PowerPoint Presentation - American Realism & Naturalism

advertisement
American Realism & Naturalism
No More Romantic Sunshine &
Rainbows…
Origins/Influences
Began during the Civil War &
continued into the early 20th
century
 Reaction to Romanticism &
Transcendentalism: CONTRAST
 Fertile literary environment

–
Rising middle class & literacy rates
Social/Political Context


Reaction to Civil War suffering
Invention of photograph
–


Increased literacy & democracy = public hungry for
truth & awareness
Abolitionism & post-slavery stories
–

Captured true life
Dark side of America
Origins of Muckraking journalism
–
–
Expose corruption, particularly political & corporate
(continues today…)
Literature affected: tried to do the same
Realism: Values/Beliefs






Contrasts w/Romanticism & Transcendentalism
Describes life w/out Romantic subjectivity & idealism
Romantics transcend the immediate to find the ideal;
Realists focus on the immediate, the here & now and
its consequences
Present life as it is, not as it might be
Like Romantics, focus on common person & daily
human experience & progressive, but stimulated
change through telling a story that reveals truth &
portrays ugliness & cruelty, not preaching (left readers
to draw their own conclusions)
Multiple views of life: all classes, races, genders
–
–
–
Particularly lower/middle classes
Highlight class stratification/inequity
Reveal the ugliness & cruelty of life, but leave
conclusions to the reader
Literary Conventions

Characters product of social & environmental factors
– Often poorly educated or lower class

Renders reality closely & often in minute detail, even at the
expense of plot

Settings usually familiar to the writer

Character more important than plot

Plausible events avoid sensational, overly dramatic elements

Usually uses the omniscient point of view
Conventions Cont.

Natural vernacular/speech, not heightened or poetic (like
the Romantics)
–


Tone is comic, satiric, or matter-of-fact
Considers seemingly ordinary & uninteresting
characters/events in order to extract full value & true
meaning
–

Written just as spoken
Simple stories far more complex than they appear
Realistically conveyed sexuality, both its dark and light
sides….
Regionalism & Psychological
Realism

Regionalism: focuses on small geographical
area in attempt to reproduce speech &
mannerisms

Psychological Fiction: character
perspective—as “real” as any reality…
Naturalism

Branch of Realism

Philosophical position: scientific laws control life

Heavily influenced by Darwinism
–
–


Darker & more fatalistic (fatalistic = determined by
fate, not choice)
Lives governed by heredity, instinct, & passion
–


Natural Selection
Survival of the Fittest
Nature NOT nurture….
Forces beyond a character’s control restrict attempts
to exercise free will or choice
More negative than Realism
Famous Authors
Naturalist:
•Jack London
Realist:





Mark Twain
–Call of the Wild, “To Build a
Fire”
•Stephen Crane
–Maggie: Girl of the Street
Stephen Crane
•Henry James
– Red Badge of Courage
–Portrait of a Lady, Daisy
Upton Sinclair
Miller
– The Jungle
•John Steinbeck
William Dean Howells
•Of Mice & Men (debatable)
Kate Chopin
–
Adventures of
Huckleberry Finn
–
“Story of an Hour,”
Desiree’s Baby, The
Awakening
Download
Related flashcards

Journalism

16 cards

Defunct newspapers

28 cards

Create Flashcards