Why was the fear of slave revolts especially high among
white South Carolinians in the 1800s?
a. the Nat turner rebellion took plan in S.C.
b. Northern abolitionists targeted their efforts on S.C.
c. the population of S.C. had the largest percentage of
d. Underground railroad leaders encouraged slave
uprisings in S.C.
2. Before the Civil War, how was life for middle-case
children and lower-case children in S.C. often the same?
a. they went to small private schools
b. they were taught to read by paid tutors.
c. many earned extra money by working odd jobs.
d. many learned to do the same jobs as their parents.
1. The cartoon above represents the U.S. in the 1850's. What point is
being made?
a.The country was being divided by the issue of slavery
b.The wealth of the United States was in the South.
c.The wealth of the United States was in the north.
2. Like they did in the Stono Rebellion of 1739, plantation owners
reacted in which way to the failed Denmark Vesey plot in 1822?
a.They replaced many African slaves with Native American slaves
b.They passed more laws and restrictions to control slaves.
c.They temporarily suspended the practice of owning slaves.
3. Which of the following statements is true of the abolitionist
a.Following the uncovering of the Denmark Vesey plot, many southern abolitionist
were either forced out of the south or kept silent.
b.Abolitionists like Angelina and Sarah Grimke were successful in their efforts to
gain South Carolinians support.
All of Above
1. Most white men in the antebellum South
could BEST be described as
A)plantation owners.
B)seafaring traders.
C)merchants or shopkeepers.
D)nonslaveholding family farmers.
2. Which abolitionist was
 known as"Black Moses"?
3. John Brown, The Martyr,, 1870.
How is the concept of "sectionalism“
conveyed in this image?
A)The image conveys support for Northern abolitionists.
B)The image conveys support for southern "State's
Rights" factions.
C.The image conveys positive opinions about the
Fugitive Slave Act.
D)The image conveys negative opinions about the
Kansas-Nebraska Act.
1. Why did Uncle Tom’s Cabin and the Liberator help the cause of the
a. It was written by a northerner.
b. It showed the good that abolitionists accomplished.
c. It depicted slave owners as cruel and hardhearted.
d. It promoted the denunciation of slavery by various
religious groups.
2. What was the main argument that Southerners made in defense of
A) If the founding fathers had slaves, it should be OK for people
who lived in the 1850s to have slaves.
B) It was up to the states to deal with the use of slavery because it
was provided for in the Constitution.
C)The future of American economic development depended upon
the continued existence of the Southern system of slavery.
D)The workers in the Northern cities were similar to Southern
slaves, so it should be okay for slaves to work on plantations in
the South.
Loyalty to a particular region or section of a
country instead of to the nation as a whole.
Sectionalism developed in the period after the
ratification of the Constitution, the
economies, cultures and political interests of
the North and the South became more and
more different.
Sectional differences first
developed in the colonial
period as a result of the
different geographies of
the regions.
The North developed as a
trading region of small
farms and the South
developed the plantation
Although all regions had
slavery prior to the
American Revolution,
after the war was over,
Northern states passed
laws to gradually
emancipate their slaves.
In the South, the
invention of the cotton
gin led the South to
become even more
economically dependent
upon slave labor.
Although both Northerners and Southerners
supported the ratification of the Constitution,
the different interests of the regions helped
to create the two-party system.
Southerners tended
to be DemocraticRepublican followers
of Thomas Jefferson
who called
New Englanders
tended to be
Federalists (Whigs).
Republicans became
Jackson’s Democrats.
Lincoln Republicans
are the ideological
descendants of the
The political parties
and the regions
increasingly took
different positions on
the issues of the day.
Sectionalism intensified as a result of the
growing slave population in the South.
In South Carolina, by the 1720s, the black
population surpassed the white population and
there was an African American majority in most
Southern states.
Although the International Slave trade was
outlawed in 1808, the numbers of slaves grew
due to higher birth rates and smuggling.
This growing population increased the fear of
slave revolts.
The Denmark Vesey
Plot caused South
Carolinians to become
even more fearful of
their slaves.
Slave codes that had
been developed as a
result of the Stono
Rebellion during
colonial times were
strengthened to better
protect white society.
The General Assembly passed laws the prohibited
slaves from meeting, learning to read and write
and that regulated all aspects of slaves’ lives.
A similar uprising in Virginia, the Nat Turner
Rebellion, further increased tension throughout
the region.
Southerners feared that if slavery could not
expand into the territories eventually the national
government would be in the hands of the North,
slavery would be outlawed and Southerners
would have among them a large African American
population that they could not control.
Tension also arose as a
result of the growing
abolitionist movement.
The goal of the
Abolitionist Movement
was to outlaw slavery
throughout the United
Although Abolitionism
grew in the North, it was
effective in S.C. only in
making slave owners
more determined to hold
on to their “peculiar
Abolitionists were active in S.C. prior to the
uncovering of the Denmark Vesey Plot.
However, after the plot was uncovered,
abolitionists such as Sarah and Angelina
Grimke were forced to either leave the state
or keep silent.
The Abolitionist Movement was not popular
among most northerners.
The Abolitionist Movement grew with the
publication of the antislavery newspapers
such as The Liberator by William A Garrison.
Postmasters across S.C. removed from the
mails what they considered inflammatory
materials including anti-slavery newspapers.
However, they could not keep abolitionists
from reaching a larger and larger Northern
Southerners responded to abolitionists’
criticism by claiming that slavery was a
‘positive good’, because slaves were cared for
throughout their lives, unlike northern
laborers that they termed ‘wage slaves’
Abolitionists manned
the Underground
Railroad with limited
impact in South
Carolina since the
state was too far
from the border with
“free states” to make
this escape route
Abolitionists played a
role in all of the
incidents that
furthered tension
between the North
and the South..
Sectionalism was furthered also by changes in
the Northern economy and politics.
The development of industry in the North
attracted European immigrants to jobs there.
The resulting growth of population allowed
the Northern states to have a larger
representation in the House of
Another political party that supported a
strong national government, called the Whigs,
emerged to compete with Democrats, many
of whom were southerners, for control of the
presidency and Congress.
Concern over the North’s greater voice in
Congress led the South to compete rigorously
for the admission of new states as slave
states in order to maintain the balance of
slave and free states in the Senate.

8-4.2 Analyze how sectionalism arose from racial