Women(2)

advertisement
Employment and Trade Unions
Employment and Trade Unions
• 1851 3 million women employed - 42% of
workforce
• 80% of women workers in domestic service,
clothing trades and textile industry
• They ‘lived in’, worked long hours for poor
pay
• Earned half a mans salary for doing the
same job
• http://www.ourwardfamily.com/victorian_servants.htm
Employment and Trade Unions
Technology led to
97% of women in
office work
 Women however
had to give up their
job when they were
married

Telegraph Exchange
1871
Employment and Trade Unions
• Women worked
through the TU’s to
improve their
conditions
• Although numbers did
not increase until
after 1870s due to
opposition from men
• Men believed they
were entitled to the
higher wage as they
were the ‘bread
winner’
Employment and Trade Unions
• Increase membership
from 21,085 in 1877 to
437,000 in 1914
• Why?
• Strong membership in
Lancashire cotton
unions but excluded
from general TU’s until
mid century
• 1875 attended the
TUC
Trade Unions
• 1893 first women factory inspector
• Although TUs failed to make an
impact on domestic service were 1.5
million were working
• However by outbreak of war women
had achieved improvements but still
lagged behind
Activity
• Describe the main
cause, the events and
the outcome of the
Match Girls’ strike in
1889
• In what ways could the
strike and its outcome
be described as ‘a
landmark victory for
women’s rights?
Lack of education
• Little chance of
education for
working class
women
• Role was either in
the factory or at
home
• They were to be
content and behave
themselves!
Middle class
• Most were educated by a governess who
taught them how to read, knit, sew play the
piano and paint
• The girls were educated to be good wives
and mothers
• male educationalists believed that the
stress of education could damage the
health of a young girl instead they needed
rest
Change in education
• 1848 Queens
college in London
was founded as a
training college for
women teachers,
• set new standards
of education in
girls schools
Taunton Commission in 1868
• Set up to enquire into the education of
boys, included girls schools at last minute
due to Emily Davis
• Found a deficiency in girls education, solely
on domestic duties and ‘accomplishments’
• Some good schools e.g. academic schools
such as Cheltenham Ladies college founded
by early feminist pioneers.
• However in the minority
Debate over the nature of reform
• 1st school of thought:
make education for
girls as good as but
different from boys
• 2nd school of thought:
girl’s education should
be identical to boys
• All agreed an increase
in number of good
schools for girls
Emily Davis
• Campaigned to gain
women the right to
university
• Opened a school
for women in 1869
later known as
Girton college
• Followed by
Newnham Hall by
Jemima Clough
Summary
• Oxford University and 4 in Scotland
enrolled women in 1879
• By turn of century more middle class
women going into higher education and into
professions
• By end of Victorian era there is no doubt
that the causes of women’s rights had
made significant progress but they still
had no voting rights
Download
Related flashcards

Fictional bisexuals

27 cards

Disney Princess

25 cards

Women's rights

49 cards

Soviet rapists

11 cards

Create Flashcards