Unit 6.4 Power Notes: Texas in the Civil War Thursday/Friday February 13/14, 2014 Texas in the Civil War Objective: I can explain why defending Texas was important to the South during the Civil War. Key Terms: conscription, Unionist, vigilante, blockade The Civil War: Basic Facts • From 1861 to 1865, more than 500,000 Americans were killed in the Civil War. More men died in this war than all other wars we have fought combined. Union & Confederacy in 1861 The Civil War: Basic Facts • The 3 Strategies to Union victory o Invade Virginia and capture Richmond, the Southern Confederate capital o Gain control of the Mississippi River o Blockade all southern ports o This was called The Anaconda Plan! Editorial Cartoon Map by J.B. Elliott of Cincinnati, 1861. Overview of the North’s Civil War Strategy: “Anaconda” Plan The Civil War: Basic Facts • Union advantages o Large population – 22 million people (meant more soldiers) o Huge factories o 75% of railroads o Navy ships The Civil War: Basic Facts • Confederacy advantages o Fighting a defensive war o Superior military leaders o Better soldier skills o Highly motivated The Civil War: Basic Facts • Let’s talk about it… o On paper, who do you think should win the war? The North or the South? Why? o Do you think the South should have invaded the North? Why or why not? Texas Confederates • The Confederate Congress passed the Conscription Act that required men b/w the ages of 18 and 50 to serve in the Confederate military. However, the act excused some people allowing the hiring of substitutes. Texas Confederates • The Texas governors during the Civil War were Confederates Frances Lubbock (1861-1863) and Pendleton Murrah (1863-1865). Texas Confederates • Nearly 60,000 Texans joined the Confederate Army. • Texan Albert Sidney Johnston was the second-highest ranking Confederate general that fought and died at the Battle of Shiloh in Tennessee. The Confederate States of America • 60,000 Texans join the CSA army • Some who join the CSA army do so for their love of Texas not the CSA • Texans join the cavalry not the infantry or navy Young Johnny Reb ready for war. Texas Confederates • The most famous Texans were 3 groups who served in the deep South: o Hood’s Texas Brigade – Gen. Robert E. Lee called them his “finest soldiers”; led by John Bell Hood o Terry’s Texas Rangers – fought in more battles than any other cavalry regiment; led by B.F. Terry o Ross’s Texas Brigade – fought primarily in the western Trans-Mississippi River department; led by future governor and Texas A&M President Lawrence Sullivan Ross Hood’s Texas Brigade at Antietam: Considered one of the bravest fighting units in the Civil War Terry’s Texas Rangers • Terry’s Texas Rangers fought in over 200 battles • John Bell Hood’s Brigade started out with over 4,000 men when war ends there are only 600 men left Over 60,000 Texans served during the Civil War more than 1/3 were cavalry troopers Ross’s Texas Brigade Texas Unionists • About 2,000 Texas Unionists, or people who supported the North, joined the U.S. army. • Approximately 50 were African American soldiers. African American Texan Milton Holland was rewarded the Medal of Honor for his bravery on the battlefield. The Union Army • Those who join are called the Texas Unionist • Mexican Americans and African Americans join the Union army • Mexicans tend to join for the pay and because the Union is against slavery Texas Unionists • Some Texas Unionists hid, but were later captured and arrested. Others were forced into the Confederate army. • Vigilantes, or citizens who act as an unauthorized police force, hanged about 40 suspected Unionists at Gainesville, Texas in 1862. Texas Battles • Galveston o Because Texas was an important link in the Confederate supply line, the Union navy used its ships to blockade, or using troops or warships to prevent passage of supplies to the coast of Texas. Cotton was transported through Mexico and sent to Europe in exchange for war supplies. o Although Union forces captured the city of Galveston, Confederate forces led by General John B. Magruder recaptured the city on January 1, 1863. o Galveston was crucial because it was the state’s busiest seaport. The Battle of Galveston • Cotton is shipped through Mexican waters and sold to England and France • Union ships and troops capture the port of Galveston in Oct. 1862 • CSA retakes the port on January 1863 Union gunboat docked at Galveston port. Texas-Mexico Trade Routes Texas was economically important to the Confederacy because the Confederacy was able to conduct foreign trade through Mexico by way of Texas. Texas Battles • Sabine Pass – The Confederate Davis Guards led by Dick Dowling turned back the Union invasion of Texas at the Battle of Sabine Pass in September 1863. – They took 350 Union soldiers prisoner and captured 2 ships. – This battle was an important victory for the Confederacy since Union plans to launch a major campaign against Texas were dashed. "There is no parallel in ancient or modern warfare to the victory of Dowling and his men at Sabine Pass considering the great odds against which they had to contend" Jefferson Davis The Battle of Sabine Pass September 8, 1863 In the fall of 1863, Confederate forces under the command of Lt. Richard Dowling turned back a much larger Union invasion force at the battle of Sabine Pass. The Battle of Brownsville • November 1863, the Union forces capture Brownsville • The capture of Brownsville hurts the CSA because cotton and weapons move through the port for the CSA Texas Battles • Brownsville o Confederate Colonel John S. Ford drove the Union army back and recaptured Brownsville in July 1864. • Red River Campaign o Tom Green, a former member of the congress of the Republic and a veteran of the Battle of San Jacinto and MexicanAmerican War, also led Confederate forces during the Red River campaign. Texas Battles • Palmito Ranch o At Appomattox Courthourse, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to U.S. General Ulysses S. Grant on April 9, 1865. o However, on May 13, 1865, Confederate forces led by John S. Ford defeated Union troops in Texas at Palmito Ranch – the final land battle of the war. The Confederates did NOT know Lee had surrendered a month earlier! They were informed by Union prisoners of the news! Surrender at Appomattox April 9, 1865 After the War ended, Lee dedicated his home [above] in Arlington, Virginia for a military burial grounds – today known as the Arlington National Cemetery The Civil War Ends • The North’s victory in the Civil War meant the Union was preserved. • On April 14 (five days after Appomattox), a southern sympathizer named John Wilkes Booth assassinated President Lincoln in Ford’s Theater in Washington D.C. As a result of this tragic event, the whole nation grieved together. Ford’s Theater (April 14, 1865) The Assassination The Assassin John Wilkes Booth Now He Belongs to the Ages! The Execution of the Conspirators The Civil War Ends • As a result of the South’s surrender, the Texas state government collapsed due to lack of leadership. Governor Pendleton Murrah fled to Mexico in June 1865 to escape Union troops. This action resulted in Texas being lawless for a brief period of time. Recap: Texas in the Civil War 1. What were the 3 key strategies to Union victory? 2. What was the Conscription Act? 3. What 2 Texas units were famous for fighting in the Civil War? 4. Why was Galveston so important? 5. Where else in and around Texas did Civil War battles take place?