Age of Revolutions and Rebellions: SSWH14 The student will analyze the Age of Revolutions and Rebellions. a. Examine absolutism through a comparison of the rules of Louis XIV, Tsar Peter the Great, and Tokugawa Ieyasu. b. Identify the causes and results of the revolutions in England (1689), United States (1776), France (1789), Haiti (1791), and Latin America (1808-1825). c. Explain Napoleon’s rise to power, the role of geography in his defeat, and the consequences of France’s defeat for Europe d. Examine the interaction of China and Japan with westerners; include the Opium War, the Taiping Rebellion, and Commodore Perry. SSWH14 The student will analyze the Age of Revolutions and Rebellions. d. Examine the interaction of China and Japan with westerners; include the Opium War, the Taiping Rebellion, and Commodore Perry. The culture at this time viewed outsiders as inferior barbarians… Around 1514, the Portuguese reached China Eventually set up trade Chinese let them set up a trading station in Macao They used their knowledge of astronomy to get into the emperor's inner circle Emperor was in charge of predictions of eclipses and timing of the seasons Helped revise the Chinese calendar The emperor began appointing Jesuit missionaries to official positions The Jesuits gradually gained power… economic and political, as well as spiritual. Their power aroused jealousy and concern among some leaders Qing rulers began to turn on the Jesuits Emperors realized that the Chinese Catholics were expected to promise faith and allegiance to the pope. It was feared this would undermine the peoples loyalty to the throne and bring about rebellion and overthrow. Christianity was denounced as antiConfucion The number of converts dwindled China also deported European missionaries to Macao During the late 1600s the British established a trading post at Guangzhou The came to buy silk and tea. Tea was brought to China by the Dutch Great Britain was a land of tea drinkers and regarded Chinese tea as the best in the world The British East India Company monopolized the new trade in Chinese tea The British agreed to the Chinese restrictions They could only dock at Guangzhou, live in special quarters outside the city wall, and only deal with officially approved Chinese merchants The policies worked for a while Minimum contact between the Chinese and British was kept to a minimum In the late 1700s, there were two new developments: • New ideas about trade • The sale of opium Free trade developed in the West as a reaction to mercantilism Supporters of free trade argued that the government should not restrict or interfere with international trade Others resented the British East India Company’s monopoly on tea trade The British government became involved in the trade matters because it wanted new overseas markets to sell their goods. The Chinese did not allow more ports In 1833, the British East India Company’s monopoly on trade with China was abolished The company basically failed Britain traded cotton from India for tea There was a limited demand for the cotton China needed. Britain wanted more and more tea. Britain needed a new product to trade It was opium Opium - a narcotic substance, poisonous in large doses. It causes dullness or inaction or that soothes the mind or emotions. PRESS Opium addiction in China was on the rise. When the Chinese tried to forcibly stop the opium trade, war broke out. China was no match for the British fleet which included iron-hulled steam ships. In 1842, the British took control of the region near Nanjing. The Chinese were ready to negotiate. China had to give Hong Kong to the British The Chinese also had to open 5 ports for British trade. British goods had fixed, low tariffs. Ports were governed by the British and court cases would be tried in British courts Extraterritoriality – the requirement that foreigners must follow the laws of their home country instead of the laws of the country in which they live. Other countries wanted treaties with China to have new markets for their goods. China had signed the earlier treaties under the pressure of defeat and fear of invasion. These are called “unequal” treaties. China went to war with the British again over a trade dispute. The French sided with China China lost again The Chinese were forced to sign another treaty. • More ports along the Yangtze river • A British embassy in Beijing • A long-term lease of China mainland opposite Hong Kong • Chinese had to protect Christian missionaries and their converts Other foreign countries followed Led by Hong Xiuquan • Influenced by Christian teachings • Said he was the younger brother of Jesus • Established the Taiping “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace” with himself as king • Banned slavery, concubinage, arranged marriage, opium, footbinding, judicial torture, and the worship of idols Terrible destructions to southern China and the Yangtze valley Millions were killed Cities and farmland destroyed Muslims in central and western China launched their own rebellions The Qing finally put down these rebellions in the late 1870s Weakened the Qing dynasty and the nation Foreign powers took advantage and demanded more concessions and ports Foreign interference in China’s political and economic affairs Weakened China’s power to rule it’s government and undermined the emperor’s prestige Reduced the country’s control of its own economy Tokugawa Shoguns Matthew Perry The man who unlocked unlocked Japan Press Part of Japan’s isolation plan was not to harbor ships from other nations during storms It angered Westerners Western nations wanted to open trade with Japan like China. In 1853 President Millard Fillmore sent Perry and a powerful naval force to Japan He was sent to negotiate a treaty to guarantee the safety of U.S. sailors and open ports for U.S. trade In a show of force and dignity, he ceremoniously presented the letter from the president He would return a year later for their answer After debate and controversy, the shogun reluctantly agreed to negotiate with Perry when he returned Japan opened 2 ports to let Americans obtain fuel, shelter, and supplies Trade began between the 2 nations Within 2 years, Japan signed similar treaties with other European Countries. Life in Tokugawa Japan was peaceful but heavily controlled by the shogunal government. After a century of chaotic warfare, the Tokugawa Peace was much-needed. All people were confined to their traditional roles (class structure) Japanese Christians were first banned from practicing their religion in 1614 by Tokugawa Hidetada. All citizens are required to register with their local Buddhist temple. Any who refused were considered disloyal. Christian peasants revolted but was stamped out by the shogunate. Afterward, Japanese Christians were exiled, executed or driven underground, and Christianity faded from the country. Despite some heavy-handed tactics, the Tokugawa shoguns presided over a long period of peace and relative prosperity in Japan.