Short Story Unit Before the End of Summer If it is written in yellow, you DO NOT NEED to write. If it is written in white, you need to write. Activities / Assignments Notes on each Short Story Notes on Literary Terms Discussion Quizzes on Literary Terms Reading Questions Reading Quizzes Test Project Stories we will read… The Open Window Before the End of Summer The Lady, or the Tiger? The Most Dangerous Game The Gift of the Magi Literary Terminology • 1. Irony- an outcome of events contrary to what was expected. contrast between what is stated and what is meant or what is expected to happen and what actually does. • 2. Understatement- The presentation of a thing with under emphasis in order to achieve a greater effect. Irony Irony Irony Irony Understatement: It’s going to be a little windy today Understatement: My office is a little messy right now. Understatement: I don’t think we’re going anywhere. Understatement: You need to work on your parallel parking. 3. Setting - where a literary work takes place. 4. Theme - the central message, lesson, or idea of a story. Setting Setting Setting Setting 5. Conflict - struggle between two forces A. Internal -struggle the character faces against himself B. External -struggle the character faces against an outside force C. Man vs. Man, Man vs. Nature, Man vs. Self, Man vs. Supernatural Man vs. Man Man vs. Nature Man vs. Self Man vs. Supernatural 6. Foreshadowing - use of clues to suggest events that have yet to occur. 7. Mood – feeling created in the reader by a literary work or passage. 8. Narrator - the speaker or character who tells the story. Narrator 9. Metaphor- A figure of speech in which a comparison is made between two things essentially unalike. 10. Simile A figure of speech in which a comparison is expressed by the specific use of a word or phrase such as: like, as, than, seems or "as if." 11. Symbol- A thing (could be an object, person, situation or action) which stands for something else. Metaphors “Wyatt, I stand corrected, you’re an oak.” “We would have had more pizza to eat if Tammy hadn’t been such a pig.” “He was gripped by fear.” “He has an alligator mouth and a canary behind.” “It's getting quite hairy out there.” “That night, football flexed it’s greatest muscle.” “Give me the rock.” Similes As dead as a doornail Doing drugs is like playing with fire. As cool as a cucumber As nutty as a fruitcake As poor as dirt As slow as molasses As snug as a bug in a rug Down like four flat tires Symbols 12. Plot - sequences of events; what happens in a story A. exposition -part of the plot graph that introduces the characters, setting, and the basic situation. B. conflict - struggle between two forces C. Rising action - the series of events that lead to the climax; contains minor conflicts and tries to get the reader interested. D. Climax - the point of highest tension or drama E. Falling action - any event that follows the climax; conflicts are resolved F. Resolution - the main conflict is resolved G. Denouement - anything that happens after the resolution The Gift of the Magi 13. Point of View - the perspective from which a story is told. A. 1st person -the narrator is a character and refers to himself as "I". B. 3rd person limited- the narrator's knowledge is limited to one character. C. 3rd person omniscient - the narrator knows everything about all the characters Literary Terminology 14. Antagonist - An antagonist is a character or group of characters who represents the opposition against which the protagonist(s) must contend. Contrary to what some believe, the antagonist is not always the villain (bad guy), but simply those who oppose the main character. The Most Dangerous Game 15. Personification A type of metaphor in which distinct human qualities are attributed to an animal, object or idea. Personification 16. Diction - a writer's word choice; may be formal or informal, plain or ornate, common or technical, abstract or concrete 17. Character - person or animal that takes part in the action of a work A. main character -the character on whom the work focuses B. major - main character and any other characters who play important roles C. minor - one who does not play an important role D. round - character who is like a real person: more developed E. static (flat) - one who doesn't change in the course of the work: usually less developed 18. Figurative Language (or "figures of speech") -a way of saying something other than the literal meaning of the words. Examples of figurative language “Taking notes is killing me.” “I’m making money like a bank teller.” 19. Paradox- A statement or situation containing apparently contradictory or incompatible elements, but on closer inspection may be true. 20. Hyperbole- A bold, deliberate overstatement not intended to be taken literally, it is used as a means of emphasizing the truth of a statement. Examples of paradox • “Man learns from history that man learns nothing from history." • “Lose your life and you will find it.” • "This sentence is false." • "Moderation in all things, including moderation." Examples of hyperbole • Your dog is so ugly you can’t tell if it’s coming or going. • This is the worst day of my life. • It’s freezing in here. • Your mamma’s so old, her social security number is 1.