Rosy Crehan Executive Pro Vice Chancellor, Staffordshire University Dr Steve Wyn Williams Dean of Academic Policy and Development Staffordshire University
• To review some of the key features of current policy and practice relating to academic misconduct.
• To connect the practice of academic misconduct whilst at University to professional integrity in the workplace • To make a case for an increased emphasis on professional and personal integrity in all programmes in the broader context of ethics and ethical conduct • To argue that graduate attributes provide a clear opportunity to embed and deliver the expectations around academic and professional integrity.
There is growing interest in issues connected with academic integrity. This is partly attributable to the increasing number of reported cases about academic fraud worldwide, which in turn is related, at least to some extent, to the rapid massification of university education and the growth of universities and higher education systems. (McFarlane et al, 2013) Interesting – in that the paper focuses on academics…but that is another issue!
• ‘ Integrity ’ ‘ integritas ’ in English derives from the Latin words ‘ integer ’ and meaning whole or entire, integrating different parts of one ’ s true self. In moral philosophy the word ‘ integrity ’ is closely associated with the virtue that constitutes a ‘good’ person.
• Important to reflect on the
broader definition of integrity
– insofar as current discussions re student academic integrity tend to focus on specific actions i.e academic dishonesty/misconduct • Need to approach within a more
which links academic integrity to a broader context of (institutional)
ethical values and graduate attributes
• Clear links to
when students enter the workforce - Professional integrity a big issue with a lot of companies
% saying two- and four-year colleges should place MORE emphasis on helping students develop these skills, qualities, capabilities, knowledge
Effective oral/written communication Critical thinking/ analytical reasoning Knowledge/skills applied to real world settings Analyze/solve complex problems Connect choices and actions to ethical decisions Teamwork skills/ ability to collaborate Ability to innovate and be creative Concepts/developments in science/technology
79% 75% 75% 71% 70% 70% 81% 89%
Summary of aspects of individual and organisational integrity
Baxter, J et al (2012) Real Integrity: Practical solutions for organisations seeking to promote and encourage integrity
Individual actions: Plagiarism/ Academic Misconduct Institutional Culture: Academic Integrity and Ethical Values Personal and Social Responsibility
Academic integrity is a commitment to five fundamental values: •Honesty •Trust •Fairness •Respect •Responsibility
“We believe that these five values, plus the courage to act on them even in the face of adversity, are truly foundational to the academy. Without them, everything that we do in our capacities as teachers, learners, and researchers loses value and becomes suspect. When the fundamental values are embraced, utilized, and put into practice they become touchstones for scholarly communities of integrity.
• An interdisciplinary field – International Journal of Educational Integrity – International Plagiarism Conference • International Centre for Academic Integrity (ICAI) • Asia Pacific Forum on Educational Integrity (ASPFEI) • Plagiarismadvice.org
• Academy JISC Academic Integrity Service (from Erica Morris (2013))
Two recent influential reports •‘Policy Works: Recommendations for reviewing policy to manage unacceptable academic practice in higher education ’ . Produced 12 recommendations building on good practice (HEA 2011) •Australian Government Office for Learning and Teaching (formerly the Australian Learning and Teaching Council) priority project ‘ Academic integrity standards: Aligning policy and practice in Australian universities ’ (2010-12). Examines AI policies of 39 universities
Aligning policy and practice in a culture of academic integrity (based on East, 2009) Core elements of exemplar academic integrity policy
Comparison of Core Elements of Academic Integrity Policy (Bretag et al, 2011) with HEA Recommendations
• Long history of surveys attempting to gauge student academic misconduct starting with Bowers in 1963 • Don McCabe and colleagues - a robust body of work since 1990 using self reporting of academic misconduct and looking at the causes of such conduct • There seems to be some commonality in the figure self reported Bowers reported 75% in his sample, McCabe’s results confirm this average level as do other surveys • Influences on academic misconduct: age, gender, ug vs pg, culture, technology, individual moral beliefs, pressure, honour codes, awareness initiatives (Jiang et al (2013))
A holistic approach
- recognised by all key writers – academic integrity to be included at all stages: – From university mission statements and marketing…to assessment practices and curriculum design…to information during orientation…to frequent and visual reminders on campus…to professional development for staff… • Tricia Bertram Gallant talks about the need to
build a culture of academic integrity
ethics and ethical conduct must underpin our approach to academic integrity
“Changes in the educational system, society and technologies over time seem to offer increasing opportunities and temptations to cheat, yet the educational system has not countered that with an enhanced emphasis on teaching students about ethics and ethical conduct ” “What this means is that today’s students may face more ethical dilemmas than did their predecessors, and yet they are less adequately trained to handle them. In other words, students will struggle to act with integrity and make good, ethical choices unless they learn how —and our colleges and universities are not teaching them.
” (Bertram Gallant, 2010)
• • • Universities are not only responsible for the intellectual development of students but also for their
personal, moral and professional development
Students need to be supported in developing a set of ethical standards
that will guide their personal and professional decision-making abilities as they enter the workforce.
Universities have a responsibility to prepare students to accept responsibility for their actions
, not only in the business world, but also in professional education programmes and in the practice of their chosen profession.
As much is recognised by students: For example in the survey reported in Bretag (2013) 92% of students who responded provided a positive response to the question: ‘Do you think academic integrity has relevance to your life or work experience outside the University?
Graduate attributes are commonly understood as an articulation of
“…the qualities, skills and understandings a university community agrees its students should develop during their time with the institution. These attributes include but go beyond the disciplinary expertise or technical knowledge that has traditionally formed the core of most university courses. They are qualities that also prepare graduates as agents of social good in an unknown future.
” (Bowden 2000)
In the Australian context GAs have been in existence for some time and Dunleavy (2012) it has demonstrated that for all Universities “The number one position of communication skills will surprise no one, but
anticipated ” may be less widely
The pragmatic approach
•Starting point - the
framework of rules and procedures
defined by regulatory bodies charged with the task of raising or maintaining professional standards. •Learning and teaching starts from the student’s ‘
need to know
’ in these and related areas; is pragmatic in the sense that ethical considerations are defined in relation to their practical consequences for the student •Emphasises
professional propriety and accountability
The pragmatic approach
• Codes of conduct are - widespread within health and social care, and are now influencing commercial practice • Students need to be aware that such codes exist, and able to apply them to their own behaviour. • Students who are required to do a research project as part of their coursework should acquire some familiarity with Research Ethics Committees (RECs) and the factors that influence their deliberations
The embedded approach
•Pragmatic approach = professionalism as
behaviour constrained by an agreed code of conduct
•Embedded approach = professionalism is in terms of the
emerging sense of self identity
•Modules in which students are introduced to ethics in an ‘ embedded ’ way present moral issues holistically, as an integral part of some broader area of concern which has a significant ethical dimension such as Fitness for Practice. Based on Illingworth, S (2004) Approaches to Ethics in Higher EducationTeaching: Ethics across the Curriculum, Philosophical and Religious Studies Subject Centre, Learning and Teaching Support Network (PRS-LTSN)
• A further difference between pragmatic and embedded methods is that while the former sees ethics primarily as a
set of externally imposed constraints
, the embedded approach places a greater emphasis on
• Graduate Attributes – 6 key areas • 30 credit UG Credit Framework • Mapping of SGA across the curriculum • In 2013/14 delivering at level 4/5 • Staffordshire Graduate Employability Programme • 700 students/70staff
The Staffordshire Graduate The Staffordshire Graduate represents a set of qualities that the University passionately believes is necessary for success in the 21 st century. The Staffordshire Graduate is a reflective and critical learner with a global perspective, prepared to contribute in the world of work.
Developing Global Citizenship
Extra-Curricular support for 3Es and recording of achievement Knowledge and Understanding Global Citizenship Reflective and Critical Learner
Reflective and Critical Enquiry for Lifelong Learning
Communication and Teamwork Professionalism Lifelong Learning
Employability, Enterprise and Entrepreneurship (the 3Es)
The Staffordshire Graduate will :
1 Discipline Expertise:
•Have an understanding of the forefront of knowledge in their chosen field
•Be prepared to be work-ready and employable and understand the importance of being enterprising and entrepreneurial •Academic and professional integrity
3 Global Citizenship:
•Have an understanding of global issues (including sustainability) and of their place in a globalised economy
The Staffordshire Graduate will :
4 Communication and Teamwork:
•Be an effective communicator and presenter and able to interact appropriately with a range of colleagues •Have developed the skills of independence of thought and (when appropriate) social interaction through teamwork
5 Reflective and Critical Learner:
•Have the ability to carry out inquiry-based learning and critical analysis •Be a problem solver and creator of opportunities
6 Lifelong Learning:
•Be technologically, digitally and information literate •Be able to apply Staffordshire Graduate attributes to a range of life experiences to facilitate life-long learning and life-long success.
• Failure of students to behave honestly in classroom and clinical settings has the potential to jeopardise current and future professional clinical practice. • Academic misconduct can contribute to an inaccurate assessment of a student ’s knowledge base. For example, lack of clinical knowledge or the failure to master specific concepts may significantly impact a students ability to become a competent health care practitioner. • Important for health care educators to understand why students are engaging in academic misconduct and how that behaviour can be changed.
• Nursing students on placement at Mid Staffs Hospital • NMC – Whistle Blowing • SU placements audit • Renewed Policy and Student evaluation questions • Good demonstration of relevance of links between Academic and Professional integrity
• Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust Public Enquiry • Francis Report - focused on concept of ‘Candour’ in this context • Defined as:
‘Any patient harmed by the provision of a healthcare service is informed of the fact and an appropriate remedy offered, regardless of whether a complaint has been made or a question asked about it ’
‘To support Staffordshire Graduate activity at level 4, we have recruited an
. This is a current level 5 student who demonstrates outstanding academic and professional integrity, as well as strong development of the Staffordshire Graduate Attributes. It is hoped that his values, principles and methods will act as a model for level 4 students, helping to create a culture of academic and professional integrity ’.
‘A key example I can think of with my Level 5 Physical Education students is where we look at professional teaching standards and link to SGA and professional integrity. I will be delivering this by comparing some SGA areas with the standards expected by the DfE and then on their school placement and in assignments I am asking students to reflect on how they model these standards and integrity in a real workplace ’.
Drama, Performance and Theatre Arts Negotiated Creative Project ‘As part of this, we explore and examine the notions of ‘originality’ and ‘creativity’ from a practical context, and how that relates to an ethical understanding of their work as practitioners of theatre ’.
• Sport Development & Coaching - students sign and comply with an agreed
- guidance on work ethic, standards of behaviour and communication, dress code, autonomy and respect for confidentiality. - A strong tripartite relationship between student, placement host and placement supervisor ensures this code is maintained.
Work with academic teams to: • Link Academic and Professional Integrity in curriculum - relating to: - written work - developing SGA - Employability • using the same language for both • Continuously make the connections between Academic integrity and life/work experiences outside the University
• Assess impact of increasing student engagement in improving academic practice and linking this with Professional Practice • instances of Academic Misconduct: - Plagiarism - False Declarations - Collusion - Misconduct in Examinations • Feedback from Employers
253 cases – 1.2% of student population 95.3% Plagiarism 3.2% Collusion Health Sciences – 0.3% Arts and Creative Technologies – 0.5% Business, Education and Law – 1.9% Computing, Engineering, Science – 2.3%
“We owe our society a compelling and wide ranging conversation about the multiple aims of college, not just of the economic aspirations. Discussion of the ethical dimensions of learning needs to be central to that dialogue.
” Dey, E.L. et al (2010) Developing a Moral compass; what is a the campus climate for ethics and academic integrity, Association of American Colleges and Universities
The Integrity Iceberg Individual actions: Plagiarism/ Academic Misconduct Institutional Culture: Academic Integrity and Ethical Values Personal and Social Responsibility https://plus.google.com/photos/+ArturMashnich/albums/5730164443210283537#photos/+ArturMashnich/albums/5730164443210283537