Filibusters Who did the Spanish government consider as a filibuster ? A filibuster is a person who: 1. was from a foreign country( not a Spaniard) 2. came prepared to fight the government 3. who wanted and power for himself 4. wanted to personal gain (get rich) Philip Nolan Philip Nolan was a native of Ireland who lived in Kentucky for several years before coming to Texas in 1794. Here, he captured wild mustangs which he then sold to the Spanish governor of Louisiana. During this time, he traveled about and learned a great deal about the province and the Native Americans who lived here. Fearing he was creating contacts with the Indians as part of a plan to seize Texas, the Spanish governor canceled his passport and ordered him arrested if he returned to Texas. Nolan did return with a group of men in 1800 and built a fort near present-day Waco. The Spanish sent 150 soldiers to arrested him. Nolan refused to surrender and was killed while fighting the Spanish. Study your criteria and check any items that are true for Nolan. Is Nolan a filibuster? Peter Ellis Bean Peter Ellis Bean came to Texas from Tennessee. At the age of 17, he joined Philip Nolan’s expedition. He took command after Nolan was killed. Bean was eventually captured by the Spanish at Waco and spent several years in prison. After he was released, he joined revolutionary forces in Mexico. Father Hidalgo Father Hidalgo was a Catholic priest in Mexico. He had great sympathy for the poor people of Mexico and believed that the only hope of improving their conditions was to rid Mexico of Spanish rule. In 1810, he called for the people of Mexico to rise up in revolt. While retreating from Mexico City, his forces were overtaken and he was captured. He was executed four months later. Jean La Fitte Jean La Fitte was a French pirate who used Galveston as a base for his operation. He attacked Spanish ships and stole valuables. He illegally imported slaves into the United States through Texas. When threatened by the Spanish, he burned his house in Galveston. Some say he left a buried treasure behind. Augustus Magee An American army officer who along with Bernardo Gutierrez planned to establish an independent Texas republic . They captured Nacogdoches. Later he died of disease in La Bahia. Bernardo Gutierrez de Larasupporter of Hidalgo; went to the U.S. to ask for money and supplies in the battle against Spain; later teamed up with Augustus Magee to try to liberate Texas from Spain Gutierrez-Magee Expedition Flag Republican Army of the North-army of about 300 troops (mostly Anglo Americans, Native Americans, and Tejanos) led by Magee and Gutierrez; captured Nacogdoches and Goliad; later defeated Spanish troops at San Antonio; in San Antonio, troops fought over the type of government to be formed; in August 1813, the forces lost to the Spanish near the Medina River; Most men were killed or executed, but some escaped to the U.S. Samuel Kemper: after Magee died at Goliad, this American took command of the troops. Later declared Texas independent from Spain. Gutierrez disagreed, wanted Texas to be always to be part of Mexico. Spanish General Arredondo defeats Kemper at the Battle of Medina in 1813. Many were killed and survivors were executed. Also killed people who helped the filibusters. People fled to the Sabine River. In 1819, the Adams-Onis Treaty James Long established the boundary of between the United States and New Spain at the Sabine and Red Rivers. Many people living near this border protested because it meant that the United States had given up all claim to the rich lands of Texas. A group of Americans in Natchez, Mississippi recruited volunteers for a military expedition to establish American ownership of Texas. Dr, James Long, a wealthy plantation owner and merchant was chosen to lead the expedition. His forces captured Nacogdoches in 1819 but the town was later retaken by the Spanish. He made a second attempt to take Texas in 1821 but was captured and eventually put in prison in Mexico City. He was released on parole in April 1822 but was accidentally shot by a Mexican soldier.