The Rise of Terrorism


The Rise of Terrorism

By Sally Neighbour


‘deliberately and violently targeting civilians for political purposes’

(Louise Richardson, ‘What Terrorists Want’


believes that Islam is not only a religion but also a political system (

and that modern Muslims must return to the roots of their religion and unite politically


The world’s first ‘global terrorist’

The Sari Club, 2002

Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar

Abu Bakar Ba’asyir

‘Between you and us there will forever be a ravine of hate’ Abu Bakar Ba’asyir



Ali Imron

The brothers’ family home Tenggulun, East Java

Impact of the Indonesian war of independence against Dutch colonialism. Muklas: ‘It was these kinds of stories that inspired me and my brothers to be mujahidin.’

‘We must eliminate all infidels and atheism until they are annilihated, and the God-granted state is established in Indonesia, or (we must) die as martyrs in

a holy war…’ S.M. Kartosuwiryo

Islamic law

‘In the Islamic lands, not only Muslims but also Christians and Jews enjoyed the good life. They dressed in fine clothing, had fine houses in splendid cities serviced by paved streets, running water and sewers, and dined on spice delicacies served on Chinese porcelains…’ (continues)

Ngruki Islamic boarding school, Solo, Central Java

1979 – a historic year

• •

Iranian revolution Soviet invasion of Afghanistan – the ‘first jihad’

Suharto regime – oppression in Indonesia – arrests – ‘prisoners of conscience’

Afghanistan: the crucible of the global jihad

Factors in the rise of terrorism

• • • • • • • • Colonial carve-up of M/East & Muslim lands Failure of Arab nationalism Corruption & despotism of secular regimes Poverty, unemployment, socio-ec disadvantage Western opposition to Muslim governments US forces on Saudi peninsula Wars in Iraq & Afghanistan Desire for Muslim rule

‘a global terrorist movement’ Marc Sageman

Globalisation & the Internet

• • • • • • Use of computers, satellite phones & internet for communication, recruitment, proselytizing Space to re-group Recruitment, indoctrination, networking, exchange of information, expertise – now occur online The ‘virtual ummah’ ‘Islam-ness’ a kind of national identity Nation-state borders dissolving