The Crucible Introduction

Write the sentence,
filling in and
underlining the
correct pronoun.
• You and ________ will rule
the world. (I/me)
• If anyone deserves
recognition for their
contribution, it is
___________. (they/them)
• _________ cheerleaders
are planning to burn our
pompoms. (we/us)
• It is _______ right to have
a bad hair day.
• You can’t have that tofu; it
belongs to ________!
11.) Non sequitur: Literally, “does not follow.” A
conclusion or statement that does not arise logically
from the premises of a given argument.
12.) Red herring: Avoiding the “real” argument by
introducing something irrelevant or tangentially
related, thereby changing or shifting the topic of
13.) Straw man fallacy: Attempting to strengthen
your own view by distorting the opposing view or
making it seem overly simplistic. The opposing view
thus becomes a “straw man” that you can knock down
easily. This technique usually hurts your credibility.
True or False
• Confessing to a crime you didn’t commit in order
to avoid punishment is wise.
• The difference between right and wrong is clear.
• It is better to die for what you believe in rather
than to lie to save your life.
• It’s more difficult to forgive yourself if the person
you have hurt doesn’t forgive you.
• Courage means doing something even though it
can be difficult and fearsome.
• A person is innocent until proven guilty.
• Justice is best determined in a court of law.
SAT Vocabulary
Abhor: hate
Bigot: narrow-minded, prejudiced person
Remuneration: payment for work done
Demographers and anthropologists have corrected the
notion that European explorers in North America entered a ------ territory by showing that the land in some areas was
already as densely ------ as parts of Europe.
a. fertile…settled
b. colossal.. wooded
c. desolate… populated
d. valuable…exploited
e. hostile…concentrated
• allegory: The device of using character and/or
story elements symbolically to represent an
abstraction in addition to the literal meaning.
In some allegories, for example, an author
may intend the characters to personify an
abstraction like hope or freedom. The
allegorical meaning usually deals with moral
truth or a generalization about human
Be reviewing your
Logical Fallacies for
your quiz on
Thursday (B1)
Friday (A2)
• ambiguity: The multiple meanings, either
intentional or unintentional, of a word,
phrase, sentence, or passage.
• antecedent: The word, phrase, or clause
referred to by a pronoun. The AP language
exam occasionally asks for the antecedent of a
given pronoun in a long, complex sentence or
in a group of sentences. A question from the
2001 AP test as an example follows:
– “But it is the grandeur of all truth which
can occupy a very high place in human
interests that it is never absolutely novel
to the meanest of minds; it exists eternally,
by way of germ of latent principle, in the
lowest as in the highest, needing to be
developed but never to be planted.” The
antecedent of “it” (bolded) is...?
The Crucible (1954)
B Y: A R T H U R M I L L E R
American Drama
Types of Characters
• Drama has many of the same types of characters that
are found in fiction.
– The protagonist is the central character of the play.
This character is at the center of the conflict and often
undergoes radical changes during the course of the
– The antagonist often opposes the protagonist, giving
rise to the central conflict of the play.
– Some plays also include a foil, a minor character who
provides a striking contrast to another character.
Interplay among these characters heightens the
dramatic tension as the play develops. The names of
all a play’s characters are listed in the cast of
characters at the beginning of the play.
American Drama (cont.)
Speech Devices
• In drama, the playwright develops the story line through
the characters’ actions and dialogue. Virtually everything
of consequence—from the plot details to the character
revelations—flows from dialogue, or conversation between
• Other speech devices used by playwrights include
– Monologue: a long speech spoken by a single character
to the audience or another character
– Soliloquy: a reflective speech in which a character
speaks his or her private thoughts aloud, unheard by
other characters
– Aside: a short speech or comment that is delivered by a
character to the audience but is not heard by other
characters who are present
• Christian faith that originated in England in
the early 1600s.
• Puritans believed in predestination.
• They split from the Church of England in 1633.
• Many emigrated to the American colonies.
• Their radical beliefs flourished in the new
Witchcraft in Salem
• Like all Puritans, the residents of Salem Village believed in
witches and in witchcraft.
• They believed that witchcraft was “entering into a compact
with the devil in exchange for certain powers to do evil.”
• They considered witchcraft both a sin and a crime; it was a
very serious accusation, which was carefully and thoroughly
• The witchcraft hysteria began in Salem, Massachusetts, in
early 1692.
• Reverend Samuel Parris’s daughter and Abigail Williams
started having fits of convulsion, screaming, and
– A doctor examined the girls and concluded that they only explanation
for these bizarre behaviors was witchcraft.
Witchcraft in Salem
• During the next eight months of terror, more
than 150 people were imprisoned for witchcraft.
• By the time court was dismissed, 27 people had
been convicted, 19 hanged, and 1 pressed to
• The hysteria that snowballed in Salem reveals
how deep the belief in the
supernatural ran in colonial
• McCarthyism is the term used to
describe a period of intense
suspicion in the United States
during the early 1950s.
• It began when Senator Joseph
McCarthy, a U.S. senator from
Wisconsin, claimed that
communists had infiltrated the
Department of State.
• A special House Committee on
Un-American Activities was
formed to investigate allegations
of communism.
• During this period, people from
all walks of life became the
subjects of aggressive “witch
hunts” based on inconclusive,
questionable evidence.
• Persons accused of being
communists were often
denied employment in both
the public and private
• In the film industry alone,
over 300 actors, writers,
and directors were denied
work in the U.S.
• American writer, Arthur
Miller, was one of those
alleged to have been
Arthur Miller (1915-2005)
• American playwright and writer
• In 1953 he wrote The Crucible, which
uses the Salem witchcraft trials of 1692
to attack the anti-communist “witch
hunts” of the 1950s.
• He believed the hysteria surrounding
the witchcraft trials in Puritan New
England paralleled the climate of
McCarthyism – Senator Joseph
McCarthy’s obsessive quest to uncover
communist party infiltration of
American institutions.
• He refused to give information
regarding his colleagues and was found
guilty of contempt of the court. His
sentence was later overturned.
Fire! Herb Block’s
The Cause
• In the aftermath of World War II,
Americans reacted with dismay as
relations between the United States
and the Soviet Union deteriorated,
the Russians imposed communist
control over much of Eastern Europe,
and China was on the verge of going
• People worried that communists
might try to subvert schools, labor
unions, and other institutions.
• Government agencies and private groups
began to look for evidence of subversive
activity. In this climate of fear and
suspicion, the House Committee on UnAmerican Activities, which Herb Block
had opposed since its inception in the
1930s, became active.
• In 1950, a young senator from Wisconsin,
Joseph McCarthy, seeking political gain,
began a well-publicized campaign using
smear tactics, bullying and innuendo to
identify and purge communists and
"fellow travelers" in government.
• Herb Block recognized the danger to civil
liberties posed by such activities and
warned of them in his work.
• He coined the phrase "McCarthyism" in his
cartoon for March 29, 1950, naming the era
just weeks after Senator McCarthy's
spectacular pronouncement that he had in
his hand a list of communists in the State
• His accusations became headline news,
vaulting him into the national political
spotlight. For four years McCarthy attacked
communism, while in his cartoons Herb
Block relentlessly attacked his heavyhanded tactics.
• In June 1954, McCarthy was censured and
in December condemned by the Senate.
The Cartoons:
Assignment for Next Class
• Your task is to look at one of Herb Block’s
political cartoons criticizing McCarthy’s
crusade against communism.
• In your Composition Journal Notebook….Take
a careful look at your cartoon.
– Write the title (or print out cartoon)
– Interpret the message of the artist
– Evaluate it’s effectiveness (Is it effective? Why or
why not?)
– Compare your analysis with the background
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