Chapter 18

Cultural Identity Models
Essentials of Cultural Competence in Pharmacy
Practice: Chapter 18 Notes
Chapter Author: Dr. Duane A. Halbur
Learning Objectives
1. Understand and apply models of identity development to
both majority and minority individuals.
2. Identify key steps to becoming culturally competent.
3. Gain the ability to assess a pharmacy’s cultural sensitivity.
Cultural Identity
 Complex process
 Fluid
 Changing throughout the lifespan
 Pharmacists and patients, and their respective relationships,
are highly impacted by their cultural backgrounds.
Models of Cultural Identity
 White identity model
 Helms’ white racial identity development (WID) model
 Steps: contact, disintegration, reintegration, pseudo-
independence, immersion/emersion, autonomy
 Minority identity development (MID) model
 Steps: conformity, dissonance, resistance and immersion,
introspection, synergistic
Pharmacy Competence Continuum
 Naïve
 Open
 Advocates
 Moving an agency from naiveté to advocacy
Models of Working with Cultural
 Cultural desire
 Cultural awareness
 Cultural knowledge
 Cultural skills
 A need to understand the impact of bias/stereotyping in
pharmacy practice
Reflection Questions
1. How will your own cultural identity impact your work with
2. What cultural biases do you still have to overcome?
3. How will your work be impacted now that you understand
the development of cultural identities?
4. How do you believe the field of pharmacy can continue to
become culturally sensitive?