The Peaceful Revolution and the
March to War
Jefferson (Republicans) vs.
Adams & Burr (Federalists)
Election of 1800 saw a divided
Federalist Party challenged by
Jefferson’s emerging DemocraticRepublican Party
• Federalists attacks on Jefferson:
– Robbed a widow and children of trust
– Fathered mulatto children with his
female slaves
– Atheist (because of his successful
struggle to separate church and state in
• Jefferson vs. Burr
– Same number of electoral votes in the election
– This election would lead to passage of the 12th
– Jefferson wins close vote house to become third
President- Hamilton makes it happen (sees
Jefferson as lesser evil than Burr)
• March 4, 1801 – Jefferson’s inauguration
– Address tries to bring Democratic-Republicans
and Federalists together
• “We are all Republicans, we are
all Federalists”
– Spoke of majority rule with minority rights
– Recognized the significance of his election and
the peaceful transfer of power which had not
existed in the world before this
• Jefferson’s moderate changes
– Undid anti-French hysteria of Alien and Sedition Acts:
– pardoned those jailed and passed the Naturalization
Act of 1802 (citizenship reduced from 14 years back to
5 years)
– Repealed excise tax that hurt farm supporters
– Appointed Albert Gallatin as very good secretary of
the treasury
• Judiciary Act of 1801
– Last major act of the Federalist Congress (before replaced by
a Republican majority)
– 16 new federal judgeships were created
– Adams signed judgeships up to last day in office
• Known as the “midnight judges,” story that Adams had
stayed up late on his last night in office signing the
judicial appointments
Seen as attempt to pack courts with Federalists
• Marbury v. Madison
– William Marbury (a “midnight judge”) had been
appointed justice of the peace for D.C.
– Sued the new secretary of state (Madison) to
have appointment delivered
– The Court would have had to issue a “writ of
mandamus”, forcing Madison to deliver
commission, if Marbury had won
– Marshall, a Federalist, is the Chief Justice
– Marshall ruled part of Judiciary Act of 1789 on
which lawsuit based was unconstitutional
– Marshall dismissed Marbury’s suit
• Republicans got what they wanted so they
did not oppose Marshall’s claim that he could
declare an act of Congress unconstitutional
– Marshall asserted the principle that the
Supreme Court had the final authority
(“judicial review”) Greatly increased the
power of the Supreme Court
• Pirates in the North African Barbary States
– Blackmailed and stole from merchant ships in the
– Washington and Adams had paid tribute (bribes)
to the Barbary States for protection
– Jefferson reduced the Army & Navy to save
money and take fear away that it would be used
against the civilian population…so no way to
protect the merchant ships
– (same thing happening today with pirates)
Four Barbary States of North Africa, c. 1805
• War in North Africa (1801-1805)
–1801 – Tripoli (unhappy with amount of
protection money it got from the US)
declared war on the US
–Jefferson decided to fight and sent
Marines to the “shores of Tripoli”
–Peace finally came when the US
defeated the Africans
The Louisiana Purchase
Before 1763 - France claimed Louisiana
– 1763 – 1800 – Louisiana belongs to Spain
– By treaty (1800) Spain gives Louisiana Territory
back to France
– 1802 – The Spanish at New Orleans withdrew
the right of deposit (warehouse) to farmers
• Early 1803 – Jefferson sent James Monroe to work
with ambassador Robert R. Livingston to buy
N. Orleans and other lands for up to $10 million
– If this failed, instructed them to open negotiations
with Britain for an alliance
– Napoleon has lost battle of Haiti in slave revolt
and decided to sell all land acquired from Spain
(unsure of amount) for $15 million
– Jefferson agrees even though he doubts
Constitution permits this type of deal
The States in the Louisiana Purchase
• Exploring Louisiana Purchase
– Spring 1804 – Meriwether Lewis (Jefferson’s
personal secretary) and William Clark (an army
officer), with Sacajawea (a Shoshoni woman who
served as a guide) set out on a 2 1/2 year
exploration of North America
• Zebulon Pike
– 1805 – 1806 – goes north to the headwaters of
Mississippi River
– 1806 – 1807 – explored the southern part of
Louisiana Purchase
Exploring the Louisiana Purchase and the West
• Aaron Burr and Federalists in New England
– Burr was Jefferson’s 1st term vice president, but
was dropped in 1804
– Plotted with Federalists to have N. England and
N.Y. secede from the US
– Hamilton exposed Burr’s plan
– An angry Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel and
killed him (July 11, 1804)
– He was indicted for Murder in New Jersey but
never brought to trial for the duel
– Later charged with treason but found N.G.
• 1803 – renewal of the war in Europe
between France and Britain (Napoleon)
• 1803 – 1805 – US shipped to both countries
and made lots of money
• 1805 – Battle of Trafalgar
– British admiral Horatio Nelson defeats French and
Spanish off the coast of Spain
– Cemented Britain’s strength on sea
• 1806 – Orders in Council
– Britain closed European ports under French control to
foreign shipping (including American) unless they
stopped at British ports first (upsets America)
• Impressment used by Britain to restore
size of the Navy for war
– Forcible enlistment of sailors
– 1808 – 1811 – US citizens were impressed
by Britain from US merchant ships
• Chesapeake affair (June 1807)
– British demanded 4 men they claimed were
deserters on board the Chesapeake
– US commander refused to give up men
– British fired at the Chesapeake, severely
damaging it, and took the 4 deserters
Jefferson not ready for war so gets Embargo
• Late 1807 – the Embargo Act passed
– Forbade export of all goods from the US
– Jefferson called this “peaceful coercion”
– It costs US businessmen dearly and some in
N.E. spoke of succession
• Embargo failed and repealed in March 1809
• Why it failed:
–Underestimated the determination of
–Overestimated dependence of Europe
on US trade
–Underestimated the difficulty of
enforcing such an unpopular law (lots
of smuggling takes place)
• Election of 1808
– Republicans nominated James Madison
– Federalists nominated Charles C. Pinckney
– Madison won with 122 of 175 electoral
– Despite loss, Federalists gained strength in
Congress campaigning against the
embargo act
• Macon’s Bill No. 2 (1810)
– Reopen trade with all the world (including
Britain and France)
– France promised to respect US shipping
– Britain refused to bargain
– Madison re-established embargo against Britain
– This was the end of US neutrality and the final
step to war
• Tecumseh united Indians east of the
Mississippi and called for rejection of treaties
• War hawks in Congress believed the British
were inciting Indians
• Fall 1811 – William Henry Harrison (governor
of Indiana territory)
– Attacked Tecumseh’s at Tippecanoe and
defeated the Indians
• Effects of the Battle of Tippecanoe
–Made Harrison a national hero
–Drove Tecumseh into alliance with
• These Indians fought fiercely with
the British during the War of 1812
–The dream of Indian confederacy died
War of 1812
• Madison believed war with Britain inevitable
because of:
– British arming of hostile Indians in the west
– War hawks’ cries for war and attack to annex
– Belief that only war could restore American rights
• The US had tried to avoid war and had been
insulted by European powers; if the US could
not defend itself, the nation was doomed
• June 1, 1812 – Madison gets a declaration of
war against England
• Support for war came from South and West
and Republicans in populous middle states
• Federalists opposed the war; strongest in
New England
– Federalists sympathized with Britain and
opposed Napoleon
– Federalists did not want to annex Canada
as Republicans wanted
• Would add more farming land and
increase the strength of Republicans
1. Election of 1800
2. Marbury v. Madison
3. Louisiana Purchase
4.Aaron Burr
5. Embargo Act of 1807
6. War Hawks and Tippecanoe