Introduction to Policing and Prevention

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Crime Prevention
History and Theory
2345 Crystal Drive, Suite 500
Arlington, VA 22202
202-261-4153 FAX 202-296-1356
[email protected]
www.ncpc.org/ncpa
What Causes Crime - FBI
1. Population, density and degree of urbanization;
2. Population variations in composition and stability;
3. Economic conditions and employment
4. Mores, cultural conditions, education, and religion;
5. Family cohesiveness;
6. Climate, including seasonal weather conditions;
What Causes Crime - FBI
7. Effective strength of the police force;
8. Police employment practices;
9. Policies of the courts, prosecutors and corrections;
10. Citizen attitudes toward crime and police;
11. Efficiency of police agencies
12. Crime reporting practices of citizens.
Crime Prevention
How do we prevent crime?
Crime Prevention in Action
Name some examples of crime prevention you
have used or have seen in operation today.
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What was it ?
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What crime did it address?
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How did it work?
Early Crime Prevention
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The oldest known lock is estimated to be about
4,000 years old. It was found by archaeologists in
the Khorsabad palace ruins in Iraq. The lock
featured a large wooden bolt that secured a door,
with several holes in its upper surface.
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Heavily fortified castles of many countries stand as
a permanent testament to the need to provide a safe
community.
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Early Crime Prevention
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During the Middle Ages, a system of "Reprisals"
was used to discourage criminal behavior.
By 1285, a "Watchman" system was initiated in
London, based on the "hue and cry" of citizens.
In 1655, Oliver Cromwell attempted to establish the
first organized professional police force, based
upon the watchman system.
Early Crime Prevention
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In the early 1700’s Jonathan Wild organized a gang
of “thief takers” who were paid by results only.
If they arrested a person for a crime, they received
nothing from the authorities until a conviction
resulted.
In many cases a price was put on the head of a
wanted criminal.
The Night Watch - Rembrandt
The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq and
Lieutenant Willem van Ruytenhurch
Early Law in America
Laws Devine, Moral and Martial
Sir Thomas Dale, Marshall and DeputiyGovernor
Jamestown, Virginia June 22, 1611
the Captain of the watch, must have a special care of
the safeguard and preservation of the Town or Fort
committed to his charge, … that through his defect,
negligence, or ignorance in his charge, he gives not
opportunity to the enemy to execute any of his
designs, for the damaging of the place or the
Inhabitants.
Early Crime Prevention
Why do we
eat with a
fork and a
blunt knife?
1669 - King Louis XIV
of France banned
pointed knives at the
dinner table as a
measure to reduce
violence.
Forks replaced pointed
knives to spear food.
Early Crime Prevention
• In 1819, punishment was the main weapon against
crime, with no fewer that 223 offenses were still
punishable by death.
• Because of the absence of police, the chances of a
criminal being detected were very slim and those of
his conviction even slimmer.
• It became clear that severity of punishment was not
an effective crime prevention method.
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Early Crime Prevention
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Historians give credit to Henry Fielding for taking
the first positive steps for the formation of a
responsible police organization.
Later his half-brother, John Fielding, continued the
work and is credited with having brought to the
police service the concept of prevention.
He said, “It is much better to prevent even one man
from being a rogue than apprehending and bringing
40 to justice.”
Robert Peel - Principles of Policing
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Much has been written about
Sir Robert Peel and the
development of the
Metropolitan Police Act of
1829.
It is clear that until this time
very little had been done to
place the police in a crime
prevention role.
Metropolitan Police Act of 1829
Part of the instructions to the officers were:
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It should be understood, at the outset, that the
principal object to obtained is the prevention of
crime. To this great end every effort of the police is
to be directed.
The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime
and disorder, not the visible evidence of police
action in dealing with it.
Metropolitan Police Act of 1829
More of the instructions to the officers:
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Security of persons and property, the preservation
of the public tranquility, and all the other objects of
a police establishment, can thus be better effected,
than by the detection and punishment of the
offender, after he has succeeded in committing the
crime.
Early Crime Prevention
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Unfortunaetley, these noble goals faded into the
background as the police and public began to
identify the success/failure of the police based on
reported crimes reported and crimes cleared.
It was more than a century later, in 1950, that British
Police leaders realized something more positive had
to be done in the area of crime prevention.
Early Crime Prevention
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A campaign was officially opened by the Home
Secretary on May 1, 1950, and it ran in various parts
of the country until the autumn of 1951.
Certain insurance companies, in cooperation with the
Home Office, produced and distributed crime
prevention material.
Early Crime Prevention
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Because funding was not available this program was
given low priority and it was not until 1963 that a
formal training course in crime prevention was begun
by the Home Office at Stafford.
By this time, however, crime prevention training held
high priority at the Home Office and by the end of
1970, 1,045 officers had attended the standard.
Crime Prevention in America
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In 1968, drawing on the British experience, John
Klotter, Dean of the University of Louisville
School of Police Administration began
developing an American model for crime prevention.
National Crime Prevention Institute - NCPI,
established in Louisville, Kentucky in 1971.
The National Sheriff’s Association began the
Neighborhood Watch program in 1972.
Crime Prevention in America
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In 1977, FBI Director Clarence Kelley went to The
Advertising Council with a proposal for a crime
prevention public service advertising campaign.
The, LEAA, FBI, and the AFL-CIO formed a small
planning group that included the National Sheriffs'
Association and the International Association of
Chiefs of Police.
Crime Prevention in America
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In 1980, an animated dog in a trench coat became
officially known as McGruff the Crime Dog®.
In 1982, the National Crime Prevention Council was
established to manage the McGruff campaign and
promote crime prevention throughout the United
States.
Crime Prevention Coalition and McGruff
Preliminary
Images of the
Crime Dog
Crime Prevention Coalition and McGruff
Jack Keil, with the advertising
agency Saatchi & Saatchi,
was the leader of the creative
team that developed McGruff
the Crime Dog.
The Original
McGruff
He was the first person to
utter the words, "Take A Bite
Out Of Crime."
Some Early Security Technology
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In 1857, James Sargent invented the world’s first
successful key-changeable combination lock.
In 1861, Linus Yale, Jr., manufactured and patented a
cylinder pin-tumbler lock. One year later he invented
the modern combination lock.
In 1873, James Sargent developed and patented a
time lock mechanism. This lock became the
prototype of those being used in contemporary bank
vaults.
Early Security Technology
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In 1942, the first closed circuit television (CCTV)
system was installed by Siemens AG at Test Stand
VII in Peenemunde, France, to observe the launch
of German V2 rockets.
Today, CCTV is used for security purposes and can
be found anywhere from parking lots, office
buildings, and grocery stores to school buses!
Defining Crime Prevention
Crime Prevention - Justice Model
• Punitive (tertiary)
• Corrective (secondary)
• Mechanical or Protective (primary)
Dr. Peter Lejins
Crime Prevention - Punitive
• criminal laws
• police
• Crime Stoppers
• courts
• jails and prisons
Crime Prevention - Corrective
• employment
• education
• counseling
• mentoring
• Head Start
• Dare
Crime Prevention - Protective
• Neighborhood Watch
• Community Policing
• Public Education
• CPTED
• Homeland Security
Crime Prevention Triangle
Desire
Ability
Opportunity
Crime Prevention Triangle
Exercise
Works as teams and list three steps that can be
taken to address each of the three elements of
the crime prevention triangle:
Desire - Ability - Opportunity
Each team will report back to the class.
Crime Prevention Defined
Crime Prevention is the anticipation,
recognition and appraisal of a crime
risk and the initiation of some action
to remove or reduce the risk.
Source: National Crime Prevention Institute - NCPI
Crime Prevention Defined
Crime Prevention is a pattern of attitudes and
behaviors directed at reducing the threat of
crime and enhancing the sense of safety
and security, to positively influence the
quality of life in our society, and to develop
environments where crime cannot flourish.
Source
National Crime Prevention Council - 1990
Crime Prevention Defined
Community Policing is an organization-wide
philosophy and management approach that
promotes partnerships; proactive problem
solving and community engagement to
address the causes of crime, fear of crime,
and other community issues.
Source
Community Policing Initiative - 1990’s
Crime Prevention
• Crime prevention is proactive, rather than
reactive.
• Proactive policing attempts to prevent the
crime from occurring in the first place.
• Reactive policing responds to crime after it
has occurred.
Crime Prevention Motto
The motto for crime prevention
specialists in Virginia.
Occasio Facit Furem
"Opportunity makes the thief."
13th Century Proverb
Crime Prevention is Proactive
It stops crime from happening in the first place.
Powers of the Police Force
§15.2-1704 (Code of Virginia)
The police force of a locality is hereby invested with all
the power and authority which formerly belonged to the
office of constable at common law and is responsible for
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the prevention and detection of crime,
the apprehension of criminals,
the safeguard of life and property,
the preservation of peace and
the enforcement of state and local laws, regulations,
and ordinances.
Law Enforcement Officer
(Code of Virginia)
Law Enforcement Officer means
any full-time or part-time employee of a police
department or sheriff's office which is a part
of or administered by the Commonwealth or any
political subdivision thereof, and who is
responsible for the prevention and detection of
crime.
The Law Enforcement Mission
• Today the law enforcement element of the job
is becoming secondary.
• The order-maintenance, peace- preservation,
and crime prevention elements of the job that
are making more of a contribution to the
overall quality of community life.
Former Chief Jerry Oliver - Richmond Police Department
Law Enforcement Mission
The mission of the Philadelphia Police
Department is to fight crime and the fear of crime,
including terrorism, by working with our partners
to enforce the laws, apprehend offenders, prevent
crime from occurring, and improve the quality of
life for all Philadelphians.
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Law Enforcement Mission
Simple Mission Statement
“To Serve and Protect.”
Law Enforcement Mission
Police Mission
Exercise
Works as teams and make a list of at least three
reasons why crime prevention is important to
the police mission.
Each team will report back to the class.
Opportunities to Commit Crime
• unlocked or poorly locked doors
• car keys left in the ignition
• retail store layouts – shoplifting
• computers – Internet
• ATM and credit cards
Opportunities to Commit Crime
I can reduce the Major Crime rate in Virginia
by 5% by implementing a crime prevention
policy that does not involve any law
enforcement participation?
What crime is it?
Opportunities to Commit Crime
What type of crime prevention is this?
How do we reduce the opportunity?
Gasoline Drive Off Theft
Gasoline Drive Off Theft
Pay Before You Pump!
NACS' State of the Industry report
drive-offs cost the industry $300 million
in 2005 - or $2,678 per
each store selling gas.
New Jersey State Law
Dispensing Fuel or Pumping Gas
No person shall dispense fuel at a gasoline
station, unless the person is an attendant who
has received instructions regarding the
dispensing of fuel.
Opportunity & Crime - 10 Principals
1. Opportunities play a role in causing all crime.
2. Crime opportunities are highly specific.
3. Crime opportunities are concentrated in time and
space.
4. Crime opportunities depend on everyday
movements.
5. One crime produces opportunities for another.
Opportunity Makes the Thief, Felson & Clarke, 1998
http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/prgpdfs/fprs98.pdf
Opportunity & Crime - 10 Principals
6. Some products offer more tempting crime
opportunities.
7. Social and technological changes produce new
crime opportunities.
8. Opportunities for crime can be reduced.
9. Reducing opportunities does not usually displace
crime.
10. Focused opportunity reduction can produce
wider declines in crime.
Opportunity Makes the Thief, Felson & Clarke, 1998
http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/prgpdfs/fprs98.pdf
Situational Crime Prevention
Increase Effort
Increase Risks
Reduce Rewards
Remove Excuses
1. Target Hardening
door locks
steering locks
bandit screens
5. Entry/Exit Screening
automatic ticket gates
baggage screening
merchandise tags
9. Target Removal
removable car radio
exact fare
ATM cards
13. Rule Setting
customs declaration
income tax returns
hotel registration
2. Access Control
parking lot barriers
fenced yards
entry phones
6. Formal Surveillance
red light cameras
alarms
security guards
10. Identifying Property
car VIN #'s
property marking
personal ID numbers
14. Stimulating Conscience
roadside speed clocks
shoplifting is stealing signs
idiots drink & drive ads
3. Deflecting Offenders
bus stop placement
tavern location
street closures
7. Employee Surveillance
pay phone location
park attendants
CCTV systems
11. Reducing Temptation
graffiti cleaning
rapid repair
"bum-proof" bench
15. Controlling Disinhibitors
drinking age laws
ignition interlocks
v-chips for TV
4. Controlling Facilitators
credit card photo
gun controls
caller-ID
8. Natural Surveillance
defensible space/CPTED
street lighting
cab driver I.D.
12. Denying Benefits
pin #'s for car radios
graffiti cleaning
split merchandise tags
16. Facilitating Compliance
easy library check out
pay at the pump
trash cans
Crime Prevention Programs
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Neighborhood Watch
Personal Safety
Robbery Prevention
School Safety
Workplace Safety
Auto Theft Prevention
CPTED
McGruff House
Operation Identification
and many others
Options for Reducing Opportunity
• Natural
• Organized
• Mechanical
Natural Prevention
We can create
environments that
can naturally
encourage people
to watch out.
• Schools
Organized Prevention
We can organize
people to provide
for safety and
security
• Police
Mechanical Prevention
We can use Mechanical
or electronic devices
can be are used to
secure property.
• Video monitoring and
locked gates.
Mechanical Prevention
Mechanical or
electronic devices
can be are used to
create territoriality,
surveillance or
access control.
Whatever works
4 D’s of Crime Prevention
• Deny the criminal access to the target.
• Deter the criminal from attacking.
• Detect the criminal if he does attack.
• Delay the criminal before he succeeds. his
objective.
Risk Management
• Avoid the risk.
• Reduce the risk.
• Spread the risk.
• Transfer the risk.
• Accept the risk.
Crime Prevention Is
1. everyone’s business
2. more than security
3. a responsibility of all levels of government
4. linked with solving social problems
5. cost-effective
National Crime Prevention Council
Crime Prevention Requires
6. a central position in law enforcement
7. cooperation among all elements of the
community
8. education
9. tailoring to local needs and conditions
10. continual testing and improvement
National Crime Prevention Council
Crime Prevention - A New Idea?
Enforcement First
Crime Prevention can only be
effective if aggressive and effective
law enforcement is in place first.
Is Crime Prevention Valuable?
• It makes crime more difficult, discouraging
people (especially) youth from getting
involved in crime.
• It frees up police resources.
• It makes the police look more effective –
many opportunistic crimes can’t be solved
and make the police look bad.
Crime Prevention Works
Direct Deposit
Reduced theft of
retirement checks
from the mail.
Crime Prevention Works
Bus Driver Robbery
1963 to 1968 bus driver
robberies increased 50%
and driver deaths
increased 100%.
Exact Fare
Eliminated robbery and
assaults of bus drivers.
Crime Prevention Works
Soft Body Armor
• more than 3,000 lives
saved
• An officer who is NOT
wearing armor is 14 times
more likely to suffer a
fatal injury than an officer
who is wearing armor.
(National Institute of Justice)
Selling Crime Prevention
Exercise
Works as teams and identify two strategies that
would best help sell crime prevention in your
jurisdiction.
Teams will report back to the class.
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