are stories that explain something about a culture or society.
• A moral is a lesson or message from a story that teaches about right and wrong.
A moral is a specific type of theme.
• **Aesop’s Fables and “The Stone” are moral folktales.
• A theme is a pattern in a story about a topic or message. The author doesn’t
explain theme to the reader, but shows theme to the reader with characters and
conflict.
• Some themes in “The Stone” are morality, pride, change / old age, personal
responsibility, cause/effect…
• ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------• As we read “The Stone,” also notice foreshadowing and symbolism.
Animal Archetypes
• Owl – wise
Raccoon – creative, disguised
Fox – sly, clever
Cat – curious
• Dog – loyal
Snake – sneaky, mischievous
• Crocodile / alligator – uncaring
Bull/Buffalo – strong
• Beaver – busy, hard-working
Crow/Raven – death
• Dove – peaceful, loving
Eagle – regal, courageous, proud
• Falcon/Hawk – visionary
Lion – powerful, royal
• Horse – free to travel, graceful, swift
• Squirrel - preparedness
• Ants – hard-working, team oriented, thoughtless
• --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------• FICTIONAL ANIMALS
• Western Dragon - powerful, ferocious, merciless
• Eastern (Chinese) Dragon – intelligent, benevolent
• Phoenix – rebirth, regeneration
•
Fairy Tale
•
Good vs. evil – Most characters are very good or very evil. A fairy tale ends, “happily
ever after.”
•
Magic – enchantment, spell, curse
•
Supernatural characters – monsters, talking animals, dragons, ogre, elf, dwarf
•
Fantasy world – For example, the setting might be “Once upon a time long ago in a
galaxy far, far away…”
•
Traveler’s Tales - Characters come from many different worlds, realms or kingdoms, so
characters tell stories about their past and home country.
•
Guardian / guide characters – teach the main character something
•
Word games – riddle, pun, trickster characters
•
Royalty – kings, queens, princes and princesses
•
Quest – The main character must do something great that seems impossible at the
beginning of the story. The conflict is something extraordinary.
For the Final Draft
• 1. As explained on the handout, you need at least 25% dialogue. If
you didn’t have it, then you need to be extremely careful about
the grammar for your dialogue for the final draft draft.
2. You need paragraphs.
• 3. All dialogue must be punctuated: X said, “Hello.”
• All quotes must be attributed to a speaker.
• 4. Use a past tense for your narrator: simple past, past con’t, past
perfect…
• 5. The 1st draft must be submitted with the final draft on
September 19th.
• 6. I probably will lose half of your work if it isn’t stapled.
• 7. Your 1st draft marks will be determined based on your fixing of
mistakes from the 1st to final draft.
• 8. I will focus on the 10 Elements of Literature and if
your story is a folktale for your marks for the final draft.
Nature vs. Nurture
• Nature vs. nurture is a sociological, psychological
and scientific debate over what is more important
to a person’s characteristics and development.
Nature – genetics, DNA, heredity
Nurture – environment, society, culture, conditioning
----------------------------------------------------------------------Free will – is an individual person’s freedom of choice.
How do you think free will fits into the debate?
--------------------------------------------------------------------As we read “Mowgli’s Brothers,” consider this as a theme of the story.
Nature vs. Nurture
• Nature vs. nurture is a sociological, psychological
and scientific debate over what is more important
to a person’s characteristics and development.
Nature – genetics, DNA, heredity
Nurture – environment, family, society, culture,
conditioning
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Free will – is an individual person’s freedom of choice.
How do you think free will fits into the debate?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
As we read “Mowgli’s Brothers,” consider this as a theme of the story.
Symbols and Symbolism
• Symbols – are objects, characters or events that have one meaning in the fiction
world and another meaning in the real world.
• In the fiction world symbols have one meaning within the plot/conflict that the
characters can understand.
• In the real world symbols have another meaning as a message from the author to
the reader.
• Here are some visual symbols:
Symbol and Symbolism
• Symbol – a symbol is an object, picture, logo or character that represents a
2nd meaning beyond the picture as a message from the author/artist to the
reader. Symbols are a sign of something more important than the picture
itself. Here are some visual examples of symbols and symbolism: draw and
then explain the deeper meaning.
Symbols and Symbolism
• Joseph Bruchac uses symbolism to show that the boy is being
reborn (born again) into a new family.
• The boy comes out of a cave (p.151) and joins the animal family. Later the
boy comes out of a hollow log (p.153) and rejoins the human family. In real
life a person is born and is the newest family member.
• The image of a person being born is similar to the image of a person coming
out of a cave or hollow log.
• Therefore when the boy comes out of the cave and later the log, these
events are symbols for the boy’s rebirth. He is born again. Another way the
author creates the symbol of rebirth is that the boy is blinded by light when
he comes out of the cave and log just like a baby who opens his eyes for the
1st time.
• ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------• What is another symbol in this story?
Foreshadowing
• Foreshadowing – is when the author gives the reader clues about what will
happen later in the story.
• What events does Joseph Bruchac, the author of “The Boy Who Lived with
Bears,” foreshadow in the story? Quote and explain 3 examples. Also
explain how the author gives the reader the clues.
Poetry
• Rhyme / Rhyme Scheme • Personification – non-humans do something like a human.
– (Talking animals)
•
•
•
•
Metaphor (simile) Alliteration Repetition – Words or lines that appear more than once in a poem
Onomatopoeia – The sound of the word is the same as the meaning of
the word.  Bang! Boom! A cat’s sound is “meow.” A dog “barks.”
Vocabulary
–
p.
163
figure of speech – a sentence/phrase that creates a feeling, but the
speaker doesn’t really mean what he says.
Ex))) Clouds are balls of cotton in the sky.
Hold your horses! (Can you please relax?)
Books are like flashlights.
hyperbole (n) – is a figure of speech that uses extreme exaggeration
to create a feeling.
Ex))) He is as fast as lightning.
It was so amazing that my eyes popped out of my head.
There were so many people at the restaurant that we had to
wait forever to get our dinner.
Adverbs
An adverb describes “how” an action happens  happiLY comfortabLY excitedLY
Irregular Adverbs:
good – well
fast – fast
How does he run?
She runs quickLY (ADV).
How does he play?
He plays well (ADV).
hard – hard
late – late
She is quick (ADJ).
He is a good (ADJ) player.
They were excitedly(ADV) completing their fairy tales.
They were excited(ADJ) to create a story.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Complete 3 examples following ^ these^ ^models.^
You must have 6 sentences in total.
You must have 3 adverb/action verb sentences and 3 adjective/linking verb sentences.
Adverbs of Frequency
• Adverbs of frequency tell about how often or how much something happens.
• never = 0% hardly ever = 5%
• Often = 70% normally = 80%
rarely = 10% sometimes = 30%
usually = 90% always = 98%
• These adverbs go after “to be,” after a helping verb, or before an action verb.
• He is often late for school.
I am always happy to help.
I have usually done well on exams.
She would never do that.
We hardly ever watch T.V.
To tell exactly how often something happens, use:
every… once a…. twice a….. three/four/etc… times a….
Students go to school five times a week. They have math class once a day.
Elements of Literature in “Becky and the Wheels-and-Brake
Boys”
• Pay attention to the narrator, voice and the 5 parts of the conflict.
• 1. What kind of narrator does James Berry, the author, create for this story?
• ---Quote an example of this kind of narrator in the story.
• 2. What are the 2 different kinds of voice used in this story?
• --- Quote an example of each kind and label which character is speaking.
• 3. Summarize each part of the conflict in one sentence.
• --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------• In your notebook answer “Narrator” #1 - 2, “Recall” #2 – 4 and
“Interpret” #5 – 8 from p. 378.
Answer completely and in complete sentences.
Passive Voice
****THIS HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH AUTHOR’S or CHARACTER’S VOICE. ****
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------In Passive Voice the action happens to the subject of the sentence.
Passive Voice can be used in all verb tenses. These are simple tense examples:
PASSIVE VOICE STATEMENTS
SUBJECT + “TO BE” + VERB #3
The classroom
is
cleaned on Fridays.
I
am
taught
by native English speakers.
The guns
are not
hidden
well by the bank robbers.
The games
were
lost
because of the team’s errors.
The window
was not
broken
by the baseball.
Your projects
will be
done
before the end of the semester.
SUBJECT + “TO BE” + VERB #3
The guns
are not
hidden
well by the bank robbers.
The games
were
lost
because of the team’s errors.
The window
was not
broken
by the baseball.
Your projects
will be
done
before the end of the semester.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PASSIVE VOICE QUESTIONS
“TO BE” + SUBJECT + VERB #3
Is this newspaper delivered daily?
Where are
you
dropped off by your parents?
Was your camera
stolen by someone?
When were
you
born?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------MODAL TENSE PASSIVE VOICE QUESTIONS
MODAL + SUBJECT + (BE + VERB #3)
Should
he
be chosen
as the 1st pick?
Will
the tiger
be set
free when it recovers?
Can
the jacket
be washed
normally?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Create 3 passive statements using all 3 simple tenses (present / past / modal).
Create 3 passive questions using all 3 simple tenses (present / past / modal ).
PassiveVoice vs. Active Voice
• There are 2 “voices” in English: Active and Passive
We use Active Voice more often and it is more direct. The subject does the action/verb
which happens to the direct object. The subject is most important.
All grammar covered so far has been in the Active Voice.
John  finished  the homework. Peter  scored  a goal.
The Passive Voice is used when what receives/feels the action is most important. Usually
what does the action is not important or not even mentioned.
The Great Wall of China  was begun in 220 B.C.  by the 1st emperor.
The members  were elected a few months ago.
Glass  is made from sand.
Problems  are discussed  by the whole family.
1. LABEL THE VERB TENSE OF EACH PASSIVE VOICE SENTENCE/CLAUSE.
2. CONVERT THE PASSIVE VOICE SENTENCES TO THE ACTIVE VOICE.
---Make sure to keep the same verb tense and meaning of the original.
We were invited to attend the party. PAST  They invited us to attend the party.
Most problems are shared by all members of the group.
The letter must be mailed before this Friday.
The Earth is heated by the sun.
The world record was broken by the star athlete.
The hamburgers were finished when I arrived.
If they meet, the cat will be chased by the dog.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
New apartments are being built across the street.
The Grand Palace has been visited by many tourists.
rhythm (n) – a pattern of sounds (rhyme, syllables, alliteration, beat…)
repetition (n) – to say something over and over
rhyme scheme (n) – the pattern of rhyme at the end of a line in a poem or song
Myth and Legend
Myth - The main characters in myths are usually gods, supernatural heroes and
humans. Myths are often closely linked to religion or kings. A myth is usually told as a
true story of how something (Earth, humans, elements of nature…) began, but clearly
are not true.
Legend – Legends are told as truth, and although there may be a real connection to
history, some characters and events are supernatural.
Both myths and legends are specific to a certain culture and explain an important
element of that society.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Ancient Greek plays, myths and legends often have a “chorus.” The chorus can have
different jobs, but gives background information, comments on themes and explain
events that happen off stage.
• The chorus represents the audience and/or the average townspeople where the
story happens.
• Specifically in “Wings” the chorus seems to represent fate. Fate is the idea that the
future is predetermined (already set) by a natural order or god.
Minotaur
The Minotaur is half man and half bull. He was born from King Minos’ wife as a
punishment for Minos disobeying the gods. It is an unnatural being and therefore eats
man as its food. The Minotaur lives within Daedalus’ labyrinth.
“Pride” and “Proud”
Pride is the major theme of the story of Daedalus and “Wings.”
Pride and Proud describe an emotion that can have 2 meanings.
Think about your understanding of the words and attempt to describe how it can
describe emotion in both positive and negative ways.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• 1. Quote examples of foreshadowing from “Wings.”
Find one example referring to birds and the sky, one
from the chorus and one of Daedalus’ actions. Copy
the quote, label the page number and label who is
speaking.
• 2. Write 3 short paragraphs explaining how
Daedalus’ pride led to his exile, the death of his son,
Icarus, and a war between Crete and Sicily.
• 3. Think back to “The Flying Machine” and the
inventor in that story. Is this inventor more
similar to Daedalus or Icarus? Explain using
specific examples from the stories.
Gerunds and Infinitives
Gerund – is (verb + ING). We use gerunds as nouns, so it is different from the
Continuous Verb Tenses. A gerund can be a subject , direct object or object of a
preposition. A gerund can have its own object object.
Playing music is fun. Her singing is beautiful. I’m going shopping. Let’s go skiing.
We’re talking about writing in English.
Infinitive – is (to + verb). An infinitive can be the subject or direct object. An infinitive
can have its own object.
To learn guitar is difficult. To talk annoys the teacher. He learned to play well.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sometimes you can use either a gerund or an infinitive…
I like to do homework. I like doing homework. Voting is important. To vote is important.
but sometimes they mean different things.
We stopped to play football with T. Paul. We stopped playing football at 5:00.
He stopped eating to run around the field.
He went to eat after playing football in P.E.
Plot – is the cause and effect sequence of events in a story. Plot includes every
action/event in a story whether it affects conflict or not.
Conflict – is the character’s main problem that he/she must solve. The conflict has 5
parts: background/exposition, rising action, climax, resolving action, results
Exposition – is most common at the beginning of the text and explains the plot and
conflict’s background, setting, and history of the characters. The author gives
information to the reader so that the reader can identify characters, recognize time,
place and situation and will understand character motives during the plot/conflict. It
can occur in later parts of the plot/conflict to advance the time forward without the
author explaining event by event.
Protagonist – is the main character in a story. The plot and conflict center around the
protagonist. The author intends the reader to connect most to the protagonist.
• Analyze the exposition of the story. Choose 3 of the characters and interpret their
personalities based on their introduction to the reader by exposition. Use quotes
from the story and predict how the characters might act throughout the conflict.
Vocab – p. 265 - 266
drama – is a type of fiction that actors perform on stage or film for an audience.
The written form of drama is a script that contains the following elements:
List of characters
Dialogue – is what characters say to each other in fiction.
Scene – a series of action in a play/film
Setting the scene – gives details about the time and place of the scene and tells what
characters are doing before the action begins. It helps the reader imagine what is
happening by creating a mental picture.
Stage directions – notes in a script that tell how characters should act (what they do
while talking) and how they should feel (emotion.) They also tell about costumes and
scenery.
The stage directions & setting the scene replace the narrator in a script.
Short Essays (8 minutes)
1. Why are the “1st person narrator” and “voice” important to
characterization in “Becky and the Wheels-and-Brake Boys?”
2. Explain pride as the major theme of “Wings” by using 2 specific
examples from the story with complete explanations.
3. Label and explain the 5 parts of the conflict. Explain each part in
“President Cleveland, Where Are You?”
4. Briefly explain exposition and its general uses. Explain 2
different ways (characterization, plot, setting, etc…) that it is used
in “President Cleveland, Where Are You?”
Short Answers (1-2 minutes)
1. Briefly and completely explain the birth, life and death of the Minotaur.
2. Compare and Contrast myth and legend.
3. Name the protagonists of the 3 stories.
4. Explain the chorus as generally used in Greek Drama and its specific
importance in “Wings.”
symbol – is an object, character or idea that represents something other
than itself. The purpose of a symbol is for the reader to infer/figure out a
greater meaning and context for the symbol as it shows importance to the
characters and theme of the story.
For example, in “The Flying Machine,” the emperor’s music box
symbolizes/represents his control over China.
The Minotaur symbolizes/represents the pride of King Minos since the
gods cursed Minos for disobedience. Then he hides the Minotaur in the
labyrinth because he cannot deal with his problem. This shows that Minos
had too much pride to follow the gods’ orders and that he cannot admit his
mistake.
In “An Occurrence At Owl Creek Bridge,” the painful ticking of Peyton’s
watch represents that he has little time left before his execution.
• Write a 5 paragraph essay explaining
the white umbrella as a symbol. Use
a thesis statement in your
introduction, and 1 quote in each
body paragraph. Your body
paragraphs should trace the white
umbrella’s role within the conflict
and analyze how the white umbrella
is a symbol.
humor (n) – is anything that amuses or makes people laugh. It could be a joke, a
strange and interesting situation or comic acting.
colorful language – this includes figures of speech, hyperbole, idioms, puns, etc.
Authors use colorful language to create a silly character or to make dialogue
humorous. It is informal language.
• PREFIX
“mega-” large, super, one million  megaphone, megaton, megabyte, “Megatron”
“tele-” far away, distance  telescope, telecommunication, teleport, telepathy
“re-” again / backward  reverse, review, repeat, recycle, renew, recapture
Possessive Questions – “Whose...?”
Whose is the question word to ask about possession (the owner of something.)
It’s the same as saying, “Who is the owner of the…?”
We answer the question with a possessive noun (singular noun) + ( ‘s) 
Steve’s… Mary’s… The doctor’s… Some kid’s…
(regular plural noun) + (s’)  The kids’… The girls’… The doctors’…
(irregular plural noun) + (‘s)  The children’s… The men’s… The people’s..
possessive pronoun 
(mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs)
Whose + thing/object + verb + …
Whose
car
is
outside?
John’s is.
Whose
books
are
under the desk? Hers are.
Whose
motorbike
drives
the fastest?
His does.
Whose
project
was
the best?
Yours was.
Whose
team
won
the game?
1.9’s team did.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Who’s is a contraction that means “Who is / Who has.”
Relative Clauses
Relative clause, or adjective clause, is a dependent clause that gives more information
about a noun. There are subject and object relative clauses.
3 relative clause pronouns are who(m), that and which.
In a subject relative clause, the relative clause pronoun is the subject of the
dependent clause.
Jane who is the president works long hours.
We went to the restaurant that won many awards.
The car which was missing was found near the railroad tracks.
I have been on one vacation that was better than all the others.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------An object relative clause gives more info about the object of an independent clause.
The relative clause pronoun is the object of the verb in the clause.
The teacher whom you had last year is leaving for Korea.
They are my favorite shoes that I wear for basketball.
Many awards that the restaurant won are prestigious.
I ate the main course which the waiter served before the appetizer.
Jane who is the president works long hours.
We went to the restaurant that won many awards.
The car which was missing was found near the railroad tracks.
I have been on one vacation that was better than all the others.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------The teacher whom you had last year is leaving for Korea.
They are my favorite shoes that I wear for basketball.
Many awards that the restaurant won are prestigious.
I ate the main course which the waiter served before the appetizer.
Present Tenses with “when, before, after, until…”
When school finishes, I’ll meet some friends at the mall.
After she eats dinner, She is going to watch the new movie.
I will wake up to finish my homework and study before the sun rises.
You’re not leaving this room until I know what happened.
When using these words as conjunctions, we usually use the present simple tense
after when, before, after, until and as soon as because it is a type of cause and effect
sentence where we assume the event will happen. So, the cause is present simple and
the effect is a future tense (simple, pres. con’t…)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------When I have completed the project, I will ask T. Patrick to check the grammar.
They will take a bus into the city when they have landed in Bangkok .
Use the present perfect when the action must be completed before the effect.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------After (I graduate, / I have graduated,) I will go to medical school.
Both tenses can be used with “after” without a change in meaning.
SCIENCE FICTION
Stories in a world like the real-world are called realistic fiction.
Stories about magic, such as fairy tales, are called fantasy.
Stories about our universe but at a different time are called science fiction. Usually it is in
the future with new technology, but a consistent law of science is necessary.
Setting – The setting might be on Earth or a distant planet. Usually there is new technology,
but there must be a scientific basis which means that strange parts of the setting can be
explained by today’s science or science as explained by the author. The new world must
follow consistent rules to be different from fantasy.
Plot / Conflict – The story usually grows and results from the strange new setting and
circumstances surrounding the characters.
Theme – is usually to make the reader consider some part of the real-world. The author
may exaggerate an everyday problem by using the strange setting and characters to change
the reader’s perspective.
Famous and recent “sci-fi” include: Star Wars, Star Trek, Inception, In Time, Repo Men,
Terminator, A Journey to the Center of the Earth, Frankenstein…
Conjunctions
and – links together 2 similar ideas to make a compound.
“and” can link nouns, verbs, adjective or 2 complete sentences.
Jane and I are getting married. We are going to Hawaii and San Diego after the wedding. We are
having a live band, and we are inviting a lot of people.
but – links together 2 opposing ideas to make a compound sentence.
He likes football, but he can’t swim. They eat a lot, but they still didn’t finish.
so – links together a cause and an effect. The effect always follows “so.”
I studied hard, so I did well on the exam. The team played well, so they won.
because – links together a cause and effect. The cause always follows “because.”
He goes to extra class because he likes to learn. Because I am tired, I am going to bed early.
or / either…or – talks about 2 possibilities
Either you finish your homework, or you will not get enough marks.
neither…nor – puts together 2 negative statements. The verb form is always positive.
Neither John nor Sally is coming to my party.
In “The Boy Who Lived With Bears” the author creates the symbol of the boy
being “reborn” or “born again.”
In the middle of the story on p. 151 the boy comes out of a cave and joins or is
born into the animal family. At the end of the story on p.153 the boy comes
out of a hollow log and rejoins the human family.
In real life a person is born and is the newest member of a family.
The author also creates this symbol by making the boy “blinded by the light” as
if he was using his eyes for the 1st time. This is like a newborn baby.
The real-world image of a baby being born is similar to the image created by
the author when the boy comes out of the cave and the log.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------What is another symbol from “The Boy Who Lived With Bears”?
Fundamental English / July 1oth &11th
1.
Using specific verb tenses to talk about a photo
For example, what are the people doing now?
What did they do before the picture?
Describe the photo using linking verbs.
What have they done to bring them to this situation?
etc…
2.
Symbolism: A))) What is symbolism? Explain how words are symbols.
B)))Write a paragraph to describe the symbolism of a picture. One
of three pictures will be on the test. The pictures will be available on
the web page.
3.
Conflict – What is the conflict of a story? What are the 5 parts of a conflict?
Explain.
4.
Vocabulary – All “Key Words” from Unit 1 of Keystone and selected democracy
vocabulary.
5.
What is your favorite question word? Explain the reasons for your choice.
6.
Sensory details: Write a paragraph to describe an object or event.
• Our Daily Life – Midterm exam // Monday, July 16th
1. Grammar - a. Verb Tenses (positive / negative statements and
questions
b. Subject – Verb Agreement
c. 4 Types of verbs (action, linking, helping, modal)
2. Prefixes and Suffixes – a. Complete sentences with the proper
form of a word.
b. Complete sentences with the correct
meaning
c. Create your own sentences using words
with or without a prefix or suffix while
demonstrating the meaning and using
the correct part of speech.
#1 – 4 Write 2 sentences with a gerund as the
subject.
Write 2 sentences with an infinitive as the subject.
# 5 – 10 Consider the following verbs: like, enjoy, love,
keep, finish, stop, mind, want, agree, forget, hope,
arrange, decide, promise, try, plan, offer
Use each verb only once to make 3 sentences with a
gerund as an object and 3 sentences with an infinitive
an object.
“Mowgli’s Brothers” – p. 129 - 131
Foreshadowing – Quote an example and predict what you think will happen later.
Theme – Quote and explain the specific importance of this theme to this story.
Characterization – Quote one example of Direct Characterization
- Quote one example of Indirect Characterization.
What kind of I.C. is it? What does it tell you about the character?
Animal Archetype – We have met 3 types of animal so far. Explain how 1 animal fulfills
its animal archetype.
Voice – Quote one example of author’s voice. Explain how the author creates the voice
of an animal.
Plot – List 10 events of the plot so far. At what point of the conflict is the story now?
ANSWER COMPLETELY and IN COMPLETE SENTENCES
Answer ONE of the following questions in your essay.
Write THE QUESTION at the top of your page.
• You must develop your opinion and offer proof using example from the story.
• You must use a thesis statement. One reason of the thesis and the 3rd body
paragraph must show that you read the end of the story.
The Law of the Jungle:
1. Why is it important that all animals follow the Law of the Jungle?
2. Compare Bagheera and Shere Kahn in relation to the Law of the Jungle. How does
this affect their relationship with other animals?
Nature vs. Nurture:
1. In “ Mowgli’s Brother’s,” is nature or what a character has been nurtured to do
more important to personality and actions?
TOPIC vs. THESIS
• What is the difference between a topic
statement and a thesis statement?
• A topic sentence defines the main idea of a
paragraph, but a thesis statement defines the
main idea and outlines an entire essay.
Suffixes: -ist
-ic
-able
“-ist” - changes a word to mean a person characterized by the base word.
“science “ becomes “scientist” which means a person who practices science.
ideal - idealist peace - pacifist active - activist optimism - optimist
“-ic” - changes a noun to an adjective and means “of” or characterized by.”
democrat - democratic toxin – toxic idealist - idealistic acid - acidic
“-able” - changes a verb or noun to an adjective and means “able to be.”
vary - variable predict – predictable rely – reliable favor - favorable
athlete - ______ energy - ______ scientist - ______ adapt - ______
observe - ______ comfort - ______ avoid - ______
value - ______
pessimism - ______ optimist - ______ biology - ______ objective - ______
Past Simple Tense - Structure
+ subject + verb 2 + object
Don
had
lunch
at noon with his best friend.
We
played
dodgeball in this morning’s house.
The Mayans were a civilization in South America.
(- action) Subject + “did + not” + verb 1 +
object .
The Simpsons
did not
finish their dinner.
He
didn’t
do
the first draft.
(- linking) Subject + “was/were + not” + object .
The test
was
not
difficult .
The games
weren’t
exciting enough for me.
(- action) Subject + “did + not” + verb 1 +
object .
The Simpsons
did not
finish their dinner.
He
didn’t
do
the first draft.
(- linking) Subject + “was/were + not” + object .
The test
was
not
difficult .
The games
weren’t
exciting enough for me.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------? (action) “did” + subject + verb 1 ?
Did
aliens
land at the Olympic stadium?
When
did
you
finish school last year?
? (linking) “were/was” + subject + object?
Were
they
on the ship?
Why
was
he
unavailable for the meeting?
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Complete 3 + 3 – and 3 ? sentences in your notebook. Use at least 1 linking and
1 action verb for each set (+, -, ?)
Simple Past – Usage
Use 1 – For a completed past action / series of past actions
I did my homework last night. I finished work and then walked to the beach.
Use 2 – for an action that lasted for a time, but stopped in the past
I lived in Brazil for two years. Shauna studied Japanese for five years.
Use 3 – Past habits / Past facts – facts that are not true now, but were true
I studied French when I was a child. She was shy as a child, but now she isn’t.
Verb + Gerund(verb+ing)
•
•
A Gerund is an action that is used as a noun. To box is an action. Boxing is the sport
To make a GERUND: verb + “ing”
•
Gerunds commonly follow these verbs: avoid, can’t stand, enjoy, like, finish, hate, keep, miss, stop
•
•
(verb)
+
(verb+ing / gerund)
Past / present / future +
always the same
•
Indirect Objects
•
•
•
•
The action / verb happens to the Direct Object
The Indirect Object replaces a prepositional phrase and goes before the direct object.
I
gave
a present
to Mom.
Subject + verb + direct object + prepositional phrase
•
•
I
gave
Subject + verb
mom
+ indirect object
a present.
+
direct object
Object Pronouns - me, you, him, her, it, us, them
I
Subject
+
gave
verb
her
+ indirect object pronoun
+
it.
direct object pronoun
Indirect Objects
• The action / verb happens to the Direct Object.
• The Indirect Object replaces a prepositional phrase and goes before the
direct object.
• I
gave
a present
to Mom.
• Subject + verb + direct object + prepositional phrase
• I
gave
• Subject + verb
mom
+ indirect object
a present.
+
direct object
Object Pronouns - me, you, him, her, it, us, them
I
gave
her
it.
Subject +
verb
+ indirect object pronoun + DO pronoun
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------She sent a message to her friend. The chef cooked his guests a meal.
Present Perfect Tense + already/yet
Already and yet are 2 adverbs that are commonly used with the present
perfect.
Present Perfect is used to talk about actions that happened in a general
past time. You are not sure exactly when it happened, but you are sure that
it happened already.
Simple Past Tense: It happened ( last year/week).
past -------------------//------------------------------------//-----------present
last year
last week
Present Perfect Tense: It has happened already.
past--(---------action finished anytime in the past----------)--//present
*****Irregular Past Participles / Verb#3 are listed in Table E on p.96
Grammar Spectrum. *****
of
Suffix: “-ness” / “-tion” / “-ation”
• Add a suffix to the end of a word to change the Part of Speech (P.O.S.)
• ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------• -ness means “full of” and changes an adjective to a noun.
happy  happiness good  goodness kind  kindness sad  sad_____
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tion and -ation mean “state of being” or “condition of”
and
change a verb to a noun.
observe  observation conserve  conservation prepare prepar______
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Other words with these sufixes are:
educate  _______ create  _______ demonstrate  ___________
forgive  ________ lazy  _________ great  ________ aware ______
invent  ________ populate  _________ expire  ___________
fierce  ________ admire  __________ consider  ____________
imagine  __________ transport  _____________
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Suffix
Add a suffix to the end of a word to change the Part of Speech (P.O.S.)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ness means “full of” and changes an adjective to a noun.
happy  happiness good  goodness kind  kindness sad  sad_____
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tion and -ation mean “state of being” or “condition of” and change a verb to a noun.
observe  observation conserve  conservation prepare prepar______
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------er and -or mean “someone/something that does” and change a verb to a noun.
teach – teacher operate – operator play – player calculate - _____________
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Other words with these sufixes are:
educate - ____,____ create - ___,___ demonstrate - ___,____ design - _________
lazy - ______ aware -______ invent - ______ populate - _____ clean - _____
expire - ________ report - _______ fierce - ________ admire - ______, ______
great -_____ print - ________ consider - ________ imagine - _______
direct ________ transport - _____,_____ act - _________ good - ______
collect - _____ communicate - _____, _____ defend - ___________
Root Words and Suffixes
Root Word – is a word without a prefix or suffix
-----------------------------------------------------------------Choose 3 root word adjectives and 3 root word verbs from the last
slide.
-Write 2 sentences for each root word.
-The 1st sentence must be the original root word. The 2nd sentence must have
the suffix added to the root word to make a noun.
Use the words in the correct P.O.S.
EXAMPLE: frustrate (v)  frustration (n)
AC Milan frustrated (v) Ronaldo with their great defense.
Ronaldo felt frustration (n) because he could not score for 90 minutes.
Root Words and Suffixes
• Apple created (v) the iPad.
Apple’s new creation (n) is the iPad.
• Teachers help, but students must educate (v) themselves.
• The best education (n) is to be a self-teacher.
15 million people populate (v) Bangkok. Bangkok’s population (n) is 15 million.
I will ____ going with you, but I’m not sure. He has ___ for his mom on her birthday.
We ___ experiments in science class. Our ___ is that too much salinity kills plankton.
The fruit will _____ and go bad soon.
The _____ date is tomorrow.
The BTS ____ many people each day. The BTS is a type of ________.
Root Words and Suffixes
I smile when I’m happy (adj). Happiness (n) makes me smile.
The student is bored because he is lazy (adj). His laziness (n) makes him bored.
Top students are aware (adj) in the classroom.
awareness (n) lets them absorb information.
A tiger’s _________is scary.
Their
Tigers are ________animals.
The ____ movie made me cry. There was too much ______ to enjoy it.
The ____ of the boy made him help the old woman. He is such a ___ boy.
____ had nothing to do with it.
Vocabulary – p. 137
• dialect (n) – A dialect is the pattern of speech of a small area of a
country. For example, there are many dialects of English across the
U.S.
• suspense (n) – Suspense is a mysterious feeling when the reader
wants to know what will happen next.
• The detective mystery made me feel suspense, so I finished the book
in 2 hours because I wanted to know who robbed the bank.
• mood (n) – Author’s mode is how he wants the reader to feel.
• The mood of a horror story is scary and suspenseful.
Passive Voice
****THIS HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH AUTHOR’S or CHARACTER’S VOICE. ****
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------In Passive Voice the action happens to the subject of the sentence.
Passive Voice can be used in all verb tenses. These are simple tense examples:
PASSIVE VOICE STATEMENTS
SUBJECT + “TO BE” + VERB #3
The classroom
is
cleaned on Fridays.
I
am
taught
by native English speakers.
The guns
are not
hidden
well by the bank robbers.
The games
were
lost
because of the team’s errors.
The window
was not
broken
by the baseball.
Your projects
will be
done
before the end of the semester.
SUBJECT + “TO BE” + VERB #3
The guns
are not
hidden
well by the bank robbers.
The games
were
lost
because of the team’s errors.
The window
was not
broken
by the baseball.
Your projects
will be
done
before the end of the semester.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PASSIVE VOICE QUESTIONS
“TO BE” + SUBJECT + VERB #3
Is this newspaper delivered daily?
Where are
you
dropped off by your parents?
Was your camera
stolen by someone?
When were
you
born?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------MODAL TENSE PASSIVE VOICE QUESTIONS
MODAL + SUBJECT + (BE + VERB #3)
Should
he
be chosen
as the 1st pick?
Will
the tiger
be set
free when it recovers?
Can
the jacket
be washed
normally?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Create 3 passive statements using all 3 simple tenses (present / past / modal).
Create 3 passive questions using all 3 simple tenses (present / past / modal ).
PassiveVoice vs. Active Voice
• There are 2 “voices” in English: Active and Passive
We use Active Voice more often and it is more direct. The subject does the action/verb
which happens to the direct object. The subject is most important.
All grammar covered so far has been in the Active Voice.
John  finished  the homework. Peter  scored  a goal.
The Passive Voice is used when what receives/feels the action is most important. Usually
what does the action is not important or not even mentioned.
The Great Wall of China  was begun in 220 B.C.  by the 1st emperor.
The members  were elected a few months ago.
Glass  is made from sand.
Problems  are discussed  by the whole family.
1. LABEL THE VERB TENSE OF EACH PASSIVE VOICE SENTENCE/CLAUSE.
2. CONVERT THE PASSIVE VOICE SENTENCES TO THE ACTIVE VOICE.
---Make sure to keep the same verb tense and meaning of the original.
We were invited to attend the party. PAST  They invited us to attend the party.
Most problems are shared by all members of the group.
The letter must be mailed before this Friday.
The Earth is heated by the sun.
The world record was broken by the star athlete.
The hamburgers were finished when I arrived.
If they meet, the cat will be chased by the dog.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
New apartments are being built across the street.
The Grand Palace has been visited by many tourists.
rhythm (n) – a pattern of sounds (rhyme, syllables, alliteration, beat…)
repetition (n) – to say something over and over
rhyme scheme (n) – the pattern of rhyme at the end of a line in a poem or song
symbol – is an object, character or idea that represents something other
than itself. The purpose of a symbol is for the reader to infer/figure out a
greater meaning and context for the symbol as it shows importance to the
characters and theme of the story.
For example, in “The Flying Machine,” the emperor’s music box
symbolizes/represents his control over China.
The Minotaur symbolizes/represents the pride of King Minos since the
gods cursed Minos for disobedience. Then he hides the Minotaur in the
labyrinth because he cannot deal with his problem. This shows that Minos
had too much pride to follow the gods’ orders and that he cannot admit his
mistake.
In “An Occurrence At Owl Creek Bridge,” the painful ticking of Peyton’s
watch represents that he has little time left before his execution.
Conjunctions: “when, before, after, until, as soon as” with present tenses
Use the present simple tense after when, before, after, until and as soon as
So, the cause is present simple and the effect is a future tense (simple, pres.
con’t, modal…)
When school finishes, I’ll meet some friends at the mall.
After she eats dinner, She is going to watch the new movie.
I will wake up to finish my work and study before the sun rises.
You’re not leaving this room until I know what happened.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------When I have
completed the project, I will ask T. Patrick to check the grammar.
They will take a bus into the city when they have landed in Bangkok .
Use the present perfect when the action must be completed before the effect.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------After (I graduate, / I have graduated,) I will go to medical school.
Both tenses can be used with “after” without a change in meaning.
I will wake up to finish my work and study before the sun rises.
You’re not leaving this room until I know what happened.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------When
I have completed the project, I will ask T. Patrick to check the grammar.
They will take a bus into the city when they have landed in Bangkok .
Use the present perfect when the 1st action must be completed before
the 2nd.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------After
(I graduate, / I have graduated,) I will go to medical school.
Both tenses can be used with “after” without a change in meaning.
Conjunctions
and – links together 2 similar ideas to make a compound.
“and” can link nouns, verbs, adjective or 2 complete sentences.
Jane and I are getting married. We are going to Hawaii and San Diego after the wedding. We are
having a live band, and we are inviting a lot of people.
but – links together 2 opposing ideas to make a compound sentence.
He likes football, but he can’t swim. They eat a lot, but they still didn’t finish.
so – links together a cause and an effect. The effect always follows “so.”
I studied hard, so I did well on the exam. The team played well, so they won.
because – links together a cause and effect. The cause always follows “because.”
He goes to extra class because he likes to learn. Because I am tired, I am going to bed early.
or / either…or – talks about 2 possibilities
Either you finish your homework, or you will not get enough marks.
neither…nor – puts together 2 negative statements. The verb form is always positive.
Neither John nor Sally is coming to my party.
Historical fiction -The setting is real and shows an
important event in history.
- The story often has historical characters, but the
main characters are fictional.
- The writer puts the reader in the point of view of an
average person at the time of an important
historical event.
Biography (non-fiction) – is a detailed description of a
person’s life. Usually, the person is important in
history.
• Voice – An author creates a specific “voice” for each
character to make the reader believe each
character’s personality.
• The way each character talks reveals the
personality.
• For example, a character who is a child will speak
like a child and maybe make grammar mistakes and
as a lot of questions. An old man character might
speak very formally and give advice to the child.
• What is a clear example of an animal’s voice in
“Mowgli’s Brother’s”?
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory Dramatization
-You must act out your scene in class.
-You must memorize your lines.
-You can edit your character’s lines to make them
shorter, but you must not exclude anything important
from the scene.
-You must dress up in costume for the scene.
-You need at least one prop (objects or furniture used
on stage during a play in order to illustrate the action
of a scene) for your character.
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory Dramatization
Scene 1
Narrator- Teerapat 2. Violet – Jackrapan 3. Veruca – Kunach 4. Mike – Tanakorn
Scene 2
Narrator – Khanin 2. Mr. Bucket – Chaovatas 3. 2 Grandpas – Napat
4. Charlie - Chatu
Scene 3
1. Mr./Mrs. Bucket – Ittiwat 2. Charlie – Sorawis 3. Grandparents/All – Nattapon
Scene 4
Charlie – Jiratip 2. Grandpa – Chanarop 3. Wonka – Chaichontat 4. Kids – Pichapon
Scene 5
Augustus – Pawin 2. Charlie – Nachanon 3. Grandpa – Tanapong
4. Wonka –
Danmuang 5. All others - Chaiyawat
Scene 7
1. Wonka – Poom 2. Violet – Supakorn 3. Mrs. B. – Kittitat
Scene 8
Wonka – Thass 2. Veruca – Tanapol 3. Mr./Mrs. Salt – Vich
4. Others - Chanalai
Scene 9
1. Wonka – Pattarwat 2. Charlie – Dechawee 3. Mike - Kasama
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