Memory

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Chapter 7: Memory
Music:
“Do You Remember”
Featuring Jean Paul
“Never Forget You”
Noisettes
Agenda
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1. Important information for the next test!
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2. The Memory System
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(i) Sensory Memory
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From sensory to short-term memory
(ii) Short Term Memory
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From short-term to long-term memory
(iii) Long Term Memory
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Forgetting
3. Eye-Witness Testimonies
4. Application: Improving your memory
5. Movie: Beautiful Minds… (5 min.)
1. Readings for Midterm #2
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Chapter 5 “Variations in Consciousness”
Chapter 6 “Learning”
Chapter 7 “Memory”
Chapter 8 “Language and Thought”
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Chapter 9 “Intelligence and Psychological Testing”
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Delete pages 329-344 (Language)
Delete pages 369-375
Evaluation:
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Midterm #2 will be worth 20% of your final grade
Same format as Midterm #1
Start studying now!
2. The Memory System
Fig. 7.6 p. 290
2. Three Key Processes in Memory
2. (i) Sensory Memory
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Stores a perfect picture of the world, but for a
fraction of a second
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See Sperling’s studies p. 290
Iconic (visual) and echoic (auditory) sensory
memories
2. (i) Sperling’s Studies
From Sensory to
Short-Term Memory
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How does information get encoded and
transferred onto the memory system?
a) Automatic processing
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No effort required
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See implicit memories p. 312
b) Effortful processing
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Pay conscious effort and attention to hold info. In
short-term memory
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See explicit memories p. 312
2. (ii) Short-Term Memory
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Semi-permanent storage
Magic number: 7 (+ - 2)
Information is lost after 20-30 seconds unless it is
rehearsed
Maintenance rehearsal keeps the information there…
Elaborative rehearsal brings the information to long
term memory
Type of encoding: p.287
Type of Encoding
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2. (ii) Type of encoding, p. 287
2. (ii) From Short-Term to LongTerm Memory
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What helps us remember??
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a) Type of encoding
b) Self-referent encoding (self-schema)
c) Imagery
d) Mnemonics:
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method of loci
Acronyms: e.g. Roy G. Biv
2. (ii)…To long term memory
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e) Chunking: e.g.
 1-4-9-2-1-7-7-6-1-8-1-2
 (1492) (1776) (1812)
f) Organize information hierarchically
g) Spacing effects:
 distributed practice leads to better long-term
retention
h) Time: over learn!
i) Mood-dependent effects
2. (iii) Long Term Memory
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Where information is stored in relatively
permanent form
Capacity is seemingly infinite!
2 memory systems: p. 313
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Declarative:
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Semantic (explicit memories/encyclopedia)
Episodic (implicit memories/autobiography)
Non-declarative, procedural
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“how to”; implicit memories based on practice or habit
2. (iii) Independent Memory Systems
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p. 313
2. (iii) Forgetting
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Major reasons:
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a) failure to encode
b) stored memories decay
c) retrieval failure
d) interference:
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Proactive and retroactive p. 304
2. (iii) Forgetting: Interference
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p. 304
2. (iii) Forgetting: The Story of HM
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The most famous and studied amnesiac
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Anterograde amnesia (p. 311)
2. (iii) Forgetting
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e) Motivated forgetting:
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Freud’s concept of repression
Repressed memory controversy
p. 305-308
3. Eyewitness Testimony
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A case of constructive memory
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Discussed by professor in class
Another illustration with Loftus
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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_RLvSGYxDIs&feature=fvw
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Conclusion:
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“Memories” for non-existent objects can be implanted
Memory is surprisingly unreliable
4. Improving your Memory
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a) Pay Attention!
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b) Distributed practice
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And over learn
Take your time, and take time
c) Engage in deep processing
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Make information personally meaningful
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Link to previously acquired knowledge
d) Organize information hierarchically
e) Learn through several modalities
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Provide examples for yourself
E.g. use visual imagery
(2 codes is better than 1)
f) Use mnemonics (where useful)
g) Minimize interference
4. Movie: Beautiful Minds...
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An amazing case of perfect
photographic memory. (5 min.)
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http://www.stumbleupon.com/su/2MBBxU
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