Chart Perspectives Spanish Account of the Aztecs Aztec Account of the Spanish French viewpoint on slavery Compare and Contrast How do the Spanish view the Aztec city? African Viewpoint on slavery Compare and Contrast What is the Aztec’s initial view of the Spanish? How do the French justify slavery? How did Olaudah Equino describe Europeans? - Religion: How do the Spanish view the Aztec religion? How does this viewpoint change? - Economic: - Political: How does Equino describe the slave trade? Generalizations How did Europeans view non-Europeans (indigenous groups)? How did indigenous groups view Europeans/ European institutions (slavery)? Two Viewpoints of the Treatment of Indians Juan de Solorzano y Pereyra Bartolome de las Casas 1. For Juan de Solorzano, what ‘good’ outweighs the harsh treatment of the Indians? What other justifications does he find for their treatment? 2. According to Las Casas, what has happened to the native population of the Caribbean islands? 3. How does Las Casas reveal his bias against the Spanish treatment of the native peoples? What words or phrases does he use to describe them? Drawing Conclusions: 4. How to Examine Sources: 1. Read the Source 2. Analyze the Source 3. Draw a conclusion 4. Use your information to help support your argument Columbus’ Journal • What conclusions can we draw from Columbus’s journal? 1. From Columbus’s observations concerning the natives what predictions can you make about how the Europeans will treat the natives? Include 3 pieces of supporting evidence…. Hypothesis: Question – What would happen if an Alien civilization made contact with our civilization? Indigenous Groups Encountered by Europeans The Americas • Aztecs (central America) – Conquers neighboring groups starting in the early 1400s – Builds Tenochtitlan, capital city of empire » (10th largest city in the world at the time) – Slave owning, religiously unified, warrior state Tenochtitlan Chinampa Rectangle-shaped areas of fertile arable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds in the Valley of Mexico. Spain vs. Aztecs The Americas • Incas (southern America –Peru) – Begins expanding in 1440s but in disarray by early 1500s due to civil war – Very good communication system (unsurpassed in the world until US postal service) Machu Picchu The Americas • Mayans (central America - Yucatan peninsula, Mexico) – Creates the only known written language in the Americas, and exhibit an understanding of mathematical and astronomical systems. » In severe decline before first contact with Europeans but remnants remain to resist European advancements The Americas • North American Groups – Smaller groups/ tribes but in some places alliance systems create powerful Native groups that demand tribute from less powerful groups. – Examples: Iroquois were a group of 5 nations, that was composed of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca nations. Warm up - The Aztec Empire 1. What were your first impressions of the Aztec culture and the Aztec Empire? (what were you impressed with, what were surprised by, etc.) 2. How do you think the Spanish viewed the Aztecs? What could you use as Evidence for your statement? Africa – Mostly small African States / city states with northern Africa dominated by Muslim nations – Slave trade causes new states to rise in power and destroys others • Asante (un SAHN teh) Kingdom and Oyo empire become wealthy through slave trade (1600s – 1700s) – Coastal cities dominate trade between Europeans and Africans from the interior Asia – India and the Middle East – small states in the south, Mughal Empire dominating most of India (1600s – 1700s) – China – Ming Empire defeated by the Manchus and establish Qing Dynasty (1644 – 1800s) – Korea and Japan (strong centralized government) islands isolate themselves from Europeans Japanese Himeji Castle: an example of 17th century Japanese architecture Identify Locations of Indigenous Groups Asante Identify Locations of Indigenous Groups Warm Up (a) 1. What are the four steps to critically examining a source? (list) 2. What are some of the ways that European Exploration changed the world? 3. What do you think is the most important of these changes? Warm Up (b) 1. What were some of the effects of European Exploration on Europeans? (review your notes) 2. What is a colony? 3. What European colonies are you familiar with? Long Term Effects of Exploration 1. Colonies: Permanent settlements – land under the immediate control of another country *Some Europeans referred to this as ‘planting’ (meaning planting people… rather than crops) EX: North American Colonies • New France – – Small settlements 1st established by fur traders and missionaries. Very slow growth (Canada is cold) • Products – Furs, Fish • New England – – Plymouth (1620) and Massachusetts Bay Company – Fast growing population, close communities • Products – Fish, Timber (shipbuilding), whaling • Middle/ Southern Colonies – Jamestown, VA (1607) – First colonies very hard (the starving time) ->Large plantations • Products – Farming - Tobacco, Indigo (a dye), Rice = cash crops Colonies Terms • Missionaries: • Compact: – Examples of modern compacts? • Plantations: France and England Clash Competition over land and resources = Conflict • The French & Indian War • British Win… gain dominance over North America Long Term Effects of Exploration 2. Economic Trade Routes develop • Ex: Triangle Trade Route – Transatlantic trade from 16th 18th century. Exchange of goods • Effects: 1. Population movement • African kingdoms lose population and increase in American population 2. Wealth • Europeans gained great wealth from the exchange of raw materials, for finished products for slaves Long Term Effects of Exploration 3. Development of Capitalism and Mercantilism • Capitalism - economic system based on ownership of private businesses – Investors funded new businesses in exchange for a share of the profits • EX: The Dutch East India Company Investors raised $ for Spice exploration ($1000) Captains sailed to Spice Islands, bought spices ($1/lb), sold spices back to Europe ($9/lb) Investor get $ back ($1000) plus dividends ($3000) • Mercantilism – How Europe gets rich from their colonies (export more than you import) – Colonies existed for 2 main reasons 1. To produce raw materials for Europe 2. To buy finished goods made in Europe *Keep it all in the family - only trade with the your colonies (English colonies only trade with England on English ships) Warm Up Questions • Define indigenous • What indigenous groups did Europeans come into contact with in the Americas? • What are some cultural characteristics of each of these groups?