Egyptian Dynasties

For every joy there is a price to be paid
People bring about their own undoing through their
Know the world in yourself. Never look for yourself
in the world, for this would be to project your
Chronological History
Every Man is rich in excuses to safeguard his prejudices, his
instincts, and his opinions.
Social Good is what brings peace to family and society.
Pre-Dynastic Period
~4000-3100 B.C.
Country Exists as Nomes (Nomarch) or City-States
Government Independent, yet cooperative economically
Split into Upper & Lower
Lasts as N (lower) & S (upper) until end of period
Two Kingdoms
• Lower Egypt
consisted of Nile River Delta
Symbol is Cobra (Red)
• Upper Egypt
consisted of higher ground of Nile
to Nubia
Symbol is Falcon (White)
Racial Makeup
• Not important as cultural development
• Mediterranean strain of Caucasian Race
• Short, Dark, Long Headed People
• Straight Black Hair
• Deep set Eyes
• Ties w/ N&S Africa and Asia
• Language contains Semitic elements
Cultural Development
• Tools – Flint, Copper, Gold
• Pottery
Glazed and Buffed
• Excellent Irrigation, reclamation of swamp land
• Weaving of woolen cloth
• Laws based on custom, binding for all
• System of writing
• 1st Solar Calendar
12 months of 30 days + 5 feast days
Began 4200 BC
To water the crops, the Egyptians made a
counterweight called the Shadoof. The Shadoof used
the weight of the water vs. the weight of rocks to
swing the water in mass quantities.
The evolution of writing:
Top, some signs dated several generations before the 1st Dynasty
Center, the name of a city at the start of the 1st Dynasty;
Bottom, a text from a wooden panel from the tomb of Hesyre
Egyptian Dynasties
3 Major Great Periods During Egyptian Rule
30 dynasties ruled Egypt from 3100 BC to 525 BC
Broken Down into 6 sub eras after the Pre-Dynastic Era
Old Kingdom 3100 – 2200 BC
• 3100 BC – Narmer unites Upper & Lower Egypt
• Built new Capital City – Memphis
• Central Location for Upper & Lower
• 1st – 6th Dynasties
Old Kingdom’s
capitol – Memphis
built by Narmer at the
junction of upper and
lower Egypt!
Middle and New
Kingdom’s capitol Thebes
Old Kingdom
• Form of Govt – Theocracy
• Absolution of King
• Named Pharaoh (Great or Royal House)
• No Separation of Church & State
• Developed Bureaucracy
– Govt officials headed by Vizier (prime minister)
– Treasurer, Architect, Public Works Adm, Chief Justice, 42 Monarchs
Old Kingdom
• Position of Pharaoh – Hereditary
• High Quality Judicial System
• Government
– Peace, Non-Aggression (unique among ancient nations)
– No standing Army, since existence was out of cooperative need
– Only Local Militia
• Content to let other nations alone, since Isolated in
Pharaoh’s (Old Kingdom)
• Zoser (3rd Dynasty) 1st to build monumental structure to
house remains.
• With architect (Imhotep) engineered Step Pyramid at
• Stepped construction with facade of limestone
• 200,000 tons of stone used
Temple of Zoser
Every man must act in the rhythm of his time…such
is wisdom.
All seeds answer light, but the color is
different. The plant reveals what is in the seed.
• Khufu (4th Dynasty)
• Undertaking of Great
Pyramids @ Giza
• Estimated at 481 ft high,
each side 755 ft long
•Ave. block weighs 5000 lbs and some
granite blocks from Aswan weighed 30 tons!
•Cut Precisely that a knife blade cannot be
slipped between blocks
Agents of the Gods
During the Old Kingdom era, kings of Egypt began to
emphasize their divine associations and their people
believed them to be manifestations of the god Horus. After
the time of Khufu, kings were also proclaimed to be sons of
the great sun god Re. After his death, the king became
associated with Osiris, father of Horus and god of the
underworld. The king's sacred powers were passed on to
the new ruler - usually his son.
Pyramid of Khufu
Pyramid of Khafre
Pyramid of
Mrtuary temples
Valley temples
Subsidiary pyramids
Boat pits
Great Sphinx
Sphinx temple
Egyptian Proverbs of the Day
It is no use whatever preaching wisdom to men; you
must inject it into their blood.
The seed cannot sprout upwards without
simultaneously sending roots into the ground.
Organization is impossible unless those who know
the laws of harmony lay the foundation.
• Khafre (4th Dynasty)
• Addition to Pyramids at
• Construction of
Enormous Sphinx
• Facial features inscribed
on face
Man fears Time, yet Time fears the
Arab proverb
Unfortunately, the pyramids became
obvious targets for tomb robbers. The
Giza Pyramids were plundered long ago
of the bodies and anything entombed
with them, despite the almost
superhuman efforts of the Egyptians to
protect the remains of their kings.
Plan Of Khafre
The towering Grand
Gallery is 8.7
meters high. It
climbs up toward
the King's
Chamber. Note the
steps and handrail
at the bottom which
were added in
recent years.
Ascending Passage
Kings Room
Stairway Down
The Treasure Room Entrance
Pyramids – Pyramids - Pyramids
• Zoser – 2630 BC – 204 ft High – stepped at Saqqara
• Snefru – 2600 BC – 306 ft High – covered stepped; Bent
Pyramid Dahshur 344 ft High; Northern Stone Pyramid
341 ft High
• Khufuh - 2550 BC 481 ft High at Giza
• Khafre – 2520 BC 471 ft High at Giza
• Mencare – 2490 BC 310 ft High at Giza
• Pepi II – 2250 BC 172 ft High at Saqqara
Astronaut photograph ISS007-E-12915.was taken August 18, 2003, with a Kodak
DCS760 digital camera equipped with an 800 mm lens and provided by the Earth
Observations Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. The International Space Station
Program supports the laboratory to help astronauts take pictures of Earth that will be
of the greatest value to scientists and the public, and to make those images freely
available on the Internet.
Feudal Kingdom (2200-2050 BC)
• Also called Intermediate Period
• Period of Anarchy
• Invasion of Negroid & Asian Tribes
– No Standing Army becoming liability
Feudal Kingdom (2200-2050 BC)
•Power shifts to Monarchs, No Central
•Drain of Treasury
–Building Pyramids, Structures
•Famine and Social Unrest
•Broke into 2 separate Nations Once
FORGET THE BUD, CRACK open a Tut. Thanks to British archeologists and a
Scottish brewery, you may soon be able to party like a pharaoh. Ancient
Egyptians have long been known as prodigious beer drinkers, sipping brews
both sociably and as medicine. Beer-making equipment has even been found in
the tombs of Egyptian royalty-including King Tut's. Now, Cambridge University
scientists studying hieroglyphics and wall paintings at the buried Clty of Armana
believe they have deciphered the recipe for the Egyptian elixir, a bread-based
ale flavored with anything from honey to flowers. The Scottish & Newcastle
brewery hopes to tap kegs of Tut's suds by next year. Says exec Jim
Merrington: "The product promises to be pretty palatable-and strong."
The Egyptians made the wheat into bread and
into soup and porridge, and they also added
hops to make the barley into beer. In fact,
some people think the real reason that the
Egyptians first began growing grain was to
make beer. This is an Egyptian model of beer
jars (from the Louvre), which the Egyptians
made to put in your grave when you died so
you would have beer in the next world.
A Japanese beer maker has taken a 4,400-year-old recipe from Egyptian hieroglyphics and produced what it claims
is a brew fit for the Pharaohs. The Kirin Brewery Co. has called the concoction Old Kingdom Beer. It has no froth,
is the color of dark tea and carries an alcohol content of 10% - about double most contemporary beers. Sakuji
Yoshimura, an Egyptologist at Waseda University in Tokyo, helped transcribe the recipe from Egyptian wall
paintings. Kirin spokesman Takaomi Ishii said: ''It has a taste very different from today's beer. It tastes a little like
white wine.''
Drinkers will have to
stick to normal ales. Old
Kingdom is not for sale
The beer is based on barley, but does not use hops,
which give modern beer its bitter taste, Mr Ishii said.
However, don't expect the brew to be drawn from a
pump in your local.
In 1996, British beer maker Scottish and
Newcastle sold a limited edition, 1,000bottle batch of beer brewed according to
an ancient Egyptian recipe.
A bottle of its Tutankhamen Ale sold for ($78).
Dr. Zahi Hawass
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