Who did the Spanish government consider as a filibuster ?
A filibuster is a person who:
1. was from a foreign country( not a Spaniard)
2. came prepared to fight the government
3. who wanted and power for himself
4. wanted to personal gain (get rich)
Philip Nolan
Philip Nolan was a native of
Ireland who lived in Kentucky
for several years before coming
to Texas in 1794. Here, he captured
wild mustangs which he then sold
to the Spanish governor of Louisiana.
During this time, he traveled about
and learned a great deal about the
province and the Native Americans
who lived here. Fearing he was creating contacts with the
Indians as part of a plan to seize Texas, the Spanish governor
canceled his passport and ordered him arrested if he returned to Texas.
Nolan did return with a group of men in 1800 and built a fort
near present-day Waco. The Spanish sent 150 soldiers to arrested him. Nolan
refused to surrender and was killed while fighting the Spanish.
Study your criteria and check any items that are true for Nolan.
Is Nolan a filibuster?
Peter Ellis Bean
Peter Ellis Bean came to Texas from
Tennessee. At the age of 17, he joined
Philip Nolan’s expedition. He took
command after Nolan was killed. Bean
was eventually captured by the Spanish at
Waco and spent several years in prison.
After he was released, he joined
revolutionary forces in Mexico.
Father Hidalgo
Father Hidalgo was a Catholic
priest in Mexico. He had great
sympathy for the poor people
of Mexico and believed that
the only hope of improving their
conditions was to rid Mexico of
Spanish rule. In 1810, he called
for the people of Mexico to rise up
in revolt. While retreating from
Mexico City, his forces were overtaken and he
was captured. He was executed four months later.
Jean La Fitte
Jean La Fitte was a French pirate who
used Galveston as a base for his
operation. He attacked Spanish
ships and stole valuables. He illegally
imported slaves into the United States through
Texas. When threatened by the Spanish, he
burned his house in Galveston.
Some say he left a buried treasure behind.
Augustus Magee
An American army officer who
along with Bernardo Gutierrez
planned to establish an
independent Texas republic . They
captured Nacogdoches. Later he
died of disease in La Bahia.
Bernardo Gutierrez de Larasupporter of Hidalgo; went to the
U.S. to ask for money and supplies
in the battle against Spain; later
teamed up with Augustus Magee
to try to liberate Texas from Spain
Expedition Flag
Republican Army of the North-army of about 300 troops (mostly
Anglo Americans, Native Americans, and Tejanos) led by Magee
and Gutierrez; captured Nacogdoches and Goliad; later defeated
Spanish troops at San Antonio; in San Antonio, troops fought over
the type of government to be formed; in August 1813, the forces
lost to the Spanish near the Medina River; Most men were killed
or executed, but some escaped to the U.S.
Samuel Kemper:
after Magee died at Goliad, this
American took command of the
troops. Later declared Texas
independent from Spain.
Gutierrez disagreed, wanted Texas
to be always to be part of Mexico.
Spanish General Arredondo
defeats Kemper at the Battle of
Medina in 1813. Many were killed
and survivors were executed. Also
killed people who helped the
filibusters. People fled to the
Sabine River.
In 1819, the Adams-Onis Treaty
James Long
established the boundary of between
the United States and New Spain at
the Sabine and Red Rivers. Many
people living near this border
protested because it meant that the
United States had given up all claim to
the rich lands of Texas. A group of Americans in Natchez, Mississippi
recruited volunteers for a military expedition to establish American
ownership of Texas. Dr, James Long, a wealthy plantation owner and
merchant was chosen to lead the expedition. His forces captured
Nacogdoches in 1819 but the town was later retaken by the Spanish.
He made a second attempt to take Texas in 1821 but was captured and
eventually put in prison in Mexico City. He was released on parole in
April 1822 but was accidentally shot by a Mexican soldier.