Initial Presentation Prototype

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Lesson 1:
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This lesson will cover the four primary principles of
design:
Contrast
Repetition
Alignment
Proximity
Contrast is the design principle in which
similar design items are distinctly different.
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Contrast gets the attention of your reader.
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Contrast is a visually important aspect of design.
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Contrast must be strong.
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Contrast can be “striking,” drawing the attention of the
viewer to your page.
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Type (text): Large text with small text, bold text with
regular text, sans serif headline with serif body copy
Examples:
Sans Serif Headline
Serif Body Copy
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Horizontal rule/vertical rule: thin horizontal rule with a
thick vertical rule
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Graphics: Small graphic with a large graphic
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Color: a bold color with a soft color
Example:
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Shade colored boxes no greater than 70% opacity when using
black text
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Shade colored boxes no less than 30% opacity when using
reverse text (white text)
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Contrasting a sort-of-heavy line with a sort-of-heavier line.
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Contrasting brown text with black headlines.
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Using two or more typefaces that are similar.
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Repetition is the design principle in which visual elements are
repeated throughout the page(s) of a publication.
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Incorporating repetition into a publication will “strengthen the
unity” of the design.
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Type (text): Use the same font style and size for body copy,
subheads, pull quotes and headlines throughout your
publication.
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Color: Use the same color scheme and color intensity
(shading).
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Indentation: Lay out and indent articles consistently using
either a line of space or a 3em space.
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Framing: Keyline/Frame photographs consistently.
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Make pull quote design, font style and size consistent.
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Use the same rule or combination of rules.
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Place page numbers and running heads in the same location
on each page.
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Avoid repeating an element so much that it becomes annoying
or overwhelming.
Example: If you were to add a
read hat, red belt, read necklace
to this ensemble, the repetition
would be overdone.
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Alignment is the design principle in which every design
element has a visual connection with something else on
the page.
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Nothing is placed on a page arbitrarily. The aim is to
create a “clean and sophisticated look.”
“Lack of alignment is probably the biggest cause of
unpleasantlooking documents. Our eyes like to see order; it creates a
calm,
secure feeling”
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Align captions with photographs.
Example:
Align headlines with articles.
Align headlines left with left aligned, ragged right text.
(optional: Align headlines center with justifies text)
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Make an impact with alignment.
Example:
The information on this card is right aligned (flush right).
It has a strong invisible vertical line that has more of an
impact than simply aligning all elements down the center.
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Avoid using more than one text alignment on the page (that is,
don't center some text and right-align other text).
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Stay away from centered alignment unless you are
consciously trying to create a more formal, sedate (often dull!)
presentation. Choose a centered alignment consciously, not by
default.
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Proximity is the design principle in which related items are
grouped together.
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Elements that have a relationship should be grouped together,
giving your publication a cohesive appearance.
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Group each photograph, chart, illustration with its respective
caption.
• Group headlines with respective article.
• Example:
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In this example, your eye knows exactly where to begin reading.
Related information is grouped together, and it makes sense.
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Avoid too many separate elements on a page.
Don't stick things in the corners and in the middle.
Don’t Do This:
Do This:
Used Cars
(817)555-1212
Connor Blake
Used Cars
Connor Blake
6195 Del Ln.
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Mansfield, Tx.
6195 Del Lane
Mansfield, Texas
(817) 555-1212
In this example, the eye stops 5 times. It is difficult to know
where to begin reading. Visually, it is confusing to look at.
Thus, it will be overlooked.
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In this lesson, we discussed the four primary design
principles:
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Contrast
Repetition
Alignment
Proximity
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CRAP is an acronym to remember the four basic design
principles.
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Consequently, when a designer does not incorporate contrast,
repetition, alignment, and proximity into the design, the
publication will look like crap. Even a beginning designer can
produce publications that are professional, organized, unified,
and interesting by incorporating the four basic design
principles: contrast, repetition, alignment, and proximity.
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