African Nationalist
Explain how nationalism led to
independence in South Africa, Kenya, and
What is a nationalist
The progressive development of
gaining a sense of identity with a
By Early 20th Century
 Europe had colonized almost all of
 Liberia and Ethiopia are the only
countries that were not colonized
 Africans wanted to control their own
governments and resources
 Latter part of 20th century- African
nations worked to free themselves
 Mau Mau- secret society that existed
from 1952-1960
 Believed force would free Kenya
 Thousands of people killed (only 100
 After long period of fighting, Britain
granted independence
 1963- first democratic election- Jomo
Kenyatta elected first president
 Britain given control at the Berlin
Conference and made region 2 colonies
 Made up of many ethnic groups
 Groups did not want to be in the same
 The division led to different treatment by
the British
 British spent more money in the south than
in the north
Nigeria cont.
 1940’s- Nigerians started many
groups to fight British rule
 These groups eventually became
political parties
 Late 1940’s and the 1950’s- British
let Nigerians elect their own
 Given independence on Oct. 1, 1960
without having to fight
=xwHMbdbWMtU Video 11:23
South Africa
 During colonization, Britain gains control of
South Africa.
 Two very different nationalist movements
emerge following the formation of the
Union of South Africa in 1910.
 The white Afrikaner nationalist movement
which is represented by the National Party,
formed in January 1914.
 The black nationalist movement is led
primarily by the African National Congress
(ANC), formed in 1912.
South Africa cont.
 The Afrikaner nationalist movement grew in
popularity over the next 30 years, playing
on Afrikaner (white) resentment of the
British control of most of South Africa's
economy and fear of the black majority.
 In 1948 the National Party wins the allwhite general election.
 The basis of the campaign that won this
election was to introduce a system of
“apartheid” to totally separate the races.
South Africa cont.
 Opposition to the “apartheid” system
by the black majority is ruthlessly
 It receives increasing support from
the white electorate.
 The National Party (white) remained
in power until 1994.
3A 3:41
 Pretend you were born in Nigeria,
South Africa, or Kenya. Explain why
you might want your country to be
independent from European rule.
What do you want to happen when
your country is independent? What
kind of rule would you like to live
The End
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