Leading Change

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Leading Change
Madeleine F Green
Senior Fellow
International Association of Universities
10 July 2012
Today’s Topics
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A framework for change
Dilemmas of change
Factors shaping change
Steps in the change process
The role of the leader
Framework for Change
Shallow
Depth
Deep
Narrow
Adjustments
(I)
Pervasiveness
Broad
Far-Reaching
(III)
Isolated Change
(II)
Transformational
(IV)
Transformation
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Alters the culture of the institution
Is deep and pervasive (systemic)
Is intentional
Occurs over time
Requires leadership and collaboration
Requires ownership
©Madeleine F Green 2012
THE IMPACT (Institutional)
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Institutional culture
Institutional strategy
Allocation of resources
Structures, policies and procedures
Reward system
©Madeleine F Green 2012
THE IMPACT (Individual)
• Individual values, beliefs, expectations
• Individual actions (how one approaches
and does one’s work)
©Madeleine F Green 2012
Institutional Culture
• “The deeply embedded patterns of organizational
behavior and the shared values, assumptions,
beliefs or ideologies that members have about
their organization or its work.” (Peterson &
Spencer, 1991)
• It’s the way we do things around here and what we
believe.
• The “invisible glue” that holds an institution
together.
Conceptualizations of Culture
Artifacts
Espoused
Values
Underlying
Assumptions
Schein (1992)
Dilemmas of Change
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How much pressure is needed? Desirable?
Big bang or stealth?
At what speed?
Meeting whose expectations?
Who participates in which decisions and how
much?
Factors Shaping the Change Process
• External pressure (legal framework, political
forces, students, council/governing board,
competition)
• Internal conditions
– Level of recognition of need for change
– Institutional history with change
– Institutional interests, politics
Steps in the Change Process
1. Establishing a sense of urgency
2. Creating the guiding coalition
3. Developing (collaboratively) a vision and strategy
4. Communicating the change vision
5. Empowering broad-based action
6. Generating short-term wins
7. Consolidating change and producing more change
8. Anchoring new approaches in the culture
(John Kotter, 1996)
1. Urgency
• People need to be convinced that change is
necessary (demands, competition, quality)
• Address complacency
• Leader has to manage anxiety about future
• Avoid blame
• Create deadlines
2. Guiding Coalition
• Buy-in and participation start right at the
beginning
• Need the “right” people on the team
• Choice of team leaders crucial
• Team development
3. Create a vision and strategy
• Effective vision
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Imaginable
Desirable
Feasible
Focused
Flexible
Communicable
Based on values and principles
• Leader’s Role: Help people think differently
– Outsiders’ perspectives
– Campus conversations
3. Strategy
• General lines of action of how a vision can be
accomplished
– Adding new academic programs
– Computerizing student registration
– Developing staff training
4. Communicating the Change Vision
• Not just one-way; engage people in crafting the
vision and strategies.
• Effective communication of a vision
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Simple (jargon-free)
Use examples
Multiple forums
Repetition
Leadership by example
Address inconsistencies
5. Empowering Broad-Based Action
• Identifying and addressing obstacles
– Institutional obstacles to change (bureaucracy,
systems, policies, traditions, structures)
– Individual obstacles to change (fear, complacency,
arrogance, insularity, competence)
– Dealing with conflict
• Providing necessary professional development
• Creating momentum
• Creating incentives
6. Generating Short-Term Wins
• Strategy should include some “low-hanging
fruits” that serve as milestones
• Celebrate success along the way
• Reward people who made the wins possible
7. Consolidating Gains and Producing
More Change
• Change produces need for more change
(change one system, others need to follow suit
• Mid-stream: hard to see success from the
middle (importance of milestones, specific
“wins”
• Continued staff development; shaping the
culture with new hires
8. Anchoring New Approaches in the
Culture
• Deep change is a long distance run
• Cultural change is a slow, cumulative process,
after new behaviors produce visible benefit
• May require staff turnover
• Evidence-based change: of need for change
and of positive results.
Roles of Change Leaders
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Diagnose needed change
Create a sense of urgency
Manage anxiety that accompanies change
Anthropologist (student of culture)
Team leader
Identify and address obstacles
Get conflict out in the open, deal with it
Communicator
Educator/Staff developer
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