The Ugly Fate of Rohingyas: from Kingdom to Stateless

Rohingya Dilemma: a ruthless vicious
circle in so-called civilized world
Abdul Hamid
M.V. Musa Ali
Arakan, Burma
Anak-Anak Pengungsi Rohingya di Shelter
Pathum Thani Bangkok Oktober 2009
 Prior
to Burman occupation of Arakan
in 1784,
 Ruled
by Hindus, Buddhists and Muslim
 Muslim
Sultanate beginning in 1430
lasted for more than 350 years
 Until
it was invaded and occupied by
Burman king Bodaw Paya in 1784.
The map of ancient Arakan
A map showing
divisions of
South-East Asia
in 15th century
A.D. as shown
in the Time
Atlas of World
Arakan as an
Islamic Stale by
Banadough P133
 In
the year 1824, British occupied Arakan put under India
 In
1937, separated form British India
 Arakan
became a province of independent Burma in 1948.
Map of present Arakan
Persecution minorities
 Since
after the 1962’s coup by general Nay Win
 He
confiscated the properties of Indian and
nationalized, later target Chinese
Finally aimed at Rohingyas
 However,
in the present regime the situation
atrocities reach at its peak
The problems of the Rohingyas
 are
the result of the forcible expulsion from their
 by
means of persecution, genocidal massacres,
torture and harassment in the most inhuman manner.
 It
is a problem of religious and political persecution
systematic elimination of an ethnic Muslim
community from their own homeland of Arakan
Operation against Rohingyas
 Military
 Burma
Operation (5th Burma Regiment) November 1948
Territorial Force (BTF) Operation 1949-50
 Military
Operation (2nd Emergency Chin regiment) March
 Mayu
Operation October 1952-53
 Mone-thone
 Combined
Operation October 1954
Immigration and Army Operation January 1955
 Union
Military Police (UMP) Operation 1955-58
 Captain
 Shwe
 Kyi
Htin Kyaw Operation 1959
Kyi Operation October 1966
Gan Operation October-December 1966
 Ngazinka
 Myat
Operation 1967-69
Mon Operation February 1969-71
 Major Aung
Than Operation 1973
 Sabe
Operation February 1974-78
 Nagamin
 Shwe
Hintha Operation August 1978-80
 Galone
 Pyi
Operation February 1978-79
Operation 1979
Thaya Operation 1991-92
 Na-Sa-Ka
Operation (border security forces) (presently
going on) 1992.....
Na-Sa-Ka operation
Headquarters is at the border town of Maungdaw to
implement the following objectives:-
Socio-economic deprivation of the Rohingyas;
Effective control on the growth of Rohingya population;
De-muslimization of Arakan through ethnic cleansing;
Spread of Buddhism and Burma Buddhist culture in
Arakan with prejudice on Islam and Rohingya culture.
 Extra
judicial killing: Since 1989 thousands of Rohingya
youths and madrasah students were killed.
 Arbitrary
arrest and extortion: is a daily routine of business
of Na-Sa-Ka and police. It is popularly known as Kalar Hmu
 Confiscation
of properties: Land, and cattle confiscated and
distribute it among Burman model villagers.
 Now,
there are 100 model villages. Each village has 70-100
household and
 Each
house was provided with 4 acres of land and 2 pairs of
 Anti-Rohingya
and anti-Muslim propaganda: The junta
incites communal riots by allowing to distribute books and
taped records insulting Islam and Muslims.
Rape: Rape of women is widespread. It was an official
strategy to terrorize and compel the Rohingya community to
Forced labor: Although forced labor is prevalent throughout
Burma, in North Arakan, it is only imposed on the Rohingyas.
 Restriction
on movements: Rohingyas are not allowed to
travel freely from one place to another, even within the same
 Restriction
on marriage: take years to obtain
permission, requires payment of bribes. Some brides
are forced to undergo a pregnancy test.
Unauthorized marriages are criminalized and are
sentenced with 4 to 7 years.
 Restriction
on employment: As non-citizens, we are
barred from all kind of employment and therefore
people are jobless.
 Restriction
on education: Illiteracy is at 80%. Primary
and secondary education is neglected. Due to
restrictions of movement, we are prevented from
attending higher education.
Resttriction on religious practices
Many mosques have been destroyed and closed
No permission is given even to renovate Masjids
and madrasahs while building new one is totally
It means within more and less than twenty years
there will not be seen any Islamic symbolical
Most of them are build of woods and bamboos.
 Contrary
to it there is no hill-top left that
there is no pagoda on it.
 100
 The
new Buddhist settlement
demography of Arakan change into
Buddhism appearance
Discrimination out of Burma
A. Bangladesh
Refugees are treated as sub-human being
Donations are not reach to
Destroyed their huts
Rape refugee woman
No education for children
No water
Unregistered camps, Kutupalong,
One view of refugee camp before destroyed
Another view side of refugee camp before destroyed
At raining season, the view of refugee camp
These huts were destroyed
 On
 Join
oppression by
 Police
 Ansar
 Forest
View of camp area after destroyed
Destroyed area from south-west side
Destroyed area from south-west side
Women build their hut as no man in the family
Dangerous journey
 Due
to endless persecution in Burma
 Unwelcoming
attitudes of neighboring Bangladesh
 Prompted
many Rohingyas to seek refuge
 In
the past, Rohingyas used Saudi Arabia, UAE but
as Bangladesh not issue passport; almost impossible,
 The
only option since 2006 became a risky boat trip
to reach Malaysia via Thailand.
B. In Thailand
In December 2008 and January 2009, as more and more
Rohingyas fled on boats and reached Thai waters,
Thailand changed policies and the Thai military, after
torturing them on a deserted island,
Towed them back to high seas with little food and water
on boats with no engines. 850 were rescued in India and
Indonesia but hundreds perished in the ocean.
Survivors are now detained in Thailand, India and
Indonesia and their fate remains uncertain.
Asian summit, Thailand
 Failed
address the problems
 Non-interference
policies make Asian nation to shy
away from the matter
 Surprisingly,
they were branded illegal immigrant
caught in Andaman sea
 Level
as Bangli and accept them if they can porbe
Burmese Bangali
 Why
Bangali Why not Rohingya? Think!
C. How about Malaysia?
 Caught
and deported
 Employment
 No
education for children
 Even
 No
not admit into the religious school
medical facilities
Our humble Appeal
 International
bodies UN, EU, OIC, ASEAN,
 Countries
such as UK, USA, India, China,
Australia and
 To
explore a permanent solution to the
outstanding Rohingya problems
 Within
the frame work of the international
law, pacts on human rights and other
international practices.
To pressurise the Burmese Junta:
 1.
To recognise Rohingyas as an indigenous ethnic
 2.
To issue immediately national identity cards
 3.
To give permission to build Mosques and other---
 4.
To admit into higher education including-----
 5.
To stop extra- Judicial Killing, raping Rohingya
women, any form of harassing
6. To stop arbitrary arrest, torture, arbitrary taxation
7. To lift ALL form of restrictions
8. To stop forced slave labour
9. To lift restrictions of Marriage
10. To stop forced Eviction and House Destruction
11. To give back forced confiscated land to their owner.
12. To call back all model villagers to their original places
Our appeal to host countries
 To
give temporary protection
 To
issue document
 To
give chance for education
 Permission
 Assess
for employment
for treatment
Our appeal to NGOs
 To
highlight Rohingya problems
 To
form a working team among NGOs
 Work
 To
find a way
To formulate a mechanism for permanent solution
 To
approach government
● Universal Justice Network
● Citizen International, Penang, Malaysia
● Islamic Human Rights Council, UK
● Honorable chairman, Dr. Muhideen Abdul
Kader, Vice president, Consumer’s Associaton
● Ustaz Cikgu Mohd Azmi Abdul Hamid, President
TERAS, and also Training Coordinator
● All staff members, for their hardworking
Thank you