Quiz time

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MODULE 7:
EXAM PRACTICE
Explore how religion, leaders of social
change, and the media connected to
help redefine American society.
7.01 Are You Awake?
Causes (What Happened BEFORE the Second
Great Awakening & Why it happened)
1. In the 1730s and 1740s, the "Great Awakening"
happened mainly in New England's traditional
colonial religious groups.
2. These ideas from influenced the American
Revolution.
3. After the American Revolution, many people felt
their churches and religious leaders needed more
excitement and inspirational sermons.
Courses (What Happened DURING the
Second Great Awakening):
Through the first half
of the 1800s, religious
activity peaked again
The movement was more
widespread and had
greater long-term effects
on American society
Many Americans in the 1800s became evangelical Christians.
Evangelicals believed humans could conquer sin and remake
themselves through conversion to Christianity (or being ”born
again” - a complete change of life).
Participating in Camp Meetings inspired many conversions
Leaders of the 2nd Great Awakening religious
revival
• Charles Finney
• Encouraged followers to help other
people confront their own sins as well;
held camp meetings
• Phoebe Palmer
• Emphasized reflecting on one's own faith
over testifying sins to others, but also
believed society would improve as more
people studied their faith; held prayer
meetings
Women participated in the Second
Great Awakening more than men
Consequences (What OUTCOMES Resulted Because of
the Second Great Awakening):
1. Social Reform
A social reform movement is a group of people
working toward making a change through law to
improve the community.
Popular causes that arose in the 1800s were:
 Antislavery – abolition (ending) of slavery
 Temperance - outlaw the drinking of alcohol; valued discipline
and productivity
 Women's Rights Movements – women’s right to vote
Consequences (What OUTCOMES Resulted Because of
the Second Great Awakening):
2. Growth of Other
Religious Groups
Population growth and
outreach activities increased
membership
Some communities openly
criticized the revivals and
evangelical preachers, stating
everyone was guilty of sin and
must confront it
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING REPRESENTS A POSITIVE
OUTCOME OF THE SECOND GREAT AWAKENING? [7.01]
A. The government passed new laws regarding the
ownership of land.
B. The American people joined together to promote
religious freedom for all.
C. People created reform movements related to
abolition and women's rights.
D. The people of the North and South came together to
agree to abolish slavery.
IF YOU SAID C, YOU’RE CORRECT. IF YOU DID NOT,
PLEASE GO BACK AND REVIEW THE CONTENT.
People created reform movements related to abolition and women's rights.
HOW DID RELIGIOUS CONVERSION SHOW ITSELF IN
SOCIAL ACTION DURING THE SECOND GREAT
AWAKENING? [7.01]
A. Religious Americans thought that stricter laws would
someday remove sin from society.
B. Church leaders ordered their congregations to do public
work as punishment for their sins.
C. The converted wanted to bring more people into their
church and change their communities.
D. Church members wanted to follow the example of Jesus
by doing good work in their communities.
IF YOU SAID D, YOU’RE CORRECT. IF YOU DID NOT,
PLEASE GO BACK AND REVIEW THE CONTENT.
Church members wanted to follow the example of Jesus by doing good work
in their communities.
7.02 Inside Slavery
What was the life and culture of slaves in the mid-1800s
As of 1840, there were nearly 2.5
million enslaved people in the
United States, and would grow to 4
million by 1860, mostly through
natural increase (growth of a
population due to a greater
number of births than deaths).
Slave narratives were first person
recollections of life under slavery
Family Life
About half the infants born to enslaved parents did not survive
their first year of life.
Adults and children alike suffered constant undernourishment.
Families were torn apart or frequently under threat of separation
because of the slave trade.
Enslaved people had no rights under U.S. law, and so marriages
were not recognized as legal.
Because they did not have legal
right, owners were not prevented
from selling or trading in human
lives.
Spirituality
Africans came to the United States with a variety of religious
beliefs; many were polytheistic (believed in more than one
God).
The Second Great Awakening affected the enslaved
population as well as the free as it allowed many slaves to
convert to Christianity because owners felt the converting would
make slaves more obedient.
Enslaved people welcomed the lessons and values of
Christianity, which gave hope for a life better than the one they
had.
Folklore also helped enslaved
families teach children the values
important to them, how to survive
on their own, and provided
entertainment when not working.
Labor
The largest percentage of enslaved African
Americans worked on large plantations growing
the cash crops of tobacco, cotton, indigo, rice, or
sugarcane.
The majority of people worked on farms
with less than 20 slaves. They tended
livestock and food crops.
Some slaves had training in skills such as ironworking,
tailoring, or blacksmithing, while others worked
specifically as household servants, preparing and
serving food, and cleaning.
Homes
Most slaves had houses for their own families, and
houses were usually very close to each other.
 U.S. law did not recognize slave marriages. [True]
 Many slave owners used harsh punishment and reward systems to
encourage hard work. [True]
 Most enslaved children learned basic reading and math skills.
[False]
 Religious participation helped many enslaved people cope with their
daily miseries. [True]
 Most enslaved people lived on large plantations. [False]
 Enslaved people did not nurture their children to avoid the pain of
seeing them sold away. [False]
 Enslaved people could earn freedom by converting to Christianity.
[False]
 Most enslaved people suffered constant undernourishment. [True]
 Enslaved children as young as three completed daily tasks. [True]
 Enslaved people lacked the ability to complete complex tasks.
[False]
 Enslaved people had the same experience no matter where they
lived. [False]
 Most slave owners did not allow slaves to learn to read or write.
[True]
What was the significance of the Second Great
Awakening on slaves’ religious beliefs?
A. It created more tolerance among slave owners which gave
slaves their first chance to choose a religion.
B. It made it illegal to punish slaves for going to religious services,
so slaves could learn about the Bible without fear.
C. It allowed many slaves to convert to Christianity because owners
felt the converting would make slaves more obedient.
D. As owners became more understanding during this movement,
enslaved parents were allowed to teach their children about
religion.
IF YOU SAID C, YOU’RE CORRECT. IF YOU DID NOT,
PLEASE GO BACK AND REVIEW THE CONTENT.
It allowed many slaves to convert to Christianity because owners felt the
converting would make slaves more obedient.
7.03 Join the Resistance!
The Cotton Gin
• Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin
transformed the nature of U.S. slavery in
the early 1800s.
• The cotton gin caused slave owners to
depend even more on slavery.
• The value of slaves increased, making
owning slaves a large investment.
• The cotton gin increased the number of
slaves, and slave ownership became more
profitable than ever before.
• Slave owners feared financial loss and violence, like Nat Turner’s Rebellion.
Laws and the Cotton Gin
• Southern states passed laws to
control the practice of slavery.
For example, South Carolina
passed a law making it illegal to
emancipate (to release from
slavery slaves without
permission from the state).
• Teaching slaves to read or write
was a punishable crime in most
southern states.
Not all people in Northern states
agreed with ending slavery or
helping slaves.
Active Resistance – the Anti-slavery movement
 Pensacola, Florida : Jonathan Walker
(1799-1878) was a famous Underground
Railroad “conductor.”
 “Conductor” was the code name for any
person who helped escaped slaves.
 Walker was a sea captain who attempted
to transport escaped slaves to the
Bahamas and freedom.
abolitionist
Active Resistance – the Anti-slavery movement
Boston, Massachusetts: William
Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879)
published the first edition of his
Boston newspaper in 1831.
Garrison wanted an immediate
end to slavery.
The Liberator spread his message.
It featured essays by other slavery
fighters, like Frederick Douglass.
Print text and speeches were the
main ways abolitionists spread
their message.
abolitionist
Active Resistance – the Anti-slavery movement
Baltimore, MD: Frederick Douglass
(1817-1895) was born enslaved. At
age 10, his master’s wife helped him
learn to read, until her husband found
out and stopped her. Douglass was
determined to continue learning. He
observed boys near his home and the
shipyards where he worked. Ten years
later, he disguised himself as a
sailor and escaped to freedom.
Douglass was a powerful speaker and was
as a spokesperson for the
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society. He
published three autobiographies
helping spread the message against
slavery. He helped slaves escape through
the New York “lines” to Canada. A “line”
was the code name for an escape route
on the Underground Railroad
Active Resistance – the Anti-slavery movement
 Harriet Tubman (about 18201913) escaped enslavement in
1849.
 She returned 19 times to the
south to help lead about 300
slaves to freedom, many from
her own family.
 Tubman is probably the most
famous conductor on the
Underground Railroad.
Abolitionist and
conductor in the
Underground
Railroad
Active Resistance – the Anti-slavery movement
 The Underground Railroad: In Newport, Ohio, about
100 people escaping slavery passed through Levi
Coffin’s “station” each year for twenty years.
 A “station” was the code name for a safe place to hide
and rest on the Underground Railroad.
• Stations were often
private homes or
churches. Escapees were
safe here from the
patrollers and
bloodhounds that
searched for fugitive
slaves.
Jonathan Walker was best known for which of the
following?
A.
Creating the first station on the Underground Railroad
B.
Helping slaves cross the ocean to reach the Bahamas and
freedom
C.
Escaping slavery and then becoming a conductor on the
Underground Railroad
D.
Fighting off crowds who wanted to destroy a printing press
used for anti-slavery pamphlets
IF YOU SAID B YOU’RE CORRECT. IF YOU DID NOT,
PLEASE GO BACK AND REVIEW THE CONTENT.
Helping slaves cross the ocean to reach the Bahamas and freedom
7.04 Her Rights
In the 1800s, women could not vote and most girls
did not go to school past eighth grade.
U.S. society expected women to remain in the
household or work in poor-paying factory jobs.
Women could have meetings, publish essays, and
speak in front of other women, however, they could
not rise to leadership positions within reform
organizations or speak to groups containing men
In the 1840s and 1850s leaders of the women’s
rights movement paved the way for rights women
have today.
The 1848 Seneca Falls Convention and writing of
the Declaration of Sentiments were two critical
events.
Inspirations
 By the 1830s, many women
were active in reform
movements
 The Second Great Awakening
inspired women to focus on
solving social problems
 Many Americans believed
women to be better than men at
guarding morality (“morality”
means to refer to some codes
of conduct put forward by a
society, some other group,
(such as a religion) or accepted
by an individual for his/her own
behavior)
Early Steps
Women believed it was their civic
duty to improve society--they
were active early in the
antislavery and temperance
movements
The antislavery movement derailed the push to win the right to
vote for women.
Participation in other reform movements helped strengthen
the women's movement, because women's successes in them
made people question the limitations placed on women in society.
Society accepted women’s reform actions as long as women did
not take men’s normal roles
The Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 –
Elizabeth Cady Stanton authorized the
Declaration of Sentiments
Significant Steps in the Right to Vote for Women
In 1869, Susan B. Anthony and
Elizabeth Cady Stanton formed the
National Woman Suffrage
Association (NWSA) to focus on a
constitutional amendment for
women’s suffrage
Lucy Stone and husband Henry
Blackwell formed the American
Woman Suffrage Association
(AWSA) to focus on passing laws at
the state level
Significant Steps in the Right to Vote for Women
1869, in Wyoming, Louisa Swain
was the first woman to vote in the
nation.
Wyoming was then a territory. The
movement found it easier to
convince the territories to include
women in voting partly because
their populations were so much
smaller.
In 1890, the NWSA and AWSA
combined to form one national
organization. Women across the
nation would not all be able to
vote until 1920, with the
passage of the 19th Amendment
What derailed the push to win the right to vote
for women?
A. the end of the Civil War
B. the anti-slavery movement
C. the death of Elizabeth Cady Stanton
D. the creation of the National Woman Suffrage Association
IF YOU SAID B, YOU’RE CORRECT. IF YOU DID NOT,
PLEASE GO BACK AND REVIEW THE CONTENT.
the anti-slavery movement
How did participation in other reform movements help
strengthen the women's movement?
A. Women's struggles in other groups made them want to have a
group where they could be in charge.
B. Women's success in reform movements made them question the
limitations placed on them in society.
C. The success of other reform programs made women think they
could finally do something about women's rights.
D. The experience gained working on reform programs made women
qualified to create the women's rights movement.
IF YOU SAID B, YOU’RE CORRECT. IF YOU DID NOT,
PLEASE GO BACK AND REVIEW THE CONTENT.
Women's success in reform movements made
them question the limitations placed on them in
society.
During which of the following time periods were
women most active in fulfilling their civic duty?
A.
B.
C.
D.
1776 to 1790
1790 to 1815
1800 to 1830
1840 to 1880
IF YOU SAID D, YOU’RE CORRECT. IF YOU DID NOT,
PLEASE GO BACK AND REVIEW THE CONTENT.
1840 to 1880
What was one of the main driving forces behind the
push for women's suffrage?
A. the need to increase votes to maintain slavery in the
South
B. the outrage expressed by the wives of senators and other
politicians
C. the intense sense of civic responsibility women had
during the 1800s
D. the voices of former slaves like Sojourner Truth who did
not follow social norms
IF YOU SAID C, YOU’RE CORRECT. IF YOU DID NOT,
PLEASE GO BACK AND REVIEW THE CONTENT.
the intense sense of civic responsibility women had during
the 1800s
7.05 Transcendentalism
Transcendentalism: New England movement in
literature focused on individual thought and feeling to
answer questions
By 1850, people could read 600 different magazines. Novels
grew more popular as well. “Domestic fiction” was one type of
novel. These stories featured female main characters who
discovered they were stronger than they thought possible.
Steam-powered presses increased the production of printed
materials.
Transcendentalism provides an example of the
connections between historic events, protests, and
literary writers.
The movement developed from many events that
took place in America in the 1800s, including the
religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening.
Some churches in the Boston area disapproved of
the popular large revivals.
Feelings and Emotion:
 Transcendentalists believed that the answers to
life’s mysteries are found within us or in nature.
 They explored their own feelings and emotions to
answer difficult questions.
 Some topics they wrote about were war, the mind,
and social problems.
 They believed study and self-reflection could give
better results than science.
Nature:
Many Transcendentalists called themselves “Christian.” Yet many
believed God and nature were the same.
People in New England condemned them for this and their other
ideas. Their ideas were not praised, but the beauty of their nature
imagery in the writers’ poetry received great attention.
Nonconformity:
Disapproval did not bother the Transcendentalists. They believed
they had “transcended,” or gone beyond, most people in
understanding the world.
In their minds, conforming to, or following, what everyone else did
was like losing their identity.
Margaret Fuller
• A supporter of women’s rights. She published her
essay Woman in the Nineteenth Century in 1845.
By writing, she refused to conform to what society
expected of women.
Henry David Thoreau
 He chose not to conform to American city life. He
lived in the woods for two years, built a cabin,
grew his own food, and studied nature.
 He felt that if a law went against morality, then
citizens should protest it peacefully.
 He based his opinions on whether he thought
each cause was just.
Utopian Communities
Groups of people tried to make Transcendentalist ideas part of
daily life.
They created small communities where they shared resources and
chores. We call an attempt to create a perfect community a
“utopia” (an ideal and perfect place for living).
One example was Brook Farm in Massachusetts. It lasted only
three years.
Legacy:
The Transcendentalists’ focus on individual thought and action helped support
reform movements.
They later influenced civil rights leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and the Rev.
Martin Luther King Jr. who studied Thoreau’s writing.
Civil disobedience featured in their efforts and helped King to understand his
own struggle.
1820s and 1830s
MLK Jr. 1960s
Transcendentalism Quick Facts
 Ralph Waldo Emerson was the central person in
Transcendentalism.
 American access to reading materials grew in the early 1800s.
 Domestic fiction featured females as the main characters.
 Transcendentalism poetry contains many references to
nature.
 Henry David Thoreau wrote an essay about civil disobedience
that inspired later reformers.
 A utopian community was an attempt to create a perfect place
to live.
Many Transcendentalists identified themselves as Christians.
How did other New England Christians feel about this?
A. New England Christians disagreed with the
Transcendentalists because of their belief that God and
nature were the same thing.
B. New England Christians were upset with the
Transcendentalists because of their superior attitude about
Christian methodologies.
C. New England Christians accepted the Transcendentalists
but didn't like the negative attention they brought to their
religious movement.
D. New England Christians were happy to have this new
group of people join their cause and express their religious
ideas in new and creative ways.
IF YOU SAID A, YOU’RE CORRECT. IF YOU DID NOT,
PLEASE GO BACK AND REVIEW THE CONTENT.
New England Christians disagreed with the Transcendentalists because of
their belief that God and nature were the same thing
7.06 Bring on the Reform!
In the 1800s, the antislavery and women’s rights
movements gained the most attention. However,
Americans also encouraged reform in a variety of other
areas of life. Many reforms focused on teaching people
to help themselves so they could lead better, happier
lives.
Children in Poverty
 Religious groups ran orphanages and provided other help. Yet the
number of children in need kept growing, especially in cities.
• Charles Loring Brace founded the Children’s Aid Society in New York
City.
• He wanted to help the city’s poor children. Some lived in orphanages, on
the streets, or with families unable to care for them.
• One of his programs was to “place out” children with families in the West
who would raise them and teach them good habits. Rural families were
eager for help on their farms. The children would have to help with the
daily chores.
• Sometimes the families valued them only for their labor. These “orphan
train riders” usually were between a few months and 14 years of age.
Many families adopted the children, but this was not common until after
1900.
Education
• In the early 1800s, there were no laws that required school
attendance.
• Most children worked to help support their families, either on
the farm or in factory work.
• Those who learned to read and write usually learned at home
or through church. Wealthier families might have sent their
children to small private schools.
• Horace Mann was a key person in bringing
education to all young Americans. He lived in
Massachusetts. Thanks to Mann’s efforts, his
state was the first to pass a law requiring all
people under age 15 who worked in factories to
attend school at least three months of the year. In
1855, the state passed a law requiring the schools
to admit students no matter their “race, color, or
religious opinions.”
Deaf & Blind
Thomas Gallaudet and Samuel Howe both
helped to bring education to more of America’s
youth. Gallaudet researched how to educate
deaf children and helped develop American Sign
Language. Howe researched blindness and
helped increase the printing of materials in
Braille. Their work showed Americans that
people with certain disabilities were just as
capable of learning complex subjects. They
need the right tools and teachers.
Today, laws protect people with a variety of challenges
in different areas of life. For example, the Individuals
with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) says that
children with disabilities must have equal access to
education. Teachers with extra training, and even
whole schools, exist to support students with various
learning challenges.
Mental Illness
In the 1800s, people with mental
illnesses dependent on their families.
Often families could not provide enough
proper care. People believed mental
illness was permanent and that sufferers
did not feel pain or temperature change.
The mentally ill often spent many years
in prisons or asylums. Sometimes the
workers restrained them with chains or
forced them to be alone for long periods.
Dorothea Dix traveled Europe and her home state of Massachusetts to study
prison conditions. Her discoveries deeply upset her, and she focused on
bringing the issue to government attention.
Because of Dorothea Dix, Americans began to learn that, with treatment,
mental illness could improve. Her work included the founding of 32 mental
hospitals and creating libraries in many hospitals and prisons.
Temperance
In the early 1800s, many religious groups began discouraging use of
alcohol. They blamed many of society’s problems, including abuse and
neglect, on alcohol. Reform leaders, especially women, called for
temperance. Temperance means refraining from alcohol use.
Neal Dow was a mayor in Portland, Maine.
He played a crucial role in the passage of
the first statewide prohibition law.
Prohibition was different from
temperance because it means passing
laws to prevent alcohol use. From 1851
to 1856, people in Maine could be arrested
for making or selling alcohol.
Some Americans who refrain from alcohol call themselves “teetotalers,” a
term that began in the 1830s.
Where would a mentally ill patient in the
1800s most likely be found?
A. in group homes run by religious groups and
supported by public donations.
B. on the streets or in homeless shelters, usually
unaware of their surroundings.
C. in prisons or asylums, often restrained with chains
or in solitary confinement.
D. with their families at home, most often confined to
a basement or single room
IF YOU SAID C YOU’RE CORRECT. IF YOU DID NOT,
PLEASE GO BACK AND REVIEW THE CONTENT.
in prisons or asylums, often restrained with chains or in solitary
confinement
If Neal Dow were alive today, he would be
interested in which of the following?
A. new laws regarding current educational
standards.
B. programs related to substance abuse prevention.
C. programs to help families and children living in
poverty.
D. new methods being used by doctors to treat
mental illness.
IF YOU SAID B YOU’RE CORRECT. IF YOU DID NOT,
PLEASE GO BACK AND REVIEW THE CONTENT.
programs related to substance abuse prevention.
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