The Failure of Peace in Europe
Treaty of Versailles
Collapse of Empires
Economic Depression
The Treaty of Versailles
In January 1919 the “Big Three” meet to work on
the peace plan.
Wilson-United States
David Lloyd George-Great Britain
Georges Clemenceau-France
The peace plan was to be called the Paris Peace
All three men had different goals for the peace plan.
14 Points
President Wilson
Wanted a just and lasting
plan for peace.
With his 14 points he
 To end secret treaties
 Give nations freedom of
the seas
 Free trade
 Reduce armies and navies
 Change the boarders of
Europe and the world
 Create new nations
 Allow for self
Means to allow people, nations, countries to decide
what government they want and how they want to
be ruled.
This was a challenge to the colonial system.
Countries like Britain did not want self
determination because it meant that they would
have to give up rule in places like India.
Wanted to make sure
that Germany did not
become a world military
Wanted the German
army and navy reduced.
Wanted Germany to
pay for all the suffering
France had faced during
the war.
Wanted the peace plan
to punish Germany.
The Treaty of Versailles
The European nations were cool to Wilson’s
14 points and wanted repayment and
punishment instead of goodwill and
A compromise on the treaty was reached and
on June 28, 1919 the treaty was signed.
The treaty stated the following;
League of Nations
One of Wilson’s 14
points was adopted, the
creation of a League of
The goal of the league
was to keep peace in the
Germany and Russia
were left out of the
League of Nations
The U.S. opposed the
Treaty of Versailles.
Many felt that belonging to
the League of Nations
would mean that the U.S.
would have to supply
troops and involve the U.S.
in future wars.
The Senate failed to ratify
the treaty and the U.S.
never joined the League of
League of Nations
The refusal of the U.S.
to join weakened the
The league had no
armed forces to
enforce peacekeeping.
The league was
considered a failure.
Punish Germany
The treaty was harsh to
Territorial Losses
 Land was taken to create
 Alsace and Lorraine
were given back to
 Germany lost her
overseas colonies
Punish Germany
Military Restrictions
Germany’s army and
navy were restricted.
Germany could not
have troops on the
industrial boarder of
Germany could not
military weapons
Punish Germany
War Guilt
Germany had to accept
responsibility for the war.
(Germany did not start the
Germany had to pay a large
war debt to France and
Britain. (Germany had no
money to pay debts)
Accepting blame for the war
and paying war debts caused
bitterness and anger in
Collapse of Empires
Austro-Hungarian Empire
Because of the war the
government collapsed.
Several new nations were
created out of the empire;
Collapse of Empires
The Ottoman Empire
In 1918 the Ottoman
Empire also collapsed.
Arab lands were placed in
control of the British or
Britain and France were to
prepare these countries for
self determination. (This
never happened)
The rest of the empire
became Turkey.
Results of the Treaty on the World
Germany was horrified and bitter at the terms of
the treaty.
The League of nations failed without U.S. support.
Italy was promised land by the allies which Italy
never received.
Russia was upset at the establishment of Poland and
the creation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania on
Russian land.
Arab nations were angered that they did not receive
self determination.
Results of the Treaty on the World
China was upset that Japan was given former
German colonies in China.
Japan was upset that the world did not
recognize Japan’s entire claim to China.
The Lost Generation
The war had shaken the beliefs
of many people. They had lost
their faith in western civilization.
Many rejected the moral values
of the past and were searching
for answers to the future.
They were known as the Lost
Many writers, poets, and painters
expressed their lost feelings in
their work.
Hemingway, T.S. Eliot
Europe after the War
Every major country in Europe was bankrupt
from the war.
European nations no longer dominated world
Russia had become a communist nation
Many coalition governments in European
nations were weak.
Europe after the War
Coalition Governments
When one political party can not gain majority during an
election then an alliance is formed between two or more
parties to gain a majority.
The government is then run by this alliance of parties.
Europe after the War
 A long and severe decline in economic activity.
Causes for a depression in Europe
 Nations had large war debts to pay
 Cities, factories and farms had to be rebuilt
World Depression
of goods
$ in
Go out of
Bank loans
not repaid
Banks go out
of business
World Depression
Once banks go out of business people lose
all their money that were in the banks.
World Depression
Farmers and suppliers of raw materials also
lost money/jobs because these items were no
longer needed to create finished goods.
World Depression
Stock Market Crash
Foreign banks and
investors lose large
sums of money in the
The crash bankrupts
The crash sends the
depression world- wide
World Depression
Key Terms
Inflation = too much money in the economy and prices
go up.
 Germany had a huge inflation problem after WWI because it did
not raise taxes to pay for the war it just kept printing money.
There was no value to the money. It cost millions of
marks(German dollars) to pay for food.
How to fix
 Gov‘t needs to take money out of the economy by raising taxes.
 Raise interest rates on goods so people don’t spend money.
World Depression
Dawes Plan
The Dawes Plan was used to help Germany get out of it’s
inflationary state in 1923.
The United States gives Germany a 200 million dollar loan
Germany is also given a realistic time frame to pay war debts.
The German economy recovers.
German factories begin producing goods at the same rate as before
the war.
People invest in German factories and goods.
Germany recovers.
World Depression
Recession = too little money in economy and prices
go down.
Recession is the step before depression.
How to fix
Gov’t needs to lower taxes to leave more money in the
Lower interest rates so people will spend money.
World Depression
Gross National Product
The total value of goods and
services produced by a
nation. Usually calculated in
a one year period.
World Depression
The number of workers
that have lost jobs and
can not find work
Notes Summery
Take five minutes, look over your notes and the on a
separate sheet of paper label it “The Failure of
Peace in Europe” and summarize your notes.
What was the peace plan?
What was Wilson’s 14 Points?
Why did the League of Nations fail?
Why was the treaty harsh to Germany?
Was the Treaty a success or failure?
What was the economic conditions of Europe after the war?
What was the cause of these economic conditions?
You are present at the Versailles Treaty and a
neutral on looker.
Create a postcard on the events of peace plan
and send them home to you family.
On the front of the postcard create a picture
and on the back detail in writing what has
happened at the peace plan.
Study for Quiz # 4.
Bring a pen for next class
How to write a DBQ.
World War One DBQ.
 Will work on in class and will finish at home.
 This is part two of your unit grade.
Jan 20 and 22 you need your textbooks and your
notes for the entire school year!
Saving Private Ryan
During the week of Jan 26, you will be taking your
midterm exam.
The midterm will encompass everything we have
studied up to this point.
Absolute Monarchs, Scientific Rev, Enlightenment,
French Rev, Napoleon, Latin American Rev, Congress of
Vienna, Nationalism, Agrarian Rev, Industrial Rev, Social
Reforms, Imperialism, World War One.
Saving Private Ryan
I will be giving in class time for review
activities the week before the test.
I will also be staying after and available during
advisement for review.
So what does this have to do with Saving
Private Ryan
Saving Private Ryan
The Saving Private Ryan challenge
I have been to Normandy
I have seen the actual beaches that the soldiers
fought on.
I am willing to show the movie and talk about the
invasion in class if . . .
Saving Private Ryan
Everyone in class gets an 80 or better on the
What you can do
 Show up for the review session
 Form study groups
 Work on the in class review
 Review your notes nightly
It is very possible for everyone to get an 80!!!

Failure of the Treaty