The Lone Star Republic

The Lone Star Republic
Sam Houston’s Government
Houston Forms a Government
Texas elected Sam Houston as the first
president and Mirabeau B. Lamar as Vice
Texans approved the Constitution of 1836
and the proposal that Texas join the United
Stephen Austin became secretary of state, but only
for a few weeks because he died of pneumonia on
December 27, 1836 at age 43.
Houston Forms a Government
Selecting a new capital
was one of the first
decisions of the new
In December 1836,
congress designated
Houston as the capital
for three years. The
decision on a
permanent site was
Houston Faces Trouble with the Army
Houston had problems with the military
because many adventurers and soldiers had
arrived in Texas and wanted to fight.
They wanted to invade Mexico, but Houston
wanted no part of such a plan because he
knew war would be costly and could mean a
quick end for the new republic.
The president sent 600 of the soldiers home
on leave and the threat from the army
The United States Delays Annexation
Most Texans wanted to join the United States for
Mexico refused to recognize Texas’s
independence and the U.S. did not want to annex
Texas if it meant damaging relations with Mexico.
Slavery was another problem; antislavery groups
in the U.S. were against the annexation of Texas
because it would tip the balance of U.S. Senate
towards the slave states.
These antislavery groups were able to block
annexation and to delay official recognition of
Texas as a republic.
Recognition as a Nation
The U.S. did not officially recognize Texas as a
nation for several months.
On March 3, 1837, President Jackson granted
official recognition of Texas.
France and Great Britain hesitated because they
did not want to offend Mexico and figured Texas
would soon be annexed by the United States.
Finally France, Great Britain and the Netherlands
recognized Texas.
Houston hoped this would make the U.S. annex
Texas quickly.
Native American Conflict
More Native American raids
began as more Anglo
Americans settled in central
In one attack, Comanche and
Kiowa killed several settlers
and kidnapped two women
and several children,
including Cynthia Ann Parker.
The raids decreased when
Houston called on the Texas
Rangers, who began
patrolling central Texas.
Native American Conflict
Cherokees had moved into Texas under Mexican
rule in the 1820’s after being forced from their
homes in Georgia.
In a treaty, the Cherokees promised to remain
peaceful during the Texas fight for independence,
in return for the title to their land.
The Senate of the Republic of Texas, however,
refused to accept the treaty.
Cherokees did not receive title to their land, and
each day more settlers moved into land in East
Texas claimed by Native Americans.
Texas Debt Soars
Texas had unpaid bills for the supplies and
equipment of the revolution.
When Houston became president, the debt was
1.25 million.
Congress placed a tariff, or tax, on various goods
imported into Texas in order to help pay the debt.
Congress also imposed property taxes, business
taxes, and land title fees, but they were difficult to
By the end of Houston’s first term as president, the
public debt of Texas had climbed to 2 million.
The Release of Santa Anna
On Santa Anna’s arrival back to Mexico, he
renounced all promises he had made in
Texas and declared that he had left politics
His retirement was brief. He was back in
power a few years later.
The Mexican government still refused to
recognize the independence of Texas.