Italian unification Revision of the Risorgimento Main themes Origins of Risorgimento Piedmont emerges as leading Italian state The role of Cavour Unification phase I 1859 – 60 Unification phase II – Garibaldi gets the south Venetia 1866 Rome 1870 Unification complete? Trends towards unification Napoleon Nationalism 1815 settlement and Austrian dominance. Italian nationalism The Carbonari Revolutions of 1821, 1830 & 1848 Thinkers Gioberti, Mazzini & Young Italy, language - Manzoni – « the betrothed », Verdi and opera mostly MC and intellectual elite. Revolution of 1848 – lessons learned Revolts all over Italy Charles Albert in Piedmont – Statuto, war against Austria. Hopes for Pius IX ended – Garibaldi & Roman republic. Austria triumphant, French troops to Rome (1849) Italy cannot « fara da se » but Piedmont leading state. Someone who learned the lessons Count Camillo di Cavour Piedmont takes the lead Count Camillo di Cavour PM 1852 Modernises Piedmont – why? Politics (Constitution) & church Economy – agriculture, communications, trade Army Was Cavour an Italian or a Piedmontese nationalist? Cavour gets foreign help Crimean war 1854 – 56 Peace of Paris 1856 Britain Napoleon III Orsini plot Plombieres 1858 The international situation was favourable Russia Prussia Britain France Nationalism - fashionable Unification Phase I 1859 - 60 War 1859 France defeats Austria at Magenta and Solferino Villafranca – Piedmont gets Lombardy Cavour resigns! 1860 Central Italy out of control – Central duchies and Romagna Cavour back – France gets Nice & Savoy. Plebiscites – vote for Piedmont. Unification Phase II – Garibaldi gets the south 1860 Revolt in Sicily 1000 redshirts led by Garibaldi Cross to mainland and take Naples Cavour moves south Garibaldi meets Victor Emmanuel II at Teano 1861 kingdom of Italy proclaimed The final steps 1866 Austro-Prussian war Bismarck promises Venetia to Italy 1870 Franco – Prussian war French troops withdrawn Italy takes Rome « the prisoner in the vatican » 1870 Unification complete Or was it really? The South? Language? Trentino & South Tryol?