Indigenous Groups Encountered by Europeans Student Notes

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Chart Perspectives
Spanish Account of
the Aztecs
Aztec Account of the
Spanish
French viewpoint on
slavery
Compare and Contrast
How do the Spanish
view the Aztec city?
African Viewpoint on
slavery
Compare and Contrast
What is the Aztec’s
initial view of the
Spanish?
How do the French
justify slavery?
How did Olaudah
Equino describe
Europeans?
- Religion:
How do the Spanish
view the Aztec
religion?
How does this
viewpoint change?
- Economic:
- Political:
How does Equino
describe the slave
trade?
Generalizations
How did Europeans view non-Europeans
(indigenous groups)?
How did indigenous groups view
Europeans/ European institutions (slavery)?
Two Viewpoints of the Treatment of Indians
Juan de Solorzano y Pereyra
Bartolome de las Casas
1. For Juan de Solorzano,
what ‘good’ outweighs the
harsh treatment of the
Indians? What other
justifications does he find
for their treatment?
2. According to Las Casas, what
has happened to the native
population of the Caribbean
islands?
3. How does Las Casas reveal his
bias against the Spanish
treatment of the native peoples?
What words or phrases does he
use to describe them?
Drawing Conclusions:
4.
How to Examine Sources:
1.
Read the Source
2.
Analyze the Source
3.
Draw a conclusion
4.
Use your information to help
support your argument
Columbus’ Journal
• What conclusions can we
draw from Columbus’s
journal?
1. From Columbus’s
observations concerning the
natives what predictions can
you make about how the
Europeans will treat the
natives? Include 3 pieces of
supporting evidence….
Hypothesis:
Question –
What would happen if an Alien civilization
made contact with our civilization?
Indigenous Groups Encountered by Europeans
The Americas
• Aztecs (central America)
– Conquers neighboring
groups starting in the early
1400s
– Builds Tenochtitlan, capital
city of empire
» (10th largest city in the
world at the time)
– Slave owning, religiously
unified, warrior state
Tenochtitlan
Chinampa
Rectangle-shaped areas of fertile
arable land to grow crops on the
shallow lake beds in the Valley of
Mexico.
Spain vs. Aztecs
The Americas
• Incas (southern America –Peru)
– Begins expanding in 1440s but in
disarray by early 1500s due to civil
war
– Very good communication system
(unsurpassed in the world until US
postal service)
Machu Picchu
The Americas
• Mayans (central America - Yucatan
peninsula, Mexico)
– Creates the only known written
language in the Americas, and
exhibit an understanding of
mathematical and astronomical
systems.
» In severe decline before first
contact with Europeans but
remnants remain to resist
European advancements
The Americas
• North American Groups
– Smaller groups/ tribes but in some places alliance
systems create powerful Native groups that
demand tribute from less powerful groups.
– Examples: Iroquois were a group of 5 nations, that
was composed of the Mohawk, Oneida,
Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca nations.
Warm up - The Aztec Empire
1. What were your first impressions of the Aztec
culture and the Aztec Empire?
(what were you impressed with, what were
surprised by, etc.)
2. How do you think the Spanish viewed the
Aztecs? What could you use as Evidence for
your statement?
Africa
– Mostly small African States / city states
with northern Africa dominated by
Muslim nations
– Slave trade causes new states to rise in
power and destroys others
• Asante (un SAHN teh) Kingdom and Oyo
empire become wealthy through slave
trade (1600s – 1700s)
– Coastal cities dominate trade between
Europeans and Africans from the
interior
Asia
– India and the Middle East –
small states in the south,
Mughal Empire dominating
most of India (1600s –
1700s)
– China – Ming Empire
defeated by the Manchus
and establish Qing Dynasty
(1644 – 1800s)
– Korea and Japan (strong
centralized government)
islands isolate themselves
from Europeans
Japanese Himeji Castle:
an example of 17th century Japanese architecture
Identify Locations of Indigenous Groups
Asante
Identify Locations of Indigenous Groups
Warm Up (a)
1. What are the four steps to critically examining a
source? (list)
2. What are some of the ways that European
Exploration changed the world?
3. What do you think is the most important of these
changes?
Warm Up (b)
1. What were some of the effects of European
Exploration on Europeans? (review your notes)
2. What is a colony?
3. What European colonies are you familiar with?
Long Term Effects of Exploration
1. Colonies: Permanent settlements – land under
the immediate control of another country
*Some Europeans referred to this as ‘planting’
(meaning planting people… rather than crops)
EX: North American Colonies
• New France –
– Small settlements 1st established by fur traders and
missionaries. Very slow growth (Canada is cold)
• Products – Furs, Fish
• New England –
– Plymouth (1620) and Massachusetts Bay Company
– Fast growing population, close communities
• Products – Fish, Timber (shipbuilding), whaling
• Middle/ Southern Colonies – Jamestown, VA (1607)
– First colonies very hard (the starving time) ->Large
plantations
• Products – Farming - Tobacco, Indigo (a dye), Rice = cash
crops
Colonies
Terms
• Missionaries:
• Compact:
– Examples of modern compacts?
• Plantations:
France and England Clash
Competition over land and
resources = Conflict
• The French & Indian War
• British Win… gain
dominance over North
America
Long Term Effects of Exploration
2. Economic Trade Routes develop
• Ex: Triangle Trade Route
– Transatlantic trade from 16th 18th century. Exchange of goods
• Effects:
1. Population movement
•
African kingdoms lose
population and increase in
American population
2. Wealth
•
Europeans gained great wealth
from the exchange of raw
materials, for finished products
for slaves
Long Term Effects of Exploration
3. Development of Capitalism and Mercantilism
• Capitalism - economic system based on ownership of private businesses
– Investors funded new businesses in exchange for a share of the profits
• EX: The Dutch East India Company
Investors raised $ for
Spice exploration
($1000)
Captains sailed to Spice
Islands, bought spices
($1/lb), sold spices back to
Europe ($9/lb)
Investor get $ back
($1000) plus
dividends ($3000)
• Mercantilism – How Europe gets rich from their colonies (export
more than you import)
– Colonies existed for 2 main reasons
1. To produce raw materials for Europe
2. To buy finished goods made in Europe
*Keep it all in the family - only trade with the your colonies (English colonies only
trade with England on English ships)
Warm Up Questions
• Define indigenous
• What indigenous groups
did Europeans come
into contact with in the
Americas?
• What are some cultural
characteristics of each
of these groups?
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