The Failure of Peace in Europe Treaty of Versailles Collapse of Empires Economic Depression The Treaty of Versailles In January 1919 the “Big Three” meet to work on the peace plan. Wilson-United States David Lloyd George-Great Britain Georges Clemenceau-France The peace plan was to be called the Paris Peace Conference All three men had different goals for the peace plan. 14 Points President Wilson Wanted a just and lasting plan for peace. With his 14 points he wanted To end secret treaties Give nations freedom of the seas Free trade Reduce armies and navies Change the boarders of Europe and the world Create new nations Allow for self determination Self-Determination Means to allow people, nations, countries to decide what government they want and how they want to be ruled. This was a challenge to the colonial system. Countries like Britain did not want self determination because it meant that they would have to give up rule in places like India. Britain Britain/George Wanted to make sure that Germany did not become a world military power. Wanted the German army and navy reduced. France France/Clemenceau Wanted Germany to pay for all the suffering France had faced during the war. Wanted the peace plan to punish Germany. The Treaty of Versailles The European nations were cool to Wilson’s 14 points and wanted repayment and punishment instead of goodwill and freedoms, A compromise on the treaty was reached and on June 28, 1919 the treaty was signed. The treaty stated the following; League of Nations One of Wilson’s 14 points was adopted, the creation of a League of Nations. The goal of the league was to keep peace in the world. Germany and Russia were left out of the League. League of Nations The U.S. opposed the Treaty of Versailles. Many felt that belonging to the League of Nations would mean that the U.S. would have to supply troops and involve the U.S. in future wars. The Senate failed to ratify the treaty and the U.S. never joined the League of Nations. League of Nations The refusal of the U.S. to join weakened the league. The league had no armed forces to enforce peacekeeping. The league was considered a failure. Punish Germany The treaty was harsh to Germany Territorial Losses Land was taken to create Poland. Alsace and Lorraine were given back to France Germany lost her overseas colonies Punish Germany Military Restrictions Germany’s army and navy were restricted. Germany could not have troops on the industrial boarder of France. Germany could not produce/import military weapons Punish Germany War Guilt Germany had to accept responsibility for the war. (Germany did not start the war) Germany had to pay a large war debt to France and Britain. (Germany had no money to pay debts) Accepting blame for the war and paying war debts caused bitterness and anger in Germany. Collapse of Empires Austro-Hungarian Empire Because of the war the Austro-Hungary government collapsed. Several new nations were created out of the empire; Austria Hungary Czechoslovakia Yugoslavia Collapse of Empires The Ottoman Empire In 1918 the Ottoman Empire also collapsed. Arab lands were placed in control of the British or French. Britain and France were to prepare these countries for self determination. (This never happened) The rest of the empire became Turkey. Results of the Treaty on the World Germany was horrified and bitter at the terms of the treaty. The League of nations failed without U.S. support. Italy was promised land by the allies which Italy never received. Russia was upset at the establishment of Poland and the creation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania on Russian land. Arab nations were angered that they did not receive self determination. Results of the Treaty on the World China was upset that Japan was given former German colonies in China. Japan was upset that the world did not recognize Japan’s entire claim to China. The Lost Generation The war had shaken the beliefs of many people. They had lost their faith in western civilization. Many rejected the moral values of the past and were searching for answers to the future. They were known as the Lost Generation. Many writers, poets, and painters expressed their lost feelings in their work. Hemingway, T.S. Eliot Europe after the War Every major country in Europe was bankrupt from the war. European nations no longer dominated world politics. Russia had become a communist nation Many coalition governments in European nations were weak. Europe after the War Coalition Governments Party #1 When one political party can not gain majority during an election then an alliance is formed between two or more parties to gain a majority. The government is then run by this alliance of parties. Coalition Gov’t Party #2 Party #3 Europe after the War Depression Defined A long and severe decline in economic activity. Causes for a depression in Europe Nations had large war debts to pay Cities, factories and farms had to be rebuilt World Depression Depression Factories Create Goods Surplus of Goods Not Enough Demand Price of goods drop Industries Lose $ Workers Lose Jobs Less $ in Economy Industries Go out of Business Bank loans not repaid Banks go out of business World Depression Once banks go out of business people lose all their money that were in the banks. World Depression Farmers and suppliers of raw materials also lost money/jobs because these items were no longer needed to create finished goods. World Depression Stock Market Crash 1929. Foreign banks and investors lose large sums of money in the crash. The crash bankrupts countries. The crash sends the depression world- wide World Depression Key Terms Inflation = too much money in the economy and prices go up. Germany had a huge inflation problem after WWI because it did not raise taxes to pay for the war it just kept printing money. There was no value to the money. It cost millions of marks(German dollars) to pay for food. How to fix Gov‘t needs to take money out of the economy by raising taxes. Raise interest rates on goods so people don’t spend money. World Depression Dawes Plan The Dawes Plan was used to help Germany get out of it’s inflationary state in 1923. The United States gives Germany a 200 million dollar loan Germany is also given a realistic time frame to pay war debts. The German economy recovers. German factories begin producing goods at the same rate as before the war. People invest in German factories and goods. Germany recovers. World Depression Recession = too little money in economy and prices go down. Recession is the step before depression. How to fix Gov’t needs to lower taxes to leave more money in the economy. Lower interest rates so people will spend money. World Depression Gross National Product The total value of goods and services produced by a nation. Usually calculated in a one year period. World Depression Unemployment The number of workers that have lost jobs and can not find work Notes Summery Take five minutes, look over your notes and the on a separate sheet of paper label it “The Failure of Peace in Europe” and summarize your notes. What was the peace plan? What was Wilson’s 14 Points? Why did the League of Nations fail? Why was the treaty harsh to Germany? Was the Treaty a success or failure? What was the economic conditions of Europe after the war? What was the cause of these economic conditions? Activity You are present at the Versailles Treaty and a neutral on looker. Create a postcard on the events of peace plan and send them home to you family. On the front of the postcard create a picture and on the back detail in writing what has happened at the peace plan. Homework Study for Quiz # 4. Bring a pen for next class How to write a DBQ. World War One DBQ. Will work on in class and will finish at home. This is part two of your unit grade. Jan 20 and 22 you need your textbooks and your notes for the entire school year! Saving Private Ryan During the week of Jan 26, you will be taking your midterm exam. The midterm will encompass everything we have studied up to this point. Absolute Monarchs, Scientific Rev, Enlightenment, French Rev, Napoleon, Latin American Rev, Congress of Vienna, Nationalism, Agrarian Rev, Industrial Rev, Social Reforms, Imperialism, World War One. Saving Private Ryan I will be giving in class time for review activities the week before the test. I will also be staying after and available during advisement for review. So what does this have to do with Saving Private Ryan Saving Private Ryan The Saving Private Ryan challenge I have been to Normandy I have seen the actual beaches that the soldiers fought on. I am willing to show the movie and talk about the invasion in class if . . . Saving Private Ryan Everyone in class gets an 80 or better on the midterm. What you can do Show up for the review session Form study groups Work on the in class review Review your notes nightly It is very possible for everyone to get an 80!!!