ROLE OF A CITIZEN IN DEFENSE OF STATE Role of a Citizen in Defense of State The defense of the state is its citizens primary role. The strategy of preparing our youth to play a more active role in nation building and in the defense of the country as indicated by the principle stated in this document. A citizen’s duty in the defense of the state is defined in the Philippine Constitution and in the National Defense Act (Commonwealth Act No.1) which instituted the Preparatory Military Training (PMT) or Citizens Army Training (CAT) as it is now called. DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES, AS STATED IN ARTICLE II OF THE CONSTITUTION Section 3 – Civilian authority is, at all times, supreme to the military. The Armed Forces of the Philippines is the protector of the people and the State. Its goal is to secure the sovereignty of the State and the integrity of the national territory. Section 4 – the prime duty of the Government is to serve and protect the people. The Government May call upon the people to defend the State, and in the fulfilment thereof, all citizens maybe required, under conditions provided by the law, to render military or civil services Section 5 – The Maintenance of peace and order, the protection of life, liberty, and property, and the promotion of general welfare is essential for the enjoyment of all the people of blessing of democracy Section 13 – The state recognizes the vital role of the youth in the nation-building and shall Promote and protect their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual, and social well being. It shall inculcate in the youth patriotism and nationalism and encourage their involvement in the public and civic affairs ARTICLE XVI OF OUR CONSTITUTION FURTHER NOTICE Section 4 – The Armed Forces of the Philippines shall be composed of a citizen armed forces which military and serve, as may be provided by law. It shall keep a regular force for the security of the state. Citizenship and military training of the youth form part of the National Defense System. The National Defense Act (Commonwealth Act No. 1) was passed and signed by Manuel Luis Quezon on 21 December 1935, and Youth Development was implemented through, Preparatory Military Training (PMT) from the time a grade school child was ten (10) years old and on through. Among the objectives of this program was to produce a Junior Reserve. Since 1935 changes have been made to suit times until AFP Home Defense Program became reality. This program carried the following provisions on Reserve Production in Educational Institution. Reserve Production in Educational Insitution AFP units and organizations will continue to conduct activities which pertain to Reserve Production on Educational Institutions as presented by the ROTC/WATC in colleges, and universities and Citizens Army Training (CAT)/PMT/ WAS in secondary school. In accordance the requirement of law and as requires for graduation from academic forces male students are required to undergo ROTC while both male and female students are required to undergo CAT (PMT/WAS). Until the implementation of CAT II. The WATC shall remain for females in colleges and universities withi WATC units established with them Citizens Army Training 1 (CAT-1) – this pertains to male and female students in the Fourth year Of secondary school courses who will undergo military trainings in with the approved Program of Instructions (POI). CAT I replaces PMT/WAS in secondary school. Though they will not necessarily from the part of AFP Reserve Component and will be part of the Junior Reserve. Female students may not take WATC when considered for assembly or mobilization or call duty unless otherwise directed The AFP Home Defense Strategic Program provides the guidelines in conduction Citizen Training I in secondary schools as component of Manpower and Reserve Affairs Administration and Reserve Force Development. The government’s Youth Development Strategy prepares the youth for their citizenship and roles of national defense. As emphasized in the AFP Home Defense Proram. The Youth Development and Citizen Army Training (YD/CAT) are part of the youth development program and the Manpower Development Activities which serve the national interest in the political, economic, psychosocial, and military dimensions. The Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) Department of National Defense (DND), and the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) consider the CAT I program important to secondary education due to its contributions in the development of graduates who are physically and morally upright, patriotic self reliant and law abiding. The CAT Program, as suggested by recent events in the country was revised to confirm with certain areas affecting national security and development. Citizen Army Training I is provided by law in the virtue of the following authority: A. Statutory 1. Philippine Home Defense Program 2. NAFP Home Defense (Strategic) Program 3. Presidential Decree Nr 183 and 1706 B. Department 1. DND – AFP a. Philippine Home Defense Program b. NAFP Home Defense (Strategic) Program c. Letter, GHQ, AFP dated 24 May 1973, Subject Revision of PMT Program in Secondary School d. AFP Regulation G 314-033, GHQ, AFP dated 23 September 1075, Citizen Army Training – Organization, Administration e. Youth Development & Citizen Army Training in Secondary Schools (An Appraisal) OUSHD, MND 2. DECS a. MECS Order Nr 15, s 73 – Revised Physical Education and Health, Preparatory Military Training and Scouting Program in Secondary Schools b. MECS Order Nr 20.s 73 – Revised Secondary Education Program 1973 c. MECS Order 23, s 73 – Clarification on the Revised PE and Health, Music, PMT and Scouting Program. d. MECS Order Nr 29, s 73 – The rating, System for YDT and CAT I e. MECS Order Nr 63, s 77 – Exemption from CAT I, NAD Physical Education Requirements g. MECS Order Nr 14, s 88 – Clarification on the Implementation of CAT I in Secondary Schools h. DECS Bulletin Nr 1, s 92 – Program of Instruction for Citizens Army Training As a subject CAT I requires the involvement of all able bodied male and female student as require for the completion of secondary education. The CAT is a compulsory preparatory military training for all able-bodied fourth year high school students in the country. The Department of Education, Culture, and sports has the responsibility of implementing it while the Armed Forces of the Philippines provide the technical supervision of the program. CAT-I is divided into 35 training weeks with 2 sessions (hours) per training week. As a regular module, male students have a total of 70 periods, with 14 subjects to take up within the year. For female students, introduction of AFP Weapons and Drills and Ceremonies are option. Module B for the females is similar except for the coverage of Advanced courses on Civil Defense/ Civil Relations, Disaster Control, Law Enforcement and the fire Concept of Preparedness Aspect of Disaster Management.