I. The Sumter Crises (April, 1861) • • • • What was Lincoln’s dilemma at Ft. Sumter, SC? What approach did Lincoln settle upon? What were the consequences of the attack? Evaluate: To what extent was Lincoln successful in dealing with the Sumter Crises? 5.10 Lincoln & the Union To what extent was Abraham Lincoln effective in dealing with the exigencies of war? To what extent can Lincoln be called “The Great Emancipator?” II. The Border States • Which states were Border States and why where they important? • How did the border states influence Lincoln’s statements and actions? The Border States—significance • Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware (and in 1861, “tear away” W. Virginia) • Slave-holding states that might have seceded if Lincoln had fired the first shot • Contained white pop. nearly half entire Confederacy • Industrialized—Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri would nearly double manufacturing capacity of South • Ohio River, Cumberland & Tennessee tributaries, were key supply lines for the Confederacy (grain, gunpowder, iron). Lincoln’s policy toward the Border States • Declared martial law in Maryland; sent in troops to ML, W.VA, MO • Declared publically: War to save Union, not end slavery and emancipate blacks III. Strengths & Weaknesses • At the outbreak of the war, what advantages did the South have and what advantages did the North have? • Evaluate: What advantage proved most important to each side? • What were the disadvantages of each side? • Evaluate: Which disadvantage proved most troublesome to each side? Southern advantages • Strategic: Could fight a defensive war; did not have to win to earn independence • Moral: fighting for self-determination, preservation of way of life • Military: – Talented commanding officers (Lee, Jackson) – Southern men “bred to fight”—rebel yell • Economic – King Cotton, one big farm Southern disadvantages • Economic – Scarcity of factories • Compensated by seizing federal weapons, ran blockades, developed ironworks • Still, shortages of shoes, uniforms, blankets – Supply • Fewer railroads, limited supply lines food shortages • Constitutional – Borrowed heavily from Union w/one important defect: could not deny future secession of constituent states – At first, trouble getting states to fight outside their own borders (GA especially belligerent) Northern Advantages • Economic – Agrarian and Industrial • ¾ the nation’s wealth; ¾ the nation’s 30k (m) railroads – Supply • Controlled the sea, traded grain to Europe for munitions and supplies • Demographics – 22 million (vs. 9 million, including 3.5 million slaves) – Heavy immigration: 800k from 1861-1865 made up 1/5 of Union forces Northern disadvantages • Military: – Ordinary soldiers less experienced – Commanding officers less brilliant (command by trail-and-error) IV. Foreign Support • Why did the South believe they would be able to enlist foreign intervention and why were they unable to do so? • What incidents threatened peaceful relations between the Union and Britain? Southern hope of foreign support • South counted on European support – European aristocrats sympathetic; people were not (influence of Uncle Tom’s Cabin) • South knew that Britain depending on cotton, 75% of total supply – However, 1857-1860 Britain stockpiled a surplus; later relied on Northern charity, blockade running, Indian/Egyptian imports – King Cotton defeated by King Grain and Corn • McCormick’s mechanical reaper allowed North to relieve bad British harvests European conflicts—Britain • Trent Affair (1861) • Union warship forcibly removes two Confederate diplomats from British mail steamer • Lincoln: “One war at a time” • Alabama (1862-1864) • “Commerce raider” built in Britain and manned by Brits exploited loophole by picking up guns in the Caribbean • Captured 60+ (250 in all) Northern vessels, crippling the merchant marine, before Charles Francis Adams convinced Britain to cease production • Laird Rams (1863) • Minister Adams took a hard line: “this is war” if released • Agreed to submit Alabama dispute to arbitration (ended up paying $15/5 million) European conflicts, other • Canada – Confederate raids vs. Irish “green shirt” raids (1866-1870) – Dominion of Canada established in 1867 • France – Napolean gambles on Southern victory, established “puppet” Austrian archduke Maximilian as emperor of Mexico. – Took a “French leave” in 1867; Maximillian deposed and killed by firing squad. V. Economic impact • How did the war impact the economy in the North and the economy in the South? Northern fundraising • Excise taxes on tobacco, alcohol • First national income tax • Customs duties via Morrill Tariff Act—moderate to high (key part of Republican platform) • Union “greenbacks” inadequately backed by gold, fluctuated with every victory/loss • Most significant fund-raiser: T-bonds through Jay Cooke and Company • National Banking System (1863) stimulated sale of bonds, established common bank-note currency • Northern factories (industrialization): – First millionaire class, Captains of Industry – war profiteering – mechanical reapers Southern woes • Blockade and destruction: 30% of nation’s wealth in 1860 12% (1870) • Transportation (railroads) collapsed Processing • Evaluate: To what extent was President Lincoln effective in dealing with the exigencies of the war? Activator • Evaluate Lincoln’s wartime policies and accomplishments: Admirable/Effective Policy Navigating the Ft. Sumter Crises Dealing with the border states Protecting civil liberties and upholding the Constitution Military strategy Freeing the slaves Preserving the Union Problematic/Ineffective Lincoln and the War • Without Congress in session, boldly declared blockade – (later upheld by Supreme Court) • Increased size of federal army – something only Congress can do (Art. I, Sec. VIII, para.12). • (Congress later approved) • Directed Treasury to advance $2 million to military – only Congress can control the purse (Art. I, Sec IX, para7). • Suspended Habeas Corpus: – Held people in jail without proving just cause (violation of Art. I, Sec. IX, para 2 • “Supervised voting” in border states—intimidated voters had to pass armed troops to vote • Shut down newspapers in Washington DC (violation of 1st amendment) • VI: To what extent were Lincoln’s abridgements of civil liberties justified? Doc Analysis A and B • Close reading & Corroboration: – Doc A: • According to the quotation above, what does Lincoln want the American people to do? – Doc B: • How much time passed between when Lincoln made the quotation in document 1 and the one in document 2? • According to document 2, why did Lincoln’s views on race change from when he spoke in New York (document 1)? Doc Analysis C-E • Close Reading & Corroboration – Doc C: • What does Lincoln describe as his main goal in fighting the war? • What does he say is his "personal" wish? – Doc D: • According to the Emancipation Proclamation, under what circumstances would slaves be set free? – Doc E: • What is the main purpose of The Thirteenth Amendment? Processing • To what extent should Lincoln be considered “The Great Emancipator”?