BELLWORK 1. What is imperialism? 2. What is Social Darwinism? How did Americans use this theory to justify expansionism? 3. What is eugenics? How did Americans use this theory to justify expansionism? 4. What is a provisional government? 5. THINKER: Do you think eugenics would ever work successfully? Why or why not? Many Americans at the time felt it was America’s obligation, as a world power, to help “civilize and educate” other countries. Do you agree with this? Should it be the job of powerful countries to aide weaker ones? Why or why not? • • • OPVL – Peer Edit Instead of bellwork today, you will peer edit a practice Part C. Refer to the mark scheme on page 148 of your assessment guide and your OPVL guide. Checklist: – 2 sources are chosen and analyzed in 2 paragraphs – Origin is explained for both sources (includes doc info) – Purpose is explained for both sources (refer to ex. OPVL guide) – Value is explained for both sources (double check this!) – Limitations are explained for both (need to be described) – Length (don’t count…estimate….250-400 words = 2 paragraphs w/ 6-10 sentences in each) – Transition between the two sources – Analysis is specific and detailed (no vague/general statements) – Give it a grade out of 5 possible points – Include constructive comments – 2 positives & 2 room for improvement Hawaii: independence or annexation? Colonial Discovery • The earliest habitation of Hawaii dates back to 300CE by Polynesian settlers • The first recorded European contact with the islands was in 1778 by British explorer James Cook. • After Cook's visit and the publication of several books relating his voyages, the Hawaiian islands received many European visitors: explorers, traders, and eventually whalers. • Within 50 years, wars among the chiefs, famine, measles, small pox, and influenza killed off ½ of the native Hawaiian population A statue of James Cook stands in Waimea, Kauai commemorating his first contact with the Hawaiian islands at the town's harbor on January 1778 FUN FACT! • Cook originally named the islands the "Sandwich Islands" in honor of his sponsor John Mantagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich…….. (who the delicious lunch time staple was named after) MORE FUN FACTS!!! • The word Hawaii is from the Polynesian word hawaiki, meaning “place of the gods” or “homeland” • When Captain Cook arrived in Hawaii in 1778, he was greeted as the god Lono because he had arrived during a sacred festival. Initially, the Hawaiians thought Cook’s ships were floating islands • Early Christian missionaries to Hawaii were shocked to find that Hawaiian mothers practiced infanticide if the babies were deformed or diseased or if there were already too many children. • They were also shocked by the extreme displays of grief (such as knocking out their own teeth or tattooing their own tongues) after the death of a loved one Reading: “The Debate Over Hawaii and an American Overseas Empire.” As you read the article, answer the following ten questions in your notes. Since these are your notes for the section, make sure you focus on the main points and summarize! Be ready to discuss and participate! • Who was Kamehameha the Great? • How did diplomatic relations improve between the U.S. and Hawaii after King Kalakaua came to power? • Describe Americans involvement in Hawaii. Why did they want a greater say in government? • How did Americans limit the power of the monarchy with the Constitution of 1887? • What changed when Queen Liliuokalani came to power? How did the U.S. respond? Explain! • Describe the roles of John Stevens and Sanford Dole in Hawaii. • How did the presidents during this period (Cleveland, Harrison, McKinley) differ on their views of Hawaiian annexation? • What did the 1894 Constitution of Hawaii declare? Native response? • Describe the pro and anti imperialist arguments regarding Hawaii. • Explain how/why the U.S. finally annexed Hawaii. What did Europeans (and later, Americans) want from Hawaii?!?!? SUGAR!!!!! Internal Conflict • In the late 1700’s, chiefs often fought for power. • After a series of battles that ended in 1795 all inhabited islands were subjugated under a single ruler who became known as King Kamehameha the Great. • He established the House of Kamehameha, a dynasty that ruled the kingdom until 1872. Kingdom of Kamehameha • After Kamehameha II inherited the throne in 1819, American Protestant missionaries in Hawaii converted many Hawaiians to Christianity. • Their influence ended many ancient practices, and Kamehameha III was the first Christian king. • American advisors helped him produce Hawaii’s first written constitution. • King Kamehameha V, died a bachelor and did not name an heir. This marked the end of their dynasty. Religions of Hawaii House of Kalakaua • After the end of the dynasty, riots broke out over who would ascend the throne. • In 1874, U.S. and British troops came to “keep the peace” and helped pass the rule to the House of Kalakaua. • In response to their aide, Hawaii and the U.S. signed a trade agreement lifting restrictions on sugar exportation, and allowed America to create a naval station at Pearl Harbor. Discussion • Do you think Americans deserved a say in the Hawaiian government? Why or why not? How was this situation similar to Texas during the Mexican-American War? 1887 Constitution • Limited the power of the monarchy – Made King Kalakaua a figurehead until his death in 1891 • Property requirements for voting (prevented 75% of natives from voting) King Kalakaua was referred to as the “merry monarch” because of his passion for music, dancing, parties, and the finest food/drinks FUN FACTS! • In the 1960s, astronauts trained for moon voyages by walking on Mauna Loa’s hardened lava fields, which resemble the surface of the moon • The eight horizontal stripes on Hawaii’s flag represent each of the state’s main islands. In the upper-left corner of the flag is a small version of Britain’s flag which honors British captain George Vancouver, who gave Hawaii its first flag in 1794 • Ancient Hawaiians believed that the heavier a woman, especially a chieftess, the more beautiful she was Queen Liliuokalani • Took over in 1891 • Restore the monarchy!!! • Power to Hawaiians…… NOT Americans! John Stevens • Diplomatic Representative in Honolulu • Asked U.S. Navy to “protect the life and property of American citizens” living in Hawaii • Led to a revolt! REVOLT!!! January 16, 1893 • Marines stormed the city and surrounded the royal palace • U.S. recognized the provisional government that the revolutionaries formed. • Revolutionaries appointed Sanford Dole as head • At this point, there were serious divisions: – Hawaiians supported Queen Liliuokalani and followed the monarchy – Americans supported the Provisional government and claimed it had authority over everything Hawaiian counter-revolt SURRENDER!!! January 17, 1893 • Queen Liliuokalani: “I yield to the superior force of the United States of America” The Ionlani Palace in Honolulu, formerly the residence of the Hawaiian monarch, but became the capitol of the Republic of Hawaii Sanford Dole • Dole even threatened Queen Liliuokalani with U.S. Naval force, if she did not comply Queen Liliuokalani’s arrest • How did the native Hawaiians respond to Queen Liluokalani’s forced abdication? • 200 rebels were tried for treason • Provisional government found the Queen guilty. Originally sentenced to: – Five years of hard labor – $5,000 – Sentence was eventually decreased to imprisonment in a bedroom of the palace • While imprisoned, she wrote many famous songs (including the Queen’s Prayer) and wrote her memoir. • Before ascending the throne, for fourteen years, or since the date of my proclamation as heir apparent, my official title had been simply Liliuokalani. Thus I was proclaimed both Princess Royal and Queen. Thus it is recorded in the archives of the government to this day. The Provisional Government nor any other had enacted any change in my name. All my official acts, as well as my private letters, were issued over the signature of Liliuokalani. But when my jailers required me to sign ("Liliuokalani Dominis,") I did as they commanded. Their motive in this as in other actions was plainly to humiliate me before my people and before the world. I saw in a moment, what they did not, that, even were I not complying under the most severe and exacting duress, by this demand they had overreached themselves. There is not, and never was, within the range of my knowledge, any such a person as Liliuokalani Dominis. • —Queen Liliuokalani, "Hawaii's Story By Hawaii's Queen” Discussion • Should the United States annex Hawaii? (pros vs. cons) • What should be done, if anything, to aide the native Hawaiians in this transfer of power? Discussion • How was the U.S. provisional government in Hawaii different than America’s government? Why didn’t they have the same government if they were run by the same people? Troops of the government post-rebellion Harrison vs. Cleveland vs. McKinley • How did these presidents differ on their views of Hawaiian annexation? Review • How did Dole defy President Cleveland? Review • What did the 1894 Constitution of the Republic of Hawaii declare? • How did native Hawaiians respond to this? • Established a republic (ruled 1894-1898) in between the Provisional government & Hawaii’s annexation by the U.S. Discussion • With regards to Hawaii’s annexation, evaluate the pro and anti imperialist arguments. • How did the SpanishAmerican War affect the annexation of Hawaii? President McKinley • “We need Hawaii just as much and a good deal more than we did California, it is Manifest Destiny.” • Describe how/why the US finally annexed Hawaii. • What was the Organic Act? • How did Wartime pressures lead to the official annexation of Hawaii? • What finally caused the end of the Hawaiian independence movement? Review Admission Day Ceremony; June 14, 1900 The flag of the Kingdom of Hawaii over Iolani Palace is lowered to raise the United States flag to signify annexation Queen Liliuokalani, Princess Kaiulani, Prince David Kawananakoa shuttered up in Washington Place mourning on the day of the flag of Hawaii was lowered down for the last time after the Annexation of Hawaii to the United States Discussion • Senator Stephen White of VS. Notice any similarities?!?!? VS. California was an extreme antiimperialist and led the filibuster over the annexation of Hawaii. • He asked whether Americans forgot their own anti-colonial war for independence. What do you think he means by this? • Was the situation in Hawaii similar to America’s independence from England? Or had times changed? Was imperialism more acceptable at the time? FUN FACTS! • The oldest Catholic Cathedral in the United States is the Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace in Honolulu, built in 1843 • Everyone is a minority in Hawaii—there are no racial majorities. Haoles or Caucasians, constitute about 33% of the population, Japanese about 33%, FilipinoAmericans about 16%, and Chinese-Americans about 5%. Most of the population has mixed ethnicities Anyone up for a field trip?!?!? Storyboard timeline review BELLWORK 1. Why was Kamehameha the Great important? 2. How were Americans involved in the Hawaiian government? 3. Why did Americans think they deserved a larger say in the Hawaiian government? 4. How did the relationship between the U.S. and Hawaii change after King David Kalakaua came to power in 1874? 5. Eventually the U.S. government forced King Kalakaua to agree to a new constitution in 1887. What did this constitution declare? 6. THINKER: Was there an alternative option to U.S. takeover of Hawaii? Explain! BELLWORK 1. How did the relationship between the Hawaiians and Americans change after Queen Liluokalani came to power? 2. How did the native Hawaiians respond to Queen Liluokalani’s forced abdication? 3. Analyze the pro/con arguments for America’s annexation of Hawaii. 4. Explain the differing views on Hawaiian annexation between the three presidents – Harrison, Cleveland & McKinley. 5. Who was Sanford Dole? How did he defy Pres. Cleveland? 6. Describe how/why the US finally annexed Hawaii. 7. THINKER: What should be done, if anything, to aide the native Hawaiians in the transfer of power?