APA-American Psychological
Research Paper
Brought to you by:
Georgina Armendariz
RG Writing Center
Cover Page: Header-(0.5” margin)
 Header: (appears on every page)
 Purpose: To identify the manuscript without the author’s name
 Note:
Double-spaced throughout manuscript
12 inch sepia font
Page number
 Title page is page 1
 Flush Right
Running Head (yes, you write “Running Head”)
 An abbreviated version of the title
 Max 50 words (does not include “Running Head”)
 Avoid commas
 Flush Left
Cover Page-(1” margins all around)
Mid-Section (centered)
Review main idea of your paper
First letter of each main word is capitalized
10-12 words
Author’s Name
That’s you!
El Paso Community College
 Last Section (centered)
 Instructor
 Class
 Date
 Center the word “Abstract”
 Don’t indent paragraph
 Use one paragraph (150-250 words)
 Review/ summarize your paper
 Write concisely
 State thesis statement
*Ask your instructor if an Abstract is required.
 One sentence that says what your trying to prove,
your conviction
 Tips for creating your thesis
 What is the purpose of your paper?
 Be specific to your topic you are discussing
 Your thesis statement should be at the end of your first
paragraph (introduction).
 Ex:
 “The life of a typical college student is characterized by the time
spent studying, attending classes, and socializing.
 The paper should then explain how the students spend their time
studying, attending classes, and socializing.
 Title
 Repeat the title (centered)
 Experiment Research paper sections : Introduction, Method,
Results, Discussion, References. All Headers in the paper.
 Essay style research paper: sections not identified by headers, but
rather by topic sentence. Headers can be used but not necessary.
 What format are we using in this class?
 There are five ways to do proper APA headings:
 Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase
Flush Left, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase
Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading
ending with a period.
Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase
paragraph heading ending with a period.
Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading
ending with a period.
In-Text Citations
 Author-date method of citation
 (author’s last name, date of publication)
 Two basic ways to cite:
 1) According to Smith (2009), humans have one less
chromosomes than animals.
 2) Chimpanzees are the closest ancestors that humans have to
another species (Smith, 2009).
In-Text Citations
Two Authors
 Smith and Foster (2009)
 (Smith & Foster, 2009)
 Three Authors
 Smith, Foster, and Ross (2009)
 Smith et al. (2009)
 (Smith, Foster, & Ross, 2009)
(Smith et al., 2009)
Et al. subsequent times
 Five Authors
 Smith, Foster, Ross, Butler, and Xavier (2009)
 Smith et al. (2009)
 (Smith, Foster, Ross, Butler, & Xavier, 2009)
 (Smith et al., 2009)
 Et al. subsequent times
 Six Authors or more
 Smith et al. (2009)
 (Smith et al., 2009)
 Et al. Initially and subsequent times
Paraphrase vs. Quotation
 Quote: word for word/ verbatim
 “Chimpanzees carry the SIV virus that mutates into the HIV virus in
humans” (Smith et al., 2009).
 Paraphrase: Summarize author’s idea in your own words/
interpret the text
 According to Smith et al. (2009), he states that Kaprowski was guilty
of accidentally infecting the human population with AIDS.
 Documents show that chimpanzee kidneys were kept in
Kaprowski’s facility even though he refutes such claims (Smith et
al., 2009).
Should I favor one over the other?
Number Rules
 General Rule:
Numbers 10 and above are expressed as numerals.
Nine or below are written as words
 Basic exceptions to the rule:
1. Measurements are always numerals
2. Statistical functions are always numerals
3. Numbers that represent time, dates, ages, scores and point scales,
exact sums of money are numerals.
However, approximations are represented by words
4. If a sentence starts with a number, it is always a word.
Use % symbol when preceded by a number.
Use “percent” when you begin with a written number or when number
is undetermined.
 Purpose: To provide the complete reference for every citation
mentioned in the manuscript
 Centered heading
 Alphabetical order
 First line of each reference is flush left and the subsequent lines
are indented 1/2 inch.
 Basic Format:
 Author, A.A. (year). Title of article. Source, volume (ed.), page
 Smith, J.R. (2009). Chimpanzees: Nature’s driving force. Scientific
American, 14(5), 73-91.

APA (6th edition) - El Paso Community College