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Chapter 4
Reponses to Classical Liberalism
Social 30-1
Quick Review
• What led to Laissez-Faire Capitalism?
• What were some positive effects of Classical
• What are some negative effects?
• What was enclosure?
• Explain… Inflation and the income gap?
• I don’t want to talk about Philosophers again, I
think you know it!
Industrial Revolution
• The Industrial revolution changed Britain.
• Society was based on Interventionist
government and agriculture.
• Soon, it was based on Laissez-faire capitalism,
manufacturing, and profits.
• High wages were not seen as profitable and were
thus avoided.
• Government did not get involved in business.
A new monarchy
• The elite that grew from the new freedoms of
liberalism soon held similar power to monarchy.
• People that once cried for freedom and the
deposition of government now wanted
government intervention and collectivism.
Improve quality of life
• The IR led to a massive gap between the rich and
the poor.
• Wealth was distributed unequally.
• As always, if you put people down long enough
they will rebel.
• Think about the French and American
Revolution, the Oka Crisus, etc…
Speaking out
• People soon began to speak out against the
exploitation of power.
• Again working hours, child labor, etc…
• The government liked Capitalism and
• It had to do little work to keep it going and the
people were taken care of.
• It felt that the employer would take care of the
The Government
• The government did eventually change and new
laws were put into place to protect workers.
• These range from Minimum Wage laws, Safety
Laws, Working Hours Laws, etc…
• These were new restrictions on Laissez-Faire
Factory Acts
• A series of laws passed by British Parliament
during the 18 and 1900’s that made life better
for factory workers.
• Factory act of 1802 addressed child labour,
among other things.
From the act of 1802
• The owner must clean the room twice a year and
• Owners MUST obey the law.
• Every child must be given two suits for work.
• Children can not work more then 12 hours,
before 6 am, or after 9 pm.
• They must be given education in reading,
writing, and arithmetic.
The Comparison
• Equality for all .
• Rights for all individuals.
• Government intervention to
ensure people are cared for.
• Protect the economic rights of
• Maximum rights in business.
• People act on own behalf.
Limited Government.
New ideas emerge
• Modern Liberalism:
• A Grassroots movement.
• Early 19th century.
• Skilled textile workers
protested the new
electronic looms.
• These could be run by low
waged under trained
• Led by Ned Ludd.
• Disgruntled workers
stormed and destroyed
• Over a six year period, civilian armies (known as
red dressers) broke into factories and destroyed
over 200 machines.
• The ideology (Luddism) spread across the UK.
• The government responded and made luddism and
crime (Punishable by death).
• 12 000 troops protected factories.
• One such attack ended with 10 luddites dead and a
robber barons home being burnt to the ground.
• All luddites captured were deported or killed.
• Let’s go back to the other slide and click on the
Quick Question
• In its actions against the luddites, what main
principle of classical liberalism was the British
government protecting?
What we will do now…
• In 6 groups.
• Luddites, Chartism, Classical Liberalism,
Mercantilism, Utopian Socialism, Enclosure.
What is each.
What is one positive aspect
What is one negative aspect
Which Philosopher would agree with it, Why?
Conceptualize it in a picture.
• A working class movement in Britain that
focused on political and social reform.
• Based on the ideas of people charter of 1838.
Universal Suffrage for all men over 21.
Equal electoral Districts.
Secret Voting.
Property rights changed.
Pay for members of parliament.
Annual elections.
• The peoples charter was presented to
government in 1839 with 1.25 million signatures.
• It was voted down 235 to 46.
• Some protested and were arrested.
• Why might the government of the day want to
vote down this reform?
• As laissez-faire capitalism failed.
• People wanted to Co-operate in Society.
• People wanted the Income Gap to fail and
wealth to be distributed equally.
• These social, Collectivist people became known
as socialist.
• Any ideology that believed that resources should
be controlled by the public for the good of
• Value economic equality.
• Income Security.
• Employment and standard of living.
Early Socialist
• Robert Owen:
Factory Owner.
Wanted to share wealth.
Opened markets.
Created Schools.
Offered Health Care.
Without workers, we have
– Raised wages, less hours,
Tried to make the
government socialist.
– He was defeated by
government… Interesting???
Utopian Socialist
• Thomas Moore wrote a book called Utopia.
• The word now refers to any imaginary perfect
• These Utopians were not pragmatic, they were
• Horace Greely, Saint-Simon, and Robert Owen
would all have these ideals.
Back to Owen
• He eventually developed a massive textile
company in a “utopian” community.
• New Lanark: now a world heritage site.
• Author Lastname, Firstname. Title of
Book. Place of Publication: Publisher,
• Grenfell, Wilfred Thomason. Adrift on an
Ice Pan. St. John's: Creative, 1992.
Any More Questions Regarding
the Essay?
Quick Review
• What are some ideologies that developed out of
Classic Liberalism?
• What conditions allowed these to develop?
• Were the Luddites justified?
• Was the government reaction justified?
• Why general human flaw inhibits the
development of a real “Socialist Utopia”?
What we will do now…
• In 6 groups.
• Luddites, Chartism, Classical Liberalism,
Mercantilism, Utopian Socialism, Enclosure.
What is each.
What is one positive aspect
What is one negative aspect
Which Philosopher would agree with it, Why?
Conceptualize it in a picture.