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Scientific Exploration
Scientific Method
Theories, Laws, and
Hypothesis
• Bell Work (5 min):
• Write homework for tonight in agenda
Think it Through:
1. Write a testable
question for the bubble
gum lab.
2. How will your
observations & Inferences
help you design a lab
experiment? (8 lines/3
terms)
• Prepare pages 12 & 13 in iNB with the title of the pages
for 3 Sep 13:
• Page 12 – Testable & Nontestable
• Page 13 – Types of Observations
• On the first line of page 13 in your iNB write the content
purpose:
Identify problems or questions that can be tested using the SM.
• Skip a line and explain inference in one sentence.
Example of iNB:
Testable/non
testable
3 Sep 13
Types of
Observations
3 Sep 13
Content Purpose:
Inference:
Observation:
12
13
• Inference:
A logical explanation of an observation that is
drawn from prior knowledge or experience…
Table 3/Student B give me an example….
Parts of The Scientific Method
•Make an Observation
• Using one or more of your senses to gather
information and take note of what occurs
In other words, What is seen, heard, or in some
other way noticed about what’s going on in the
world…
Parts of the Scientific Method
Data
• Data must be organized and labeled for easy
interpretation.
• Qualitative data
• Observed but not measured
• Pictures
• Descriptions – Table 5/Student C give me two examples.
• Quantitative data
• Can be measured
• Numbers – Table 1/Student A give me two examples
Example of iNB:
Testable/non- testable
2 Sep 13
Testable
Types of Observations
2 Sep 13
Non-testable
Content Purpose:
Inference:
Observation:
Sucrose
Qualitative
(Senses)
12
Think it Through:
1. Write a testable question for
the bubble gum lab.
2. How will your observations &
Inferences help you design a lab
experiment? (8 lines/3 terms)
Quantitative
(Measure)
13
Homework:
• Think it Through Questions in iNB page 12:
1.
2.
Write a testable question for the bubble gum lab.
Write 8 lines (skipping lines) & use at least 3 terms
learned today in a Type II writing paragraph on the
following question:
How will your observations and inferences help you design the
bubble gum lab experiment?
Ticket Out the Door:
• * Ticket Out the Door (TOD):
• Write your summary on page 11 of iNB:
• “Types of observations/pg 13: Observation uses all the
senses. There is qualitative and quantitative data. The only
types of observations that are testable are factual info, not
opinions. Having factual information can lead to a conclusion
during an experiment.”
On a scratch sheet of paper complete
the following sentense:
• “________ is a quantitative property of sugar because
________.”
Day 2
• Bell Work (5 min):
• Write homework for tonight in agenda: complete procedures
for gum lab.
• Prepare pages 14 & 15 in iNB with the title of the pages :
• Page 14/4 Sep 13 – Procedures for Bubble Gum Lab
• Page 15/3 Sep 13 – Questions, Hypothesis, & Variables
• As a Table Group, write down the first three steps in the SM.
Student A – Step 1….B-2… C-3… 4-check for accuracy.
Bell Work Answer
1. Question
2. Hypothesis
3. Test Hypothesis
• Ask a Question
• The scientist then raises a question about what
is going on.
• How, What, When, Who, Which, Why, or Where?
• Table 2/Student B please share your homework question
#1 with the class.
QUESTION!
• Question for Bubble Gum lab:
How much sugar is in a single piece of
bubble gum?
Parts of The Scientific Method
• Formulate a Hypothesis/Make predictions
• This is a tentative answer to the question: a testable
explanation for what was observed.
• The scientist tries to explain what caused what was
observed, etc…
“Based on _______ property of
sucrose, then maybe we can ______ to
remove it from bubble gum….”
Parts of The Scientific Method
• Formulate a Hypothesis/Make predictions
• This is a tentative answer to the question: a testable
explanation for what was observed.
• The scientist tries to explain what caused what was
observed, etc…
Example – As a class lets work this out.
Students will get into
pairs, think and share with group & then discuss with class:
Question-
How much sucrose is in a single piece of bubble
gum?
Hypothesis:
If ___________________________
then _________________________
because _______________________.
Parts of the Scientific Method
• Test the hypothesis
• Perform an experiment to test hypothesis.
• Variables are the factors involved in the
experiment.
• Independent variable
• What is being changed.
• Dependent variable
• What is being measured.
• Let’s take a look …
• D – Dependent
• R – Responds
• Y – Y-axis
• M – Manipulated
• I – Independent
• X – X-axis
Parts of the Scientific Method
• Most experiments are controlled.
• Two groups are used.
•Experimental group- Group that has one
variable changed (independent).
•Control group- Group that is used as a
comparison to the experimental group.
Example:
• Independent variable: Amount of water
• Dependent variable: Height of the plant
• Control group: Plant that is watered.
• Experimental group: Plant that isn’t watered.
Dependent & Independent Variables
PPT
Bubble Gum Lab:
• Independent variable: ____________
• Dependent variable: _____________
• Control group: ______________
• Experimental group: _____________
• Now I want you to get with your table and
think of the Big Question and your
Hypothesis. Fill in the lines of the bubble gum
lab variables for your experiment.
Example
Bubble Gum Lab:
• Independent variable: Water/Saliva
• Dependent variable: Amount of Sucrose
• Control group: Gum not exposed to
water/saliva
• Experimental group: Gum exposed to
water/saliva
PROCEDURES!
• Now I want you to get into your table
groups
1.
2.
Figure out what you are going to do to get the
sucrose out of the gum
Start working on the procedures
KEEP IN MIND!
Safety
Variables
Stepwise so the experiment can be replicated
Make sure it is repeated for verification
Summary for iNB Page 11:
• Question/Hypothesis/Variables page 15:
• Any experiment starts with a question. A hypothesis
is a prediction of the outcome of an experiment.
Conducting research and observations are important
when trying to form a reasonable hypothesis.
• Variables are used to clarify the experiment. There
are two types of variables; dependent (variable being
tested – the victim), independent (the variable being
changed). The control group is unchanged by
independent variable for comparison to the
experimental group.
Day 3:
• Bell Work:
• Write down homework
• Complete summary for iNB page 11 from
day 2:
• Question/Hypothesis/Variables page 15:
• Any experiment starts with a question. A hypothesis is a prediction of the
outcome of an experiment. Conducting research and observations are
important when trying to form a reasonable hypothesis.
• Variables are used to clarify the experiment. There are three types of
variables; dependent (variable being tested – the victim), independent (the
variable being changed), and the control group (unchanged by
independent variable for comparison to the experimental group).
The experiment:
• Procedure Requirements;
• Are your procedures safe?
• Can it be replicated?
• Did you ensure to include repeated steps?
• Did you make sure the procedures lead to
measurable data?
The Experiment;
• Materials List
• What will you need?
• Make a chart and put it in page 17 of your iNB
Material
Quantity
Parts of the Scientific Method
• Form a Conclusion
• Analyze results from data and compare to
hypothesis.
• Explain possible errors in results
• Examples:
•
•
•
•
Sample size- not a large enough sample
Trials- didn’t test enough times
Controls- not everything was controlled accurately
Procedural- something went wrong during the
procedure.
Scientific Theory
• An explanation of a set of related
observations or events
based upon proven hypotheses and
verified multiple times
by separate groups of researchers.
• Can be changed if new evidence is found,
but are rarely completely replaced.
• Examples: Einstein's General Theory of Relativity,
Theory of Evolution, and the Atomic Theory
Scientific Law
• This is a statement of fact meant to
explain an action or set of actions.
• It is generally accepted to be true and
universal.
• They are accepted at face value based
upon the fact that they have always been
observed to be true.
• Examples: Law of Gravity, Newton's Laws of Motion,
and The Laws of Thermodynamics
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