I. The Sumter Crises (April, 1861)
What was Lincoln’s dilemma at Ft. Sumter, SC?
What approach did Lincoln settle upon?
What were the consequences of the attack?
Evaluate: To what extent was Lincoln
successful in dealing with the Sumter Crises?
5.10 Lincoln & the Union
To what extent was Abraham Lincoln effective in
dealing with the exigencies of war?
To what extent can Lincoln be called “The Great
II. The Border States
• Which states were Border States and why
where they important?
• How did the border states influence Lincoln’s
statements and actions?
The Border States—significance
• Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware (and in 1861,
“tear away” W. Virginia)
• Slave-holding states that might have seceded if Lincoln
had fired the first shot
• Contained white pop. nearly half entire Confederacy
• Industrialized—Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri would
nearly double manufacturing capacity of South
• Ohio River, Cumberland & Tennessee tributaries, were
key supply lines for the Confederacy (grain, gunpowder,
Lincoln’s policy toward the Border States
• Declared martial law in Maryland; sent in
troops to ML, W.VA, MO
• Declared publically: War to save Union, not
end slavery and emancipate blacks
III. Strengths & Weaknesses
• At the outbreak of the war, what advantages
did the South have and what advantages did
the North have?
• Evaluate: What advantage proved most
important to each side?
• What were the disadvantages of each side?
• Evaluate: Which disadvantage proved most
troublesome to each side?
Southern advantages
• Strategic: Could fight a defensive war; did not
have to win to earn independence
• Moral: fighting for self-determination,
preservation of way of life
• Military:
– Talented commanding officers (Lee, Jackson)
– Southern men “bred to fight”—rebel yell
• Economic
– King Cotton, one big farm
Southern disadvantages
• Economic
– Scarcity of factories
• Compensated by seizing federal weapons, ran blockades,
developed ironworks
• Still, shortages of shoes, uniforms, blankets
– Supply
• Fewer railroads, limited supply lines  food shortages
• Constitutional
– Borrowed heavily from Union w/one important defect:
could not deny future secession of constituent states
– At first, trouble getting states to fight outside their own
borders (GA especially belligerent)
Northern Advantages
• Economic
– Agrarian and Industrial
• ¾ the nation’s wealth; ¾ the nation’s 30k (m) railroads
– Supply
• Controlled the sea, traded grain to Europe for munitions and
• Demographics
– 22 million (vs. 9 million, including 3.5 million slaves)
– Heavy immigration: 800k from 1861-1865 made up
1/5 of Union forces
Northern disadvantages
• Military:
– Ordinary soldiers less experienced
– Commanding officers less brilliant (command by
IV. Foreign Support
• Why did the South believe they would be able
to enlist foreign intervention and why were
they unable to do so?
• What incidents threatened peaceful relations
between the Union and Britain?
Southern hope of foreign support
• South counted on European support
– European aristocrats sympathetic; people were not
(influence of Uncle Tom’s Cabin)
• South knew that Britain depending on cotton,
75% of total supply
– However, 1857-1860 Britain stockpiled a surplus; later
relied on Northern charity, blockade running,
Indian/Egyptian imports
– King Cotton defeated by King Grain and Corn
• McCormick’s mechanical reaper allowed North to relieve bad
British harvests
European conflicts—Britain
• Trent Affair (1861)
• Union warship forcibly removes two Confederate diplomats
from British mail steamer
• Lincoln: “One war at a time”
• Alabama (1862-1864)
• “Commerce raider” built in Britain and manned by Brits
exploited loophole by picking up guns in the Caribbean
• Captured 60+ (250 in all) Northern vessels, crippling the
merchant marine, before Charles Francis Adams convinced
Britain to cease production
• Laird Rams (1863)
• Minister Adams took a hard line: “this is war” if released
• Agreed to submit Alabama dispute to arbitration (ended up
paying $15/5 million)
European conflicts, other
• Canada
– Confederate raids vs. Irish “green shirt” raids (1866-1870)
– Dominion of Canada established in 1867
• France
– Napolean gambles on Southern victory, established “puppet”
Austrian archduke Maximilian as emperor of Mexico.
– Took a “French leave” in 1867; Maximillian deposed and killed
by firing squad.
V. Economic impact
• How did the war impact the economy in the
North and the economy in the South?
Northern fundraising
• Excise taxes on tobacco, alcohol
• First national income tax
• Customs duties via Morrill Tariff Act—moderate to high (key part of
Republican platform)
• Union “greenbacks” inadequately backed by gold, fluctuated with
every victory/loss
• Most significant fund-raiser: T-bonds through Jay Cooke and
• National Banking System (1863) stimulated sale of bonds,
established common bank-note currency
• Northern factories (industrialization):
– First millionaire class, Captains of Industry
– war profiteering
– mechanical reapers
Southern woes
• Blockade and destruction: 30% of nation’s
wealth in 1860  12% (1870)
• Transportation (railroads) collapsed
• Evaluate: To what extent was President Lincoln
effective in dealing with the exigencies of the
• Evaluate Lincoln’s wartime policies and
Navigating the Ft. Sumter
Dealing with the border
Protecting civil liberties
and upholding the
Military strategy
Freeing the slaves
Preserving the Union
Lincoln and the War
• Without Congress in session, boldly declared blockade
– (later upheld by Supreme Court)
• Increased size of federal army
– something only Congress can do (Art. I, Sec. VIII, para.12).
• (Congress later approved)
• Directed Treasury to advance $2 million to military
– only Congress can control the purse (Art. I, Sec IX, para7).
• Suspended Habeas Corpus:
– Held people in jail without proving just cause (violation of
Art. I, Sec. IX, para 2
• “Supervised voting” in border states—intimidated voters had
to pass armed troops to vote
• Shut down newspapers in Washington DC (violation of 1st
• VI: To what extent were Lincoln’s
abridgements of civil liberties justified?
Doc Analysis A and B
• Close reading & Corroboration:
– Doc A:
• According to the quotation above, what does Lincoln
want the American people to do?
– Doc B:
• How much time passed between when Lincoln made
the quotation in document 1 and the one in document
• According to document 2, why did Lincoln’s views on
race change from when he spoke in New York
(document 1)?
Doc Analysis C-E
• Close Reading & Corroboration
– Doc C:
• What does Lincoln describe as his main goal in fighting
the war?
• What does he say is his "personal" wish?
– Doc D:
• According to the Emancipation Proclamation, under
what circumstances would slaves be set free?
– Doc E:
• What is the main purpose of The Thirteenth
• To what extent should Lincoln be considered
“The Great Emancipator”?