Elements of Literature 1. Plot – the events that occur in a novel, short story, poem, or play. 2. Setting – where and when a story takes place. Setting also creates mood or atmosphere. 3. Characterization – the development of the characters in a work of literature. 4. Conflict – the main struggle or problem in a work of literature (usually between the protagonist and antagonist). 5. Point of View – who the narrator of the work of literature is. SETTING CHARACTERIZATION PLOT CONFLICT POINT OF VIEW “The Use of Force” • Possible themes: 1. The justification of an authority figure using force 2. The abuse of power/authority “The Use of Force” • Characterization: 1. In a few sentences, depict how Williams characterizes the doctor. In other words, what image does Williams portray of this man? Use at least TWO or THREE examples from the text. Hint: Do so in chronological order. Are there any hints as to what kind of person the doctor is in the first four to five paragraphs? • Arrogant? • Condescending? HW • On loose-leaf or a typed response, write a paragraph of 7-8 sentences that describes the doctor in the short story, “The Use of Force.” Use at least THREE examples that support your claim. Other Themes to Explore… • Ethics… • Is it right to hurt an individual to protect her and society? • More importantly, is it right to enjoy it? • If you were the doctor, how would you have handled the situation? “The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas” by Ursula Le Guin • Before reading: 1. Omelas is a made-up city that LeGuin describes as a utopia. 2. Utopia – the ideal or perfect society. • As we read, with a pen, underline or highlight the qualities of Omelas that make it a utopia. • Homework: Find a COMMON theme in William’s short story, “The Use of Force” and LeGuin’s short story, “The Ones Who Walk Away From Omelas.” Write your response in your binder. Paragraph Writing Guidelines So Far… 1. Topic sentence (author, title, and address the topic) 2. Development (Give necessary background information so the writing flows) 3. Examples (Use at least one to two quotes) 4. Transition words and phrases How to Use Quotes from the Text… 1. You can simply state what the author writes or what a character says. • For example, the doctor narrates, “I could see they were all very nervous, eyeing me up and down distrustfully” (1). • Williams writes, “Both the mother and father turned themselves inside out in embarrassment and apology” (1). How to Use Quotes from the Text… • You can take an important part of a quote and “fit” it in into your OWN sentence. 1. It is clear that the doctor is non-caring because he sees that the family “were all very nervous” and he does nothing to make them feel calm (1). 2. Although the doctor’s claim that “the damned little brat must be protected against her own idiocy” might be true, he could have handled the situation better (2). Literary Elements… • Goal: To understand the FOUR types of point of view in literature and how they affect your approach to reading. 1. First-person point of view (The pronoun “I” is used. The protagonist is often referred to as the narrator.) • What are the advantages of an author using the first-person point of view? • What are the disadvantages? Do Now • Write a brief plot summary or synopsis (5-8 sentences) of your favorite television show, episode, or movie. Write this summary as if the person you are telling this to has never seen this particular show, episode, or movie. Developing Your Paragraph Writing… • TOPIC • EXAMPLE • ANALYSIS TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTEEEE EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE EEAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE EEEEEEEEEEEAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA Guidelines So Far… 1. Topic Sentence (Author, title, addresses the topic) 2. Development (as you provide examples and analyses, you provide PLOT summary) 3. Examples (Use quotes and try to “fit” them in into your own sentence. Also, think of the order of your examples: Order of importance – usually CHRONOLIGICAL) 4. Analysis (Examine and provide your interpretation of the example) 5. Transition Words and Phrases 6. Use the LITERARY PRESENT TENSE. The narrator in Hawkins’ short story, “Wedding Night,” can best be characterized as a sexual predator. He is a man who has been working at a “bus station magazine since nineteen fifty three, waiting for the right girl to come along (1). Though his words “right girl” and the title of the short story itself may imply that he is a decent man looking for a wife, his true identity is revealed as he discloses details about his life. First of all, when he shares his story of being held up by a “stocky white man in a brown jacket,” he admits to never being frightened because he considers the robber to be just like him. This important detail reveals two things about the narrator. He obviously implies that just like him, the robber is a criminal. Further, the fact that the narrator can recall every detail about the holdup also shows that like many sexual predators or criminals, he is extremely observant of his surroundings. Secondly, the narrator finally thinks that “the right girl might come along” when he meets a girl in the 1960’s who is a hippie. Hippies were known to be wanderers, traveling from city to city. The fact that the narrator thinks this girl is the “right girl” reinforces the idea that he is a sexual predator. Since hippies did not have a fixed home, he knows that she could be a perfect target for a sex crime. Finally, the narrator invites this girl to his home and offers her to stay there as long as she likes. As she sleeps, the narrator does indeed touch her “inside her clothes” and confesses that he “woke up on fire, and the room was turning” (1). Though the sexual act he commits is not clearly defined, there is no doubt that the narrator of “Wedding Night” is controlled by his impulse to commit some sort of sexual crime. “Wedding Night” Tom Hawkins • In a well-written, well-developed paragraph, provide an indepth character analysis of the narrator in Hawkins’ short story, “Wedding Night.” • Guidelines: 1. Minimum: 10 sentences 2. Use at least TWO examples (think of the order of your examples) 3. Analyze each example 4. Use at least TWO quotes from the text, and try to make the quotes you use “fit” into your own sentence. 5. Use the present tense as learned in class today.