Food exchange and eating habits
in Germany
• 1. Export
– German dishes
• 2. Import
Italian immigration wave
Greek immigration wave
Turkish immigration wave
Us fast food wave
• 3. How the international cuisine has gained a
strong position in Germany
• 4. Sources
export: beer
- Beer originally comes from Egypt and was
introduced even before the middle ages.
- In the middle ages the monks drank beer
during the fasting period for nutrients.
- This way the beer came to Germany and
today some German beers still tastes like back
in the days.
- Beer is a very traditional drink in Germany,
especially in times of celebration like the
famous Oktoberfest (it actually starts in
September) in Munich.
„Oktoberfest“ in Munich
export: Bratwurst
- The Bratwurst is roasted or
fried in a frying pan
- There are several kinds of
Bratwurst, most important is the
Nürnberger Rostbratwurst,
which is a very popular food in
Bavaria and all over Germany
-The Bratwurst is mostly eaten
with sourcrout (German:
Sauerkraut), which is also a
typical German national food
- We know of similar sausages
since 800 before christ
Pizza is a spicy baked flat bread made ​from plain dough.
Today, internationally popular variations usually include the basic tomato sauce and
cheese topping (the basic form is said to be from Naples).
The history of Pizza
The history of pizza has probably
already begun in ancient times. The first
pizzas were invented by the Greeks and
For the Italians, the story of the simple
pizza began in the Italian stone age
where a rough dough was baked
directly on hot stones next to a
fireplace and the dough crisped up
The basic idea came from Greece: A flat
bread was baked with different
toppings and probably eaten by
ordinary people, because it was a cheap
and convenient food.
The pizza spread in the late 19th
Century in the United States. After
the Second World War pizza was
also known in many places of
Europe outside from Italy.
The first frozen pizzas came on the
market in the 1960s.
spaghetti and pasta
The origin of pasta is not definitively
clarified. On the one hand it is claimed
that the Chinese were the noodle
"inventor" on the other hand, some
sources say that Italy is the birthplace
of the pasta as we know it.
Another version is that the ancient
Greeks have brought the forerunner of
today's Macaroni to Italy.
The first pasta production dates back
to the 12th century. Since then, the
market (outside of Italy) developed
fast and today more than 8 million
tons of pasta are produced each day.
The oldest noodle factory in Germany
was founded in 1793.
Originally the lasagna comes from a
central place of Italy. It was invented in
Tzatziki is originally a recipe from
Even in ancient times in today's Iraq,
a version of Tzatziki was made. The
Tzatziki was introduced in the Greek
cuisine with the conquest of the
Byzantine Empire by the Ottomans in
Gyros can be found in Greece and many other
countries with a population of Greek origin, such as
the U.S. or Germany.
The introduction of the gyros in the USA is said to
have happened between 1965 and 1968. It is
assumed that it happened at the same time in
In the 1980s, Gyros was very popular in West
(Döner) Kebap
Döner Kebab is a dish made from meat
roasted on a vertical spit, normally veal or
beef but also a mixture of these with
lamb can be served. Lately there are also
variations with poultry. Many Germans
just call this dish Döner. However this (the
term Döner) refers just to the turning spit
and not to the meat, which is called
Kebap (many Germans do not know that!)
Where does the Döner Kebap
come from?
 Döner was first made in Anatolia
(Turkey) in 1836.
 The first snack bars selling Döner
Kebap in Germany opened in Berlin
in 1970.
 Daily 200 to 300 tons of Kebap are
 McDonald´s is an US-American food
 The McDonald´s corporation is the
world´s largest chain of hamburger fast
food restaurants.
 The first store opened on the 4th of
December in Munich in 1971.
 Today we have 1136 franchise-locations
and 250 stores in Germany.
Burger King
 Burger King is also an US-American fast
food restaurant.
 The company sarted in 1953.
 In Germany, the Burger King
Corporation is represented since 1976.
 Today there are about 690 stores in
How the international cuisine
has gained a strong position in
Nowadays it is taken for granted to go out for Italian,
Greek or even Vietnamese food in Germany.
But when was the turning point so that the foreign
cuisine became so popular and why are some
successful while others are not?
The immigration waves
The Greeks who immigrated after the military coup in Greece, often opened their
own business in the gastronomy.
Since the mid-1950s such gastronomy emerged in Germany. The first function was
predominantly to supply food for Italian guest workers who wanted familiar food
and drinks.
A true boom of business of such restaurants began in the 70's as the immigrant
workers were disproportionately affected by the oil crisis and the onset of
economic recession and were looking for new sources of income opportunity in
order to work and stay in Germany.
Lots of labour immigrants wanted to stay in Germany just for a few years at first
and they asked themselves how to work for their livelihood other than in fatories.
So many of them had the idea to invest their money in restaurants in Germany and
stay here.
A restaurant was the best opportunity they had, where they were able to invest
money and to found their own company. Furthermore it was relatively easy to
open a restaurant compared to getting a foothold in other businesses.
In Germany, Italian gastronomy became also very popular in the 60´s because Italy
was the most popular vacation country. Every year, more and more German
tourists went to Italy and consequently wanted to enjoy the Italian cuisine at
After Germany was occupied
by foreign workers
• After some years Germans did not want the guest workers to
work in Germany any more, because some believed that they
had taken too many jobs away from Germans.
• However they were poorly paid and were only allowed to
settle their restaurants in neighbourhoods in the periphery of
towns and cities, especially in areas needy of redevelopment.
• These conditions also attracted many young people, including
The first exotic food restaurants in
• Italians but also Balkan restaurants - besides Chinese - were the first
"exotic food restaurants" in the German food culture.
• But while the Italians were successful the Slavic cuisine lost their
popularity quickly in Germany. At first the Balkan kitchen was
successful in the BRD because it was similar to German food.
• Some dishes were from Croatia, Serbia and Hungary. These dishes
were already known in Germany and especially in the Federal
Republic of Germany (GDR) the Balkan cuisine was quite popular. It
was kind of exotic.
• In the late 80ies that changed into a disadvantage because people
knew these forms of cuisine well and now wanted to eat Japanese,
Thai cuisine and the Balkan food was no longer perceived as a
special cuisine.
After Italian and Balkan restaurants
• After Italian and Balkan restaurants Greeks and
Spaniards followed.
• Thai, Japanese, Vietnamese were soon to follow.
• Fast food was never really defined geographically,
although it is obviously of American background.
• However, the success of ethnic cuisines is closely
linked to the flow of tourists and immigrants.
However not all types of cuisines were meant to
be successful.
• Consequently, what the German citizens had eaten on
holiday, they wanted to eat at home again.
• What follows is that it is harder for African cuisines to be
successful in other countries. But I also think it has to do
with the fact that there are certain cultural images
associated with the countries and also the kitchen. Italian
cuisine has a long tradition.
• This does not as easily apply to African cuisines and if
somebody hears Africa they imagine hunger and poverty
and not dainty dishes
• The consumption of "ethnic food" is associated with
urbanity, openness and a certain trend awareness and is a
sign of acceptance and successful coexistence of cultures.