Age of Absolutism

advertisement
AGE OF ABSOLUTISM
Chapter 16
Warm Up!
• Journal Entry:
• “Power tends to corrupt, and absolute
power corrupts absolutely."
• What do you think the author means by this
quote?
ABSOLUTISM
A political system in which a
single ruler has unrestricted
power
RISE & FALL OF SPAIN
Charles V: Ruler of Two Kingdoms
• Charles V: (1519) King of
Spain, & its colonies
• Rules Holy Roman Empire
(Germany) & the Netherlands
• Ruling 2 kingdoms=constant
religious warfare
• Tried to suppress Protestant
Reformation & Martin Luther
• Too much territory to rule
effectively. Divided throne
among brother & son
I think I’ll
become a
monk
Absolute Monarchy
• Philip II: Increased Spain’s
power & influence
• Strengthened Catholic Church
• Absolute Monarch: ruled w/
complete authority over gov’t
& people’s lives
• Divine right: declared that
authority to rule came
directly from God
• Defended the Church in
Protestant Reformation
Spain Fights
• Philip II: wanted to expand
empire & eliminate
rivals/enemies
• Elizabeth I (England) was
greatest Protestant enemy
• Armada: huge fleet of ships
sent to invade England
• English ships=faster, easier to
control
• Spanish Armada= defeated
after several mistakes
Spanish Armada
• 130 Ships
• 20,000 men
• Armada= large, but English had
smaller, faster ships
• Philip spent so much of Spain’s
wealth on Armada that it’s
failure + inflation ruined Spain’s
economy
Decline of Spain’s Power
• Defeat of Armada=beginning of
decline
• Wars=too expensive for Spanish
This is very
important!
economy
• Colonies not making much money
• Gold and wealth decreased
• Arts & education became more
important in Spain Siglo de Oro
“Golden century”
• Don Quixote: famous Spanish novel
by Miguel de Cervantes
Decline of Spain
http://youtu.be/w6_UkLHcdJk
Empire
Divided
Armada
defeated
by
England
Economy
hurt by
expensive
wars
Colonies
not
making
much
profit
Gold &
Wealth
decreased
FRANCE UNDER LOUIS XIV
WARM UP!
QUESTIONS:
1. Who is in the painting?
2. What do you think is
going on in the painting?
Take note
of the background.
3. What is the message of
the painting? For
example, why did
the author paint this?
Kings & Cardinals
• Louis XIV (14th)
• Became king at age 5, ruled for 72
years
• Cardinal Mazarin became advisor to
strengthen France
• Louis XIV makes himself absolute
ruler in France
• Believed in divine right….Louis XIV=
“Sun King” center of universe
• Nearly bankrupted France by
building palace to house 10,000
people
Absolute Rule of Louis XIV
• Ended France’s legislature
•
•
•
•
(Estate’s General)
Forced nobles to live at
Versailles so he could
control them
Built army of 300,000 men
Revoked Edict of Nantes
100,00+ Jews & Protestants
flee France for religious
persecution
Motto= “I AM THE STATE!”
Strong French Finances
• Louis XIV expands French gov’t
control & appointed intendants
• Collected taxes, recruited soldiers,
carried out govt
• Jean Baptiste Colbert:
• Minister of Finance supercharged
French economy
• Strengthened commerce & trade
• Expanded agriculture
• Collected taxes to keep Louis XIV
living an extravagant lifestyle
Power Palace & Prosperity Plunges
• Louis XIV transformed a country hunting
ground into an extravagant palace named
Versailles
• Became a symbol of great wealth &
power
• Decorated with gold, and statues, & a
hall of mirrors
• Louis XIV wasted money on poor decisions &
costly wars, trying to expand France
• Louis revoked Edict of Nantes & drove
100,000 Huguenots out of France
http://youtu.be/852eroBwDrA
Louis XIV Idea Wheel
LOUIS
XIV
PARLIAMENT IN ENGLAND
WARM-UP!
•
Analyze the following quote from James I of England:
“The state of Monarchy is the most supreme thing upon earth;
for kings are not only God’s lieutenants upon earth and sit
upon God’s throne, but even by God himself they are called
gods…Kings are justly called gods for they exercise a
manner or resemblance of Divine Power upon earth…And
to the King is due both the affection of the soul and the
service of the body of his subjects…”
•
•
•
What does this quote say about Kings?
What does this tell you about King James’ view of himself?
What kind of ruler would he be with this opinion?
Rulers Relationship with Parliament
• 1485-1603: England ruled by Tudor monarchs
• Believed in divine right & working w/ Parliament
• James I: Stuart monarch
• Took over after Elizabeth I
• Claimed absolute monarchy, rejected by Parliament
• Clashed w/ Parliament over money
• Clashed w/ dissenters= Protestants against Church of
England
• Puritans= dissenters who wanted to simplify Church &
lose Bishops
Century of Revolution
• 1625: Charles I inherits
throne= absolute monarch
• Tensions between Charles &
Parliament led to civil war
• English Civil War: 1642-1651
• Cavaliers: Supported King
Charles I
• Roundheads: Supported Oliver
Cromwell/Parliament
• Oliver Cromwell: leader of
Parliament forces
• Charles I= BEHEADED!
Cromwell’s Commonwealth
• After English Civil War, Cromwell abolished
monarchy, established a republic called the
Commonwealth
• Did not tolerate Catholics, but allowed Jews back in
• Promoted Puritan beliefs & Protestants
• People got tired of the strict Puritan rule
• Parliament restored monarchy after Cromwell’s
death Charles II took throne
• James II: forced from England for trying to restore
Roman Catholic rule, daughter crowned instead
Gov’t Changes in England
• English Bill of Rights: gave more power to
Parliament than monarchy
• Forced William & Mary to sign
• Said no Roman Catholic could be King/Queen
• Limited Monarchy: similar to democracy, says
monarchy has to work with legislators (Parliament)
• Constitutional Gov’t: British gov’t defined & limited
by written law
• Cabinet: set of advisors to the monarch
• England still= Oligarchy (ruled by few wealthy)
ABSOLUTE MONARCHY IN
RUSSIA
Peter the Great & Modernization
• Peter= 10 years old when crowned tsar
• Tsar: emperor or king in Russia
• Westernization: policy to modernize
Russia by adopting Western
European ideas, culture, & technology
• Autocratic monarch: ruled with unlimited
authority
• All Russian institutions under Peter the
Great, anyone who resisted=
EXECUTED!
Controlling Church & Nobles
• Boyars: landowning nobles
who enforced law, military
• Forced to shave beard & wear
Western clothes
• Owned land & used serfs for
forced labor
• Pushed social & economic
reforms to be more like Europe
• Increased military strength &
extended borders of Russia
Expanding Russia
• Warm-Water Port: Would be free
of ice year round and would
open trade with Western world
• Could not defeat Ottoman Empire to
gain access to sea ports
• Defeated Sweden to gain more
territory along Baltic Sea
• St. Petersburg: new capital for
Russian Empire
• Peter’s legacy: modernized
Russia, but used terror and force
and absolute power
Catherine the Grrrrrreat!
• Takes throne in 1762
• Followed in Peter’s steps &
modernized Russia
• Established state-funded
education for both boys and girls
• Defeated Ottoman Empire & set up
warm water port on the Black Sea
• Agreed to divide part of empire with
Prussia & Austria to avoid war
Russia gains Poland in 1772
Absolutism Recap
• SPAIN: Philip II
• FRANCE: Louis XIV
• RUSSIA: Peter the
Great, Catherine the
Great
• ENGLAND: James I,
Charles I
Activity Options—Ch. 16 sec. 1,2,3,5
• Storyboard– Create a
summary of each section
in Ch. 16
Subtitle
Section Summary
Picture
Question
Subtitle
Section Summary
Picture
Question
Subtitle
Section Summary
Picture
Question
Subtitle
Section Summary
Picture
Question
• Concept Map
“Absolutism”
Definition
Characteristics
Image/Visual
• Visual Vocab
Word/Term
Definition
Example
Picture
Word/Term
Definition
Example
Picture
Word/Term
Definition
Example
Picture
Word/Term
Definition
Example
Picture
Examples
Non-Examples
Download
Related flashcards

Ethnic groups in Sudan

32 cards

Ethnic groups in Syria

18 cards

Ethnic groups in Syria

19 cards

Ethnic groups in Sudan

32 cards

Create Flashcards