Annexation of Hawaii

1. What is imperialism?
2. What is Social Darwinism? How did Americans use
this theory to justify expansionism?
3. What is eugenics? How did Americans use this
theory to justify expansionism?
4. What is a provisional government?
5. THINKER: Do you think eugenics would ever work
successfully? Why or why not?
Many Americans at the time felt it
was America’s obligation, as a
world power, to help “civilize and
educate” other countries. Do you
agree with this? Should it be the
job of powerful countries to aide
weaker ones? Why or why not?
OPVL – Peer Edit
Instead of bellwork today, you will peer edit a practice Part C.
Refer to the mark scheme on page 148 of your assessment guide and your OPVL guide.
– 2 sources are chosen and analyzed in 2 paragraphs
– Origin is explained for both sources (includes doc info)
– Purpose is explained for both sources (refer to ex. OPVL guide)
– Value is explained for both sources (double check this!)
– Limitations are explained for both (need to be described)
– Length (don’t count…estimate….250-400 words = 2 paragraphs w/ 6-10 sentences in each)
– Transition between the two sources
– Analysis is specific and detailed (no vague/general statements)
– Give it a grade out of 5 possible points
– Include constructive comments – 2 positives & 2 room for improvement
Hawaii: independence or annexation?
Colonial Discovery
• The earliest habitation of Hawaii dates back to 300CE by
Polynesian settlers
• The first recorded European contact with the islands was in
1778 by British explorer James Cook.
• After Cook's visit and the publication of several books relating
his voyages, the Hawaiian islands received many European
visitors: explorers, traders, and eventually whalers.
• Within 50 years, wars among the chiefs, famine, measles,
small pox, and influenza killed off ½ of the native Hawaiian
A statue of James Cook stands in Waimea,
Kauai commemorating his first contact
with the Hawaiian islands at the town's
harbor on January 1778
• Cook originally named
the islands the
"Sandwich Islands" in
honor of his sponsor
John Mantagu, 4th Earl
of Sandwich…….. (who
the delicious lunch
time staple was named
• The word Hawaii is from the Polynesian word hawaiki, meaning
“place of the gods” or “homeland”
• When Captain Cook arrived in Hawaii in 1778, he was greeted as
the god Lono because he had arrived during a sacred festival.
Initially, the Hawaiians thought Cook’s ships were floating islands
• Early Christian missionaries to Hawaii were shocked to find that
Hawaiian mothers practiced infanticide if the babies were
deformed or diseased or if there were already too many children.
• They were also shocked by the extreme displays of grief (such as
knocking out their own teeth or tattooing their own tongues) after
the death of a loved one
Reading: “The Debate Over Hawaii
and an American Overseas Empire.”
As you read the article, answer the
following ten questions in your notes.
Since these are your notes for the
section, make sure you focus on the
main points and summarize! Be
ready to discuss and participate!
• Who was Kamehameha the Great?
• How did diplomatic relations improve between the U.S. and Hawaii after King
Kalakaua came to power?
• Describe Americans involvement in Hawaii. Why did they want a greater say in
• How did Americans limit the power of the monarchy with the Constitution of 1887?
• What changed when Queen Liliuokalani came to power? How did the U.S. respond?
• Describe the roles of John Stevens and Sanford Dole in Hawaii.
• How did the presidents during this period (Cleveland, Harrison, McKinley) differ on
their views of Hawaiian annexation?
• What did the 1894 Constitution of Hawaii declare? Native response?
• Describe the pro and anti imperialist arguments regarding Hawaii.
• Explain how/why the U.S. finally annexed Hawaii.
What did Europeans (and later,
Americans) want from Hawaii?!?!?
Internal Conflict
• In the late 1700’s, chiefs
often fought for power.
• After a series of battles that
ended in 1795 all inhabited
islands were subjugated
under a single ruler who
became known as King
Kamehameha the Great.
• He established the House of
Kamehameha, a dynasty that
ruled the kingdom until
Kingdom of Kamehameha
• After Kamehameha II inherited the
throne in 1819, American Protestant
missionaries in Hawaii converted
many Hawaiians to Christianity.
• Their influence ended many ancient
practices, and Kamehameha III was
the first Christian king.
• American advisors helped him
produce Hawaii’s first written
• King Kamehameha V, died a bachelor
and did not name an heir. This
marked the end of their dynasty.
Religions of Hawaii
House of Kalakaua
• After the end of the dynasty, riots
broke out over who would ascend
the throne.
• In 1874, U.S. and British troops came
to “keep the peace” and helped pass
the rule to the House of Kalakaua.
• In response to their aide, Hawaii and
the U.S. signed a trade agreement
lifting restrictions on sugar
exportation, and allowed America to
create a naval station at Pearl
• Do you think Americans deserved a
say in the Hawaiian government?
Why or why not?
How was this situation similar to Texas
during the Mexican-American War?
1887 Constitution
• Limited the power of the monarchy
– Made King Kalakaua a figurehead until his death in 1891
• Property requirements for voting (prevented 75% of natives
from voting)
King Kalakaua was
referred to as the
“merry monarch”
because of his
passion for music,
dancing, parties, and
the finest food/drinks
• In the 1960s, astronauts trained for
moon voyages by walking on Mauna
Loa’s hardened lava fields, which
resemble the surface of the moon
• The eight horizontal stripes on Hawaii’s
flag represent each of the state’s main
islands. In the upper-left corner of the
flag is a small version of Britain’s flag
which honors British captain George
Vancouver, who gave Hawaii its first
flag in 1794
• Ancient Hawaiians believed that the
heavier a woman, especially a
chieftess, the more beautiful she was
Queen Liliuokalani
• Took over in 1891
• Restore the
• Power to
Hawaiians…… NOT
John Stevens
• Diplomatic
Representative in
• Asked U.S. Navy to
“protect the life and
property of American
citizens” living in
• Led to a revolt!
REVOLT!!! January 16, 1893
• Marines stormed the city and surrounded the royal palace
• U.S. recognized the provisional government that the
revolutionaries formed.
• Revolutionaries appointed Sanford Dole as head
• At this point, there were serious divisions:
– Hawaiians supported Queen Liliuokalani and followed the
– Americans supported the Provisional government and claimed it
had authority over everything
Hawaiian counter-revolt
SURRENDER!!! January 17, 1893
• Queen Liliuokalani: “I
yield to the superior
force of the United
States of America”
The Ionlani Palace in Honolulu, formerly
the residence of the Hawaiian monarch,
but became the capitol of the Republic of
Sanford Dole
• Dole even
threatened Queen
Liliuokalani with U.S.
Naval force, if she
did not comply
Queen Liliuokalani’s arrest
• How did the native Hawaiians respond to Queen Liluokalani’s forced
• 200 rebels were tried for treason
• Provisional government found the Queen guilty. Originally sentenced
– Five years of hard labor
– $5,000
– Sentence was eventually decreased to imprisonment in a
bedroom of the palace
• While imprisoned, she wrote many famous songs (including the
Queen’s Prayer) and wrote her memoir.
• Before ascending the throne, for fourteen years, or since the date of
my proclamation as heir apparent, my official title had been simply
Liliuokalani. Thus I was proclaimed both Princess Royal and Queen.
Thus it is recorded in the archives of the government to this day. The
Provisional Government nor any other had enacted any change in my
name. All my official acts, as well as my private letters, were issued
over the signature of Liliuokalani. But when my jailers required me to
sign ("Liliuokalani Dominis,") I did as they commanded. Their motive
in this as in other actions was plainly to humiliate me before my
people and before the world. I saw in a moment, what they did not,
that, even were I not complying under the most severe and exacting
duress, by this demand they had overreached themselves. There is
not, and never was, within the range of my knowledge, any such a
person as Liliuokalani Dominis.
• —Queen Liliuokalani, "Hawaii's Story By Hawaii's Queen”
• Should the United States
annex Hawaii? (pros vs.
• What should be done, if
anything, to aide the native
Hawaiians in this transfer of
• How was the U.S. provisional government in Hawaii
different than America’s government? Why didn’t they
have the same government if they were run by the same
Troops of the
Harrison vs. Cleveland vs. McKinley
• How did these presidents differ on their views
of Hawaiian annexation?
• How did
Dole defy
• What did the 1894 Constitution of the Republic of Hawaii declare?
• How did native Hawaiians respond to this?
• Established a republic (ruled 1894-1898) in between the Provisional
government & Hawaii’s annexation by the U.S.
• With regards to Hawaii’s
annexation, evaluate the
pro and anti imperialist
• How did the SpanishAmerican War affect the
annexation of Hawaii?
President McKinley
• “We need
Hawaii just as
much and a
good deal more
than we did
California, it is
• Describe how/why the US
finally annexed Hawaii.
• What was the Organic
• How did Wartime
pressures lead to the
official annexation of
• What finally caused the
end of the Hawaiian
Admission Day Ceremony; June 14, 1900
The flag of the Kingdom of Hawaii over Iolani Palace is
lowered to raise the United States flag to signify
Queen Liliuokalani, Princess Kaiulani, Prince David Kawananakoa shuttered up in
Washington Place mourning on the day of the flag of Hawaii was lowered down
for the last time after the Annexation of Hawaii to the United States
• Senator Stephen White of
Notice any similarities?!?!?
California was an extreme antiimperialist and led the filibuster
over the annexation of Hawaii.
• He asked whether Americans
forgot their own anti-colonial
war for independence. What do
you think he means by this?
• Was the situation in Hawaii
similar to America’s
independence from England? Or
had times changed? Was
imperialism more acceptable at
the time?
• The oldest Catholic Cathedral in the United States is the Cathedral of Our Lady of
Peace in Honolulu, built in 1843
• Everyone is a minority in Hawaii—there are no racial majorities. Haoles or
Caucasians, constitute about 33% of the population, Japanese about 33%, FilipinoAmericans about 16%, and Chinese-Americans about 5%. Most of the population
has mixed ethnicities
Anyone up for a field trip?!?!?
Storyboard timeline review
1. Why was Kamehameha the Great important?
2. How were Americans involved in the Hawaiian government?
3. Why did Americans think they deserved a larger say in the Hawaiian
4. How did the relationship between the U.S. and Hawaii change after
King David Kalakaua came to power in 1874?
5. Eventually the U.S. government forced King Kalakaua to agree to a
new constitution in 1887. What did this constitution declare?
6. THINKER: Was there an alternative option to U.S. takeover of
Hawaii? Explain!
1. How did the relationship between the Hawaiians and Americans
change after Queen Liluokalani came to power?
2. How did the native Hawaiians respond to Queen Liluokalani’s forced
3. Analyze the pro/con arguments for America’s annexation of Hawaii.
4. Explain the differing views on Hawaiian annexation between the
three presidents – Harrison, Cleveland & McKinley.
5. Who was Sanford Dole? How did he defy Pres. Cleveland?
6. Describe how/why the US finally annexed Hawaii.
7. THINKER: What should be done, if anything, to aide the native
Hawaiians in the transfer of power?