RELATIONSHIPS WITH AUSTRALIAN OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENTS AS INFLUENCED BY: INDUSTRIALISATION INDUSTRIALISATION Definition: Industrialisation is the process of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian (farming) society into an industrial one. It is a part of a wider modernisation process, where social change and economic development are closely related with technological innovation, particularly with the development of large-scale energy and metallurgy production. It is the extensive organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing. INDUSTRIALISATION Industrialisation looks into the period of time around the late 1800’s through to the early 1900’s. What examples within Australia can you think of that might fit into this description of Industrialisation? INDUSTRIALISATION Geelong waterfront – early 1900’s INDUSTRIALISATION Mass production of products such as beer and biscuits INDUSTRIALISATION Brick makers INDUSTRIALISATION The first Australian factories were based on the waterfront; repairing visiting vessels brewing beer making biscuits. The early industrialisation of the late 19th century led to an expansion into the fringe suburbs of the main coastal settlements, creating thousands of new jobs for boilermakers, engineers, iron founders and brick makers. INDUSTRIALISATION Within the manufacturing sector employment rose from 190,000 in 1903 to 328,000 in 1913. By 1929, 440,000 people were employed in Australian manufacturing. The previously dominant clothing and textiles industry had steadily declined in employment, while the metals and machinery industry emerged as a major contributor to both employment and production. In particular, the new motor vehicle industry of the 1920s strengthened this sector. With Holden already well established, Ford soon followed with a large motor body assembly plant in Geelong, in response to the growing demand for motor cars. INDUSTRIALISATION While employment had increased rapidly in the early years of Federation (1901), the Great Depression (1930’s) had a devastating effect on national employment. The rate of increase then declined to 1.8 times between the late 1920s and late 1940s, lowering manufacturing's share of total employment from 22% in 1921 to 18% in 1931. However, manufacturing led the recovery from the Depression, accounting for 25% of total employment by 1940-41, which overtook even the rural sector's share. INDUSTRIALISATION During this period there was an increase in: large scale agricultural practices Irrigation Higher standards of living Beginnings of recreational pursuits INDUSTRIALISATION large scale agricultural practices 1. What did this include? 2. Where were these located? 3. What positive and negative impacts did this have on the environment? 4. What impact did it have on peoples relationship with the land/environment? INDUSTRIALISATION Irrigation 1. What did this involve? 2. Where was it located? 3. What positive and negative impacts did this have on the environment? 4. What impact did it have on peoples relationship with the land/environment? INDUSTRIALISATION Higher standards of living 1. What did this involve? 2. Why did this occur? 3. What positive and negative impacts did this have on the environment? 4. What impact did it have on peoples relationship with the land/environment? INDUSTRIALISATION Beginnings of recreational pursuits 1. What did this involve? 2. Where did it occur? 3. Why did this occur? 4. What positive and negative impacts did this have on the environment? 5. What impact did it have on peoples relationship with the land/environment? Recreational Pursuits As the 20th century approached generations had adapted themselves to the Australian environment and felt more comfortable. More and more people began to appreciate the native bush, the beautiful rugged coasts and wonderful wildlife array. People flocked to the coast and hills in summer to enjoy their beauty. They concentrated in areas such as Port Phillip Bay, Mount Macedon, the Dandenongs, Queenscliff and Brighton. The cost of bicycles came within reach of working class pay packets Melbourne Amateur Walking and Touring Club was formed in 1894 bringing together nature explorers. A naturalist group (The Field Naturalist Group of Victoria) was formed in 1880 for the preservation and protection of the native fauna and flora and other conservation measures. Recreational Pursuits Australias first national park, Royal National Park near Sydney, was declared in 1879. National prks for recreation were declared in Victoria at Fern Tree Gully in 1882, and Tower Hill (Warrnambool) in 1892. After these first few national parks were declared it gave people a location of beauty and significance to visit. This was the beginning of places being allocated within natural environments, with many more to follow.